The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Volume - III

Contents

Preface

Introduction

Part - I

Inscription at Ukkal

Melpadi

Karuvur

Manimangalam

Tiruvallam

Part - II

Kulottunga-Chola I

Vikrama Chola

Virarajendra I

Kulottunga-Chola III

Part - III

Aditya I

Parantaka I

Gandaraditya

Parantaka II

Uttama-Chola

Parthivendravarman

Aditya II Karikala

Part - IV

copper-plate Tirukkalar

Tiruchchengodu

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

XIV.- Inscriptions of Parakesarivarman Uttama-Chola

No. 142 Manikanthesvara temples at Tirumullaivayil

No. 123 to 125 Madhuvanesvara, Mahalingasvamin, Varaha-Perumal temples

No. 126 to 127 Chandrasekhara & Ghritasthanesvara temples

No. 128 Madras Museum plates of Uttama-Chola

No. 129 to 133 Nagesvarasvamin, Umambesvara, Adimulesvara temples

No. 134 to 137 Virattanesvara, Ujjivanathasvamin, Nagesvarasvamin temples

No. 138 to 141 Mahalingasvamin, Vatatirthanatha, Nedungalanatha temples

No. 143 to 147 Adhipurisvara, Apatsahayesvara, Umamahesvara temples

No. 148 to 150 Sivayoganathasvamin, Siddhanathasvamin temples

No. 151 Umamahesvarasvamin temple at Konerirajapuram

No. 151-A  On the east and north walls of the same shrine

No. 142.- ON THE NORTH WALL OF THE CENTRAL SHRINE IN THE MANIKANTHESVARA TEMPLE AT TIRUMALPURAM[1]

This inscription is dated in the 14th year and the 216th day[2] of Ko-non-inmaikondan[3] while he was staying in his golden palace (pon-maligai) at Kachchippedu.  In his introduction to South-Indian Inscriptions, Volume II, Part V, the late Mr. Venkayya surmised that pon-maligai[4] in the word pon-maligai-tunjinadeva must dnote the dancing hall of the god Nataraja at Chidambaram which is said to have been covered with gold both by Parantaka I. and by an early Pallava sovereign[5].  The reference in this inscription to the golden palace at Kachchippedu seems, however, to indicate that the term pon-maligai should refer to the palace and not to the golden hall of the Chidambaram temple.  It is more appropriate that the death of Sundara-Chola called Ponmaligai-tunjinadeva should have happened in a palace instead of a temple.

The record is of much historical interest.  It refers first to a grant of revenue in paddy and in gold, made in the 21st and 22nd years of a Chola king entitled Tonddaimanarrur-tunjinadeva, to the temple at Tirumalperu.  The grant, was not entered in the revenue registers, evidently by a mistake, and was therefore rectified in the 4th year of Parakesarivarman, ‘who took Madirai and Ilam.’  A fresh grant was also made to the temple in the 36th year of this same king.  This latter grant being misappropriated by the assembly of Puduppakkam which was entrusted with the management of the gift, a complaint was lodged before the king, here referred to as Ko-non-inmai-kondan, in the 14th year of his reign.  The offending members were fined for the mistake committed and orders were issued that the defaulting members of the assembly should in future conduct the trust honestly.

Rai Bahadur V. Venkayya has fully discussed the contents of this inscription and their historical bearing in the Madras Epigraphical Report for 1907, p.71 f.  He points out that Tondaimanarrur-tunjinadeva, who preceded Parakesarivarman the conqueror of Madirai and Ilam, could be no other than the later’s father Aditya I., and that the title which means ‘who died at Tondaimanarrur’ must indicate that Aditya I, who was the actual conqueror of Tondai and the hero who deprived the Ganga Pallavas of the last vestiges of their authority, died in the Tondai country in the village Tondaimanarrur (i.e., the modern Tondamanad near Kalahasti).  It is not clear who king Ko-non-inmai-kondan was in whose 14th year the present record was written.  In identifying him it has to be observed that he rectified a mistake which was committed in the 36th year of Parantaka I. and which was brought to his notice in his 14th year.  Mr. Venkayya was inclined to identify Ko-non-inmai-kondan with AdityaKarikala (II) whose latest date known from inscriptions, however, is his 5th year.  Ko-non-inmai-kondan may have been Rajakesarivarman Gandaraditya, the immediate successor of Parantaka I.  But the appearance of the same names among the signatories in this record as well as in another document distinctly of the time of Uttama-Chola, makes it almost certain that the Ko-non-inmai-kondan of the Tirumalpuram inscription is not other than king Uttama-Chola.

The publicity given to the order by communicating it to the headmen of all Brahmadeya  villages, the residents of the Devadana, Pallichchanda, Kanimurruttu and Vettapperru  villages in Manaiyil-nadu, the long list of officers that held various public offices such as Anatti, Vaykkelvi, Olai-nayagam, Puravuvari, Varippottagam, Kanakku, Variyilidu, Pattolai and Mugavetti who executed the order and witnessed the transaction, and the perspicuity with which thefacts themselves are detailed in the record, are worthy of note.

Of the villages mentioned Sirriyarrur and Puduppakkam may be identified with Sittattur and Puduppakkam in the Walajapet taluk of the North Arcot district.  The terms puravu and iravu applied to the income in paddy have not been clearly understood.

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! (This is the order of) Ko-non-inmai-kondan[6] to the residents (nattar) of Manaiyil-nadu in Manaiyil-kottam, to the headmen (kilavar) of Brahmadeya (villages), to the residents of the Devadana, Pallichchanda, Kanimurruttu and Vettapperru villages and to the residents of towns :-

(L. 8.) On the 216th day of the 14th year  (of our reign) we being on the first floor of the golden hall (pon-maligai) within our mansion at Kachchippedu, the officer Sola-Muvendavelan informed us thus : -

(L. 12.) “Sirriyarrur in Manaiyil-nadu (a subdivision) of Manaiyilkottam with (its income of) thre thousand kadi of puravu five hundred and sixty-one kadi of iravu and twenty-six and a half kalanju and (one) manjadi of gold, excluding the kani of Sangappadikilan, was assigned as a tax-free devadana to (the temple of) Mahadeva (Siva) at Tirumalperu in the twenty-first year of (the reign of) the king (udaiyar) who died a      t Tondaimanarrur, and was made over to (the members) of the assembly of Puduppakkam which was a brahmadeya in Purisai-nadu of this kottam, as a devadana and brahmadeya (with the stipulation) that they should pay the said puravu, iravu and gold to the god.

(L. 23.) “(This village) which was handed over in the 22nd (year of the same reign) after its hamlets had been circumambulated and the (necessary) documents executed, was not, (however), entered in the accounts (vari).  It was registered (subsequently) in the accounts (vari) as a devadana and a brahmadeya  in the fourth year (of the reign of) king Parakesarivarman, ‘who took Madirai (Madura) and Ilam (Ceylon)’, and (accordingly) the members of the assembly of Puduppakkam were themselves paying to the god, the (said) puravu iravu and gold.”

(L. 28.) “In the 36th year of (the reign of) king Parakesarivarman, ‘who took Madiri (Madurai) and Ilam (Ceylon)’ the three thousand kadi of puravu accruing as produce from the estate (kani) of Sangappadikilan in this (village of) Sirriyarrur, was (also) entered in the accounts as a tax-free devadana (in favour of) the same (temple of) Mahadeva at Tirumalperu.”

(L. 32.) “(Now), the managers of the temple (devakanmigal), the men in charge of (its) central shrine (unnaligaiy-udaiyar) and all the Mahesvaras come and complain that the members of the assembly of Puduppakkam have been misappropriating and enjoying this kani of Sangappadikilan bestowed (on the temple) in the above said manner, without paying the taxes to the god.”

(L. 36.) On our inquiry (into the matter) after summoning the managers of the temple at Tirumalperu, the men in charge of the central shrine, (the assembly of) all Mahesvaras and the members of the assembly of Puduppakkam, it was found  that the members of the assembly of Puduppakkam had been enjoying the devadana  and had not been paying the taxes (derived) from the kani of Sangappadikilan in Sirriyarrur to the god.  We ordered that a fine be levied on the members of the assembly of Puduppakkam and that from the 14th year (of Our reign) it (i.e., the kani  of Sangappadikilan) be a devadana and a brahmadeya of these same (with the stipulation) that the members of the assembly of Puduppakkam shall themselves pay to (the temple of) Mahadeva at Tirumalperu three thousand kadi of puravu on the kani on the said Sangappadikilan.

(L. 53.) (We also ordered) that this three thousand kadi of puravu  (thus settled), the three thousand kadi of puravu, five hundred and sixty-one kadi of iravu and twenty-six and a half kalanju and (one) manjadi of gold which is (already) being paid on the village of Sirriyarrur, - in all six thousand kadi of puravu, five hundred and sixty-one kadi of iravur and twenty-six and a half kalanju and (one) manjadi of gold, shall be paid by the members of the assembly of Pudduppakkam to (the temple of) Mahadeva at Tirumalperu and be so entered in the accounts as tax-free devadana and brahmadeya.

(L. 61.) Accordingly Kodukulavan Sattan alias Parakesari-Muvendavelan of Paruttikkudi who looks after Our affairs, the arbitrator (naduvirukkai) Triyambaka-bhattan of Payalai and Nakkan Kanichchan alias Sola-Muvendavelan of Sikkar, being Anatti and Vaykelvi, received (this order).  (The order was) written by the Uttaramantri Pattalagan of Annarrur who writes Our orders, and signed by Our Chief Secretary (Olai-nayagan) Sola-Muvendavelan.  (And) ParakesariMuvendavelan who looks after Our affairs, having commanded the entry in the registers in the terms (of the order) issued, Puravuvari Sembiyan Uttaramantri alias Tandipudi the headman (talaimagan) of Iraiyankudi, Adigal Nakkan the headman (kilavan) of Pavvattiri, Udayadivakaran (a native of) Peraraisur, Virabarana-Muvendavelan alias VenranKarpagam of Kalanivayil, the Varippottagam (officer) Tali Sandirasegaran the headman of Tirunalur, the Mugavetti (officer) Araiyan . . . . . . . . . . of Palanakkudi, Adigal Virasolan of Vittar, Pangan Kadamban of Iraiyanseri, Krishnan Rajadittan of Mukkurumbu, Ninran Nakkan of Sattanur, the Puravuvari of Tondainadu, Araiyan Sivakkolundu of Sirugudi, Kunradi Tiruppori of Sembakkam, the Varippottaga-kanakku  (officer), . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Tali of [Me]-Naranamangalam, Paranjodi Pattalagan of Nerkunram, the Variyilidu  (officer) Suvaran Sattan of Udaiyur and the Pattolai (officer) Rajavijayabaranan of Kurichchi, - being present.

(L. 121.) In the 14th year and 218th day (of Our reign), the three thousand kadi of puravu from Sangappadikilan’s estate (kani) – a tax-free devadana of (the temple of) Mahadeva at Tirumalperu in Sirriyarrur belonging to your nadu, being payable by the members of the assembly of Puduppakkam a brahmadeya in Purisai-nadu, (since it was given over) to them as a devadana and a brahmadeya, and the three thousand kadi of puravu, five hundred and sixty-one kadi of iravu and twenty-six and a half kalanju  and (one) manjadi of gold which these residents of Sirriyarrur have been previously paying (on the village of sirriyarrur) – in all six thousand five hundred and sixty-one kadi of paddy and twenty-six and a half kalanju and (one) manajadi of  gold, shall (thus) be paid by the members themselves of the assembly of Puduppakkam to (the temple of) Mahadeva at Tirumalperu.  This was entered in the accounts and given over to them as a devadana and a brahmadeya.

(L. 141.) This . . . . . . . . . . . . the signature of Adittan alias Minavan Muvendavelan, Nakkan . . . . . . . . . . . . Solamuvenda . . . . . . . . . of . . . . . . . 


[1]  No. 286 of 1906.

[2]  Lower down in 1. 121 of the text is given the 14th year and 218th day of the king.  Evidently two days after the 216th day were taken up in enquiry.

[3]  See below, p. 291, footnote 2.

[4]  The word ponmaligai occurs for the first time in a damaged record of the time of Sundara-Chola Parantaka II, found at Tirukkalittattai (No. 302 of 1908, and is referred to again in a Tanjore inscription of Rajaraja I.  (above Vol. II, pp. 72 and 74) and in another of the latter’s reign (Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XII, p. 124).  These references show that Sundara-Chola died in the golden palace and was on that account known in aftertimes as “Poonmaligai-tunjinadeva.”

[5]  South-Indian Inscriptions, Vol. II, Part V, p. 39.

[6]  Mr. Venkayya suggests that Ko-non-inmai-kondan might correspond to the term kusali of Sanskrit copper-plate grants; see Madras Epigraphical Report  for 1907, p. 71.

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