The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Volume - III

Contents

Preface

Introduction

Part - I

Inscription at Ukkal

Melpadi

Karuvur

Manimangalam

Tiruvallam

Part - II

Kulottunga-Chola I

Vikrama Chola

Virarajendra I

Kulottunga-Chola III

Part - III

Aditya I

Parantaka I

Gandaraditya

Parantaka II

Uttama-Chola

Parthivendravarman

Aditya II Karikala

Part - IV

copper-plate Tirukkalar

Tiruchchengodu

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

XV.- Inscriptions of Parthivendravarman or Parthivendradhipativarman, who took the head of Vira-Pandya

No. 190 to 194 Jalanathesvara, Selliyamman, Vishnu temples

No. 152 to 155 Vaikuntha-Perumal, Madariamman temples

No. 156 to 157 Kharapurisvara, Vaikuntha-Perumal temples

No. 158 to 161 On the east and north wall of the Vaikuntha-Perumal temple

No. 162 to 165 Vaikuntha-Perumal, Vishnu temples at Tirumalpuram

No. 166 to 170 Jalanathesvara temple at Takkolam

No. 171 to 176 Subrahmanya, Vaikuntha-Perumal, Masilamanisvara temples

No. 177 to 180 Siva, Varaha-Perumal temples

No. 181 to 184 Tiruvalisvara,  Vaikuntha-Perumal, Jalanathesvara temples

No. 185 to 189 Varaha-Perumal, Tiruvalisvara, Ullagaikulunda temples

No. 195 to 198 Masilamanisvara, Manikanthesvara, Vishnu temples

No. 190.— ON THE NORTH WALL OF THE CENTRAL SHRINE IN THE JALANATHESVARA TEMPLE AT TAKKOLAM[1]

This record belongs to the 10th year of Parthivendradhi[pati]varman and registers a gift of 92 kalanju of gold for providing paddy for sacred offerings to the image of Kaligai-vitanka in the temple of Tiruvuraldeva, by the donor mentioned in No. 184 above.  The gold was received by the assembly of Rajamarttandachaturvedimangalam, a hamlet of Tiruvuralpuram (i.e., Takkolam) in Manaiyir-kottam and fetched an interest of 92 kadi of paddy per year.

(Line 1.) Hail! Prosperity ! In the 10th year (of the reign) of king Parthivendradhivarman, we (the members) of the assembly of Rajamarttanda-chaturvedimangalam, (a village) in its (own) subdivision in Tiruvuralpuram of Manaiyir-kottam, have received from Kumaradi-Nangai, daughter of Nandiri-Nangai, who is the daughter of Devanar of Tiruvural,[2] ninety-two kalanju of gold weighed by the standard weight (dharmakattalai-edarpuram)[3].  For these ninety-two kalanju of gold we (the members) of the assembly of Rajamarttanda-chaturvedimangalam agreed to measure every year without failure, in our village, as long as the moon and the sun (last), ninety-two kadi of paddy (measured) by the marakkal (called) kavaramoli by which the paddy for the sacred daily expenses (thiruchchendai) and the (paddy of) panchavaram due from us to Tiruvural-deva, are measured, adding it to the sacred (paddy) for current daily expenses and (dividing it) into three parts[4] in the manner in which (paddy) for the current sacred daily expenses of  Tiruvural-deva is done, for sacred offerings as long as the moon and the sun (last), to (the image of) Kaligai-Vitankar set up in the sleeping hall (called) Ranasingavirar within (the temple of) Tiruvural-deva, by this Kumaradi-Nangai.

(L. 26.) I, Kumaradi-Nangai, daughter of Nandiri-Nangai, endowed gold in this manner, stipulating that these ninety-two kadi of paddy be measured by (the measure called) kavaramoli for (providing) two sacred offerings ot Kaligai-Vitankar.  The sacred feet of those who protect this charity (shall) be on my head.

No. 191.— ON THE SOUTH WALL OF THE SELLIYAMMAN TEMPLE AT VELICHCHERI[5]

This document records that the assembly of Velichcheri exempted taxes on a land granted for the sacred daily offering to the Saptamatris[6] of this village, by a native of [Ma]la-nadu in Sola-nadu.  The worship of the Seven Mothers and the designation of the priests who called themselves Matrisivas deserve special attention.

Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 10th year of (the reign of) king Parthivendradhipativarman, we (the members) of big assembly of Velichcheri in Puliyurkottam (wrote this) : — Tiruvetpur-udaiyan Tevadigal of Tiruvetpur in [Ma]la-nadu, (a subdivision) of Sola-nadu provided for one sacred offering each day (to continue) as long as the moon to the Saptamatris of our village.  For this he purchased and gave two hundred kuli of land which comprised four tadis (and was called) Pudipakkanseruvu, a paddy field on the southern side of this village and (also) land (kuli) (measuring) five hundred and thirty-one and a half and half kani in (the field called) Iranderri.  We (the members) of the big assembly ordered the exemption of all taxes (on these lands) and made (them) tax-free.  We the Matrisivas who own this sacred temple (srikoil) shall ourselves take possession of these lands and shall offer one sacred offering daily (to the goddesses).  Kaliya-bhattar having effected this (transaction) had it engraved (on stone).

No. 192.— ON THE NORTH WALL OF THE CENTRAL SHRINE IN THE RUINED VISHNU TEMPLE AT TIRUMALPURAM[7]

This inscription records a gift of 96 sheep for a lamp to the temple of the prosperous Govindapadi, made in the 10th year of Parthivedradivarman, who took the head of Vira-Pandya.

Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 10th year of (the reign of) king Parthivendradivarman who took the head of Vira-Pandya, I . . . . . . . . ..  . . . ..  .. . . . Nagan Vanarajan Alagamaiyan gave, as long as the moon and sun (last), ninety-six sheep which will neither die nor grow old, for one perpetual lamp to the prosperous god of Govindapadi in . . . . . . . . . . . . . (a subdivision) of Damar-kottam.  This charity (shall be under the) protection of the Sirvaishnavas.

No. 193.— ON THE NORTH WALL OF THE VAIKUNTHA —  PERUMAL TEMPLE AT UTTARAMALLUR[8]

This document records that the village assembly of Uttarameru-chaturvedimangalam or Uttaramallur-chaturvedimangalam freed from taxes certain lands given to an image, which Villagan-Mahadeviyar,[9] queen of Parthivendradhipativarman, had set up in the temple of the god of Tiruvayodhyai in this village.  The members of the assembly received purvacharam[10] from the queen before they made the lands tax-free.

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 11th year (and) the 324th day of (the reign of) king Parthivendradhipativarman, we (the members) of the big assembly of Uttarameru-chaturvedimangalam, (a village) in its (own) subdivision in Kaliyur-kottam (wrote thus).  The (following) lands were given by Villavan-Mahadeviyar, the queen of the lord (i.e., the king), for the image and for the srikoyil, which she had set up to the god (perumanadigal) of Tiruvayodhyai in our village and for sribali and archanabhoga :— one thousand seven hundred and sixty kuli in all, of first rate (land) in the fourth, fifth and sixth sadukkam (situated) north of (the channel called) Sarasvati-vaykkal of the first kannaru to the west of (the path called) Uttarameru-vadi; seven hundred and forty kuli of first rate (land) in the fifth sadukkam of the second kannaru (situated) to the west of (the path called) Amaninarayana-vadi south of (the path called) Vayiramega-vadi; (and) four hundred and twenty kuli of first rate (land) in the second sadukkam to the west of (the path called) Avaninarayanavadi of the fourth kannaru (situated) to the south of (the path called)
Vayiramegavadi.

(L. 2.) We, (the members) of the big assembly, having received purvacharam from queen Villavan-Mahadeviyar ordered the total (extent) of (these) two thousand nine hundred and twenty kuli (of land) to be free from taxes as long as the moon and sun (last).  The sraddhamantas[11] themselves shall impose[12] a fine of twenty-five kalanju of gold on those who obstruct this charity.  The dust of the sacred feet of those who protect this charity shall be on the glorious crown of Villavan-Mahadeviyar who founded this charity.  Those who are opposed to this charity shall incur the sins of those who have committed (sins) between Ganga and Kumari.  We, (the members) of the big assembly of Uttaramallur-chaturvedimangalam having made (the lands) tax-free, had this donation engraved on stone.  I, Sivadasan Aiyayirattirunurruva-Brahmapriyan, the arbitrator, being (present) in the big assembly, wrote (this) at the command of the big assembly.  Prosperity!

No. 194.— ON THE SOUTH WALL OF THE SUNDARAVARADA —  PERUMAL TEMPLE IN THE SAME VILLAGE[13]

In this record we are informed that in the 12th year and the 326th day of the reign of Parthivendradhipativarman certain lands were given by queen Tribhuvana-Mahadeviyar for sounding drums at the Sribali ceremony and at the waking up of the images from bed (palli-eluchchi) in the temple of Sriveli-Vishnugriha which had been constructed by Kongaraiyar at Uttarameru-chaturvedimangalam.

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 12th year and 326th day of (the reign of) king Parthivendradhipativarman, queen, Tribhuvana-Mahadeviyar, purchased from the ryots of Uttarameru-chaturvedimangalam and gave the following lands for sounding (drums) at the Sribali (ceremony) to the god (in the temple) of Sriveli-Vishnugriha which Kongaraiyar had constructed in this village : -

(L. 2.) 810 (kuli) in the first sadukkam (situated) to the west of (the path called) Uttarameru-vadi of the fifth kannaru to the south of (the channel called) Subrahmanya-vaykkal ; 120 (kuli) of the second sadukkam  in the same place ; 760 (kuli) in the third sadukkam in the same place ; 240 (kuli) in the fourth sadukkam in the same place ; 453 (kuli) in the third sadukkam of the 4th kannaru in the same place; and 112 (kuli) in the fourth sadukkam in the same place.  For (these) 2,495 kuli in all, we (the members) of the big assembly of Uttarameru-chaturvedimangalam, having received purvacharam from queen Tribhuvana-Mahadeviyar, deducted the taxes as long the moon and the sun (last), and ordered (the lands) to be tax-free.  In order to sound (drums) at the three sandhi of the day (i.e, morning, midday and evening) during the Sribali (ceremony) and at the waking up (of the image) from bed, out of (the income accruing from) these lands, we gave (these lands) as sribali`            puram, freed from (the payment of) taxes and had (this edict) engraved on stone.

(L. 7.) The sraddhamantas shall themselves impose a fine of twenty-five kalanju of gold on each person who obstructs this charity.  (Even after) paying this fine, they shall not obstruct this charity.  Those who obstruct shall incur the sins committed by sinners (living) between Ganga (the Ganges) and Kumari (Cape Comorin).  They (i.e. the members of the assembly) shall not show any kind of tax, echchoru, vetti and amanji against these lands.  We (the members) of the big assembly of Uttarameru-chaturvedimangalam, thus made (the lands) tax-free and had (the edict) engraved on stone.  I, Sivadasan Ayyayirattirunurruva Brahmapriyan, an arbitrator (madhyasthan) of this village, and one of the (members of the) assembly, wrote this at the command (of the assembly).  Prosperity !


[1]  This record belongs to the 10th year of Parthivendradhi[pati]varman and registers a gift of 92 kalanju of gold for providing paddy for sacred offerings to the image of Kaligai-vitanka in the temple of Tiruvuraldeva, by the donor mentioned in No. 184 above.  The gold was received by the assembly of Rajamartandachaturvedimangalam, a hamlet of Tiruvuralpuram (i.e., Takkolam) in Manaiyir-kottam and fetched an interest of 92 kadi of paddy per year.

[2]  It is possible also to interpret Tiruvural-Devanar as the god at Tiruvural, in which case ‘his daughter’ would mean a servant woman in the temple of Tiruvural-deva.

[3] Perhaps edarpuram here and in No. 180 above has to be explained as edaiyal ; see page 357 above, footnote 1; cf.  also dhanmakattalai-kal in South-Indian Inscritpions, Vol. I, No. 146, text line 3.

[4]  Evidently the paddy in question was measured out in three different instalments as in thecase of the tiruchchennadai-nel.

[5]  No. 316 of 1911.

[6]  See South-Indian Gods and Goddesss, page 190.

[7]  No. 327 of 1906.

[8]   No. 32 of 1898.

[9]  The first component of the name seems to denote the Chera lineage of the queen.

[10]  The term purvacharam, which occurs in several inscriptions from Uttaramallur, has not been satisfactorily explained.

[11]  The word Sraddhamantar is translated by Dr. Hultzsch by ‘thorrough indifference’ —  (Sanskrit without attachment).  I do not think this meaning was intended.  Rather the term must mean quite the opposite, viz., those who take deep interest (in the temple).

[12]  Thandapaduvathakavum is incorrect, since the sraddhamantas  were to impose the fine on the obstruction and not to pay it themselves.  Consequently the correct form would be Thandamiduvathakavum; see No. 194 below.

[13]  No. 49 of 1898.

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