Inscriptions of Parakesarivarman Uttama-Chola
128 Madras Museum plates of Uttama-Chola
123 to 125 Madhuvanesvara, Mahalingasvamin, Varaha-Perumal temples
126 to 127 Chandrasekhara & Ghritasthanesvara temples
129 to 133 Nagesvarasvamin, Umambesvara, Adimulesvara temples
134 to 137 Virattanesvara, Ujjivanathasvamin, Nagesvarasvamin
138 to 141 Mahalingasvamin, Vatatirthanatha, Nedungalanatha temples
142 Manikanthesvara temples at Tirumullaivayil
143 to 147 Adhipurisvara, Apatsahayesvara, Umamahesvara temples
148 to 150 Sivayoganathasvamin, Siddhanathasvamin temples
151 Umamahesvarasvamin temple at Konerirajapuram
151-A On the east and north walls of the same shrine
128.- MADRAS MUSEUM PLATES OF UTTAMA-CHOLA
copper-plates belong to the Madras Museum.
A full description of them together with that of the huge
ring and seal on which they are hung and a short abstract of
contents, have been given by Professor Hultzsch in his Report on
the half-year ending March 1891, page 4, paragraph 9.
The plates are published below for the first time with text and
Sewell does not mention them in the list of copper-plate
grants which he gives at the beginning of his Lists of Madras Antiquities,
It cannot be ascertained how and when the plates were
acquired by the Museum.
Chola copper-plate grants published so far are only two in number.
These are known as the large and the small Leyden grants
which belong to the time of Rajendra-Chola I.
Hence the subjoined plates which bear on them the record of
Parakesarivarman Uttama-Choladeva, the uncle of Rajaraja I., and the
grandfather of Rajendra-Chola I., will be the earliest Chola record
few plates of the set are missing at the beginning and one at least
at the end.
The portion of the record on the existing five copper-plates
consists of a short Sanskrit prose passage (II. 1 to 6), three
Sanskrit verse (II. 6 to 11) the Tamil prose (II. 11 to 121).
The construction of the Tamil portion is often involved and
The word near in 1. 87, e.g., is used in the
still current commercial sense of adjustment of receipts and
payments and the meaning of visam in 1. 111 is not quite
As regards the palaeography and orthography of the plates the
following may be noted.
The initial vowels e and e
distinguished, though in other inscriptions of this period
the distinction is marked by adding the sign of length (kaal) to the
This method of distinguishing the long from the short is
however observed in o, in II. 52 and 53.
The secondary i and i signs are distinguished,
the latter by a loop attached to the end of the semi-circular cap
which represents the former, e.g., ni
in II. 22 and 23 respectively.
The I super-added to da or ta is, as
usual, marked by the semi-circular cap; but in certain cases as in
II. 26, 34, etc., it is shown by the head of the letter
itself being bent and drawn out almost into a loop.
The vowel signs u and u added to m are
distinguished, the former by a plain curve bent towards the left and
attached to the prolonged vertical of ma from its middle and
the latter by the same curve doubled like the English numeral 3.
The same remarks apply as well to lu and lu.
When added to ka and u and u signs are
doubled in either case, the distinction, however, being that in the
former the curve bends to the left and in the latter to the right.
In ya, va and pa these signs are marked as at
present by a vertical line attached to the right limb of the letter
in the one case, and by a curve affixed to the latter, in the other.
In the case of letters, na, na, la and nya the u-sign
is detached kaal-symbol which at present however is joined to the u-sign
of the letter.
(punarchchi) is but optionally adopted.
The doubling of consonants has been omitted evidently by
mistake in II. 68, 70, 71, etc.,
Case terminations are added to the last word of a group (e.g.,
In I. 44 Anjukalanju is written for Ain-kalanju.
The forms nisadam and nisada both occur.
So also the forms Ugachchegal, Uvachchergal, and Uvachar (II.
54, 64, 86).
Sanskrit portion states that 200 pieces of gold were deposited with
two classes of pattasalins residing in the quarters (of
Kachchippedu) known as Karuvulan-pati, Kamasahappati, Atimanappati
and Erruvalichcheri and that the residents of two of the above-said
quarters were appointed managers of the temple by the king (Uttama-Chola).
Also this same Chola king ‘who destroyed Madhura’ is
stated to have ordered that the residents of Solaniyamam, another
quarter of Kachchippedu, should give to the god at Uraka two prastha
and one kudubaka of rice and one prastha of oil and
thus be exempted from all other taxes payable to the king.
These residents of Solaniyamam together with the managers
appointed from among the weavers who made cloths for a king and
lived in the four quarters mentioned above, were further required to
write out by turns the accounts of the temple of Vishnu at Uragam.
Tamil portion which begins in line 11 is dated in the 16th
year of Parakesarivarman alias Uttama-Choladeva and records
that while the king was seated in the Chitra-mandapa inside
his palace (koyil) at Kachchippedu, his officer
Solamuvendavelar whose name was Nakkan Kanichchan of Sikkal (1. 25
f.) requested that the income of the god of the temple of Uragam
which consisted of (1) kolniraikuli and kalalavu-kuli
collected at Kachchippedu, (2) of the (produce) from) lands
purchased at Kachchippedu and Tundunukkachcheri and (3) on interest
(in paddy and in money) accruing on investments by the temple, might
be apportioned for the several services in the main temple and in
the two shrines of the hall called Karikalaterri(I. 65) and that the
residents of the two quarters of Kachchippedu, viz.,
Kambulanpadi and Atimanappadi (1. 23) may be appointed to supervise
and carry out this apportionment.
The king entrusted the matter in the hands of the chief who
made the request and the latter settled the required apportionment
lands purchased and the investments made are detailed with reference
to the original documents written on stone.
These were : - (1) document dated in the 22nd year
of king Parakesarivarman, by which the assemblies of Kuram and
Ariyar-Perumbakkam having received 250 kalanju of gold from
the temple had agreed to measure every year as interest thereon 500 kadi
of paddy ; (2) document dated in the same year by which the assembly
of Ulai-ur received 50 kalanju and agreed to measure annually
an interest thereon of 150 kadi of paddy ; (3) document dated
in the 9th year of king Vijaya-Kampavarman, by which the
assembly of Olukkaippakkam received 24 kalanju and agreed to
pay an interest every year of one kalanju and four manjadi
line 72 commences a fresh grant made in the 16th year of
Parakesarivarman (Uttama-Chola), to the temple of Uragam at
Kachchippedu for maintaining the Sittirai-tiruvila festival
of that god.
For this purpose 200 kalanju of gold were deposited
with the residents of Kambulanpadi, Atimanappadi, Kanjagappadi and
Erruvalichcheri on perpetual interest of 30 kalanju for one
year, at the rate of one pilavu on each kalanju per
This money (i.e., 30 kalanju) being fully adjusted (ner)
for expenses detailed in lines 81 to 89, the lamp-holders for the
festival and the flag-hoisters had to be secured by the residents of
the four quarters mentioned above (free of cost).
99 to 100 register a few other items of expense apparently in
connection with the same festival.
It is stated that in the 18th year of
Parakesarivarman, ‘who took Madirai and Ilam’ (i.e., Parantaka
I), a concession had been granted , viz., exemption from municipal
taxes, to the residents who had newly settled down in the quarter
called Solaniyamam (of Kachchippedu) in consideration of their
giving certain fixed quantities of oil and rice to the temple of
Uragam, which the Tolachcheviyar alias
Elakkaiyar the former residents of this quarter were
regularly contributing but had discontinued on account of their
This concession was now (i.e., in the 16th year)
ratified by king (Uttama-Chola).
It was further ordered that the residents of this quarter,
viz., Solaniyamam, must provide also an accountant who would be
given every day from the temple treasury 2 kuruni of paddy
and every year 2 kalanju of gold.
to lines 100 to 103 a further grant of 23 kalanju was made to
the residents in the three Saiva quarters (Sankarappadi) of
Kachchippedu, viz., Rajajayappadi Ekavirappadi and
Vamanasankarappadi, in order to maintain a perpetual lamp in the
temple and to burn twilight lamps from the oil supplied by the
residents of Solaniyamam mentioned in the previous paragraph.
miscellaneous items of provision (II.
103 to 108) included the cost of the sacred festivals of
Uttarayana – Samkranti and Chitra-Vishu, the organization of the goshthi
of devotees, etc.
The president of the City Corporation, the members of the
Annual Supervision Committee and the residents of Erruvalichcheri
and Kanjagappadi were required to check the accounts at the end of
each festival, while the residents of these two quarters were to
supply also the watchman of the temple (II.
(The city assembly) was further entrusted with the authority
of appointing the managers for carrying out the temple business, the
watchman and the accountant and of exempting these from payment of
all municipal taxes (I. 113 f.).
The document was drawn up by Narppattennayiramangaladittan,
an arbitrator (madhyastha) of Virappadi, a quarter of Kachchippedu
the above abstract of contents it is clear that the preserved
Sanskrit portion of the grant refers in brief to what has been
elaborately detailed in II. 72 to 115 of the Tamil portion.
Consequently the contents covered by lines 11 to 71 of the
Tamil portion together with the genealogical portion of the grant,
if any – all in Sanskrit – should have been lost in the missing
plates at the beginning of the record.
The reference to previous kings in the body of the Tamil
portion is very interesting inasmuch as it enables us to identify
king Parakesarivarman Uttama-Chola, the 16th year of
whose reign is quoted twice in II. 11f. and 72 f., with the uncle
and immediate predecessor of Rajaraja I.
These references as stated already are the 22nd
year of a certain Parakesarivarman (I. 28 f.), the 9th
year of Vijaya-Kampavarman ( I. 34 f.) and the 18th year
of Parakesarivarman, ‘who took Madirai (Madura) and Ilam
(Ceylon)’ (I. 96 f.) Vijaya-Kampavaraman has been attributed to
the 9th century A.D. by Professor Hultzsch, and
Parakesarivarman, ‘who took Madirai and Ilam’ is Madiraikonda
whose reign extended over the first half of the 10th
Consequently the unidentified Parakesarivarman referred to in
1. 28 f.
appears to be no other than Parakesarivarman Vijayalaya, who
was the first of the resuscitated line of the Tanjore Cholas and to
whom Professor Kielhorn doubtfully attributes certain Chola records
from Conjeeveram Ukkal and Suchindram ranging in date from the 4th
to the 34th years of his reign.
inscription also supplies some valuable information about the town
Kachchippedu (i.e., the modern Conjeeveram).
Four quarters are referred to, viz., Kambulanpadi (II.
74 and 88) spelt in the Sanskrit text as Karuvulanpati (II. 1
and 3) ; Atimanappadi (II. 2 and 75) ; Kanjagappadi (Sanskrit
Kamsahappati) (II. 1f. and 75 f. and Erruvalichcheri (II. 2 and 76)
which were mostly inhabited by weavers who were patronized by the
king (I. 10) and consisted of two sections of pattasalins.
The appointment of these pattasalins as the managers
of the temple and the royal patronage extended them suggests the
high social status which they must have been enjoying at this early
Even now the name Pillaipalaiyam given to the weavers’
quarters suggest the favourite position which these weavers occupied
either with reference to the temple or to the king – the word pillai
or pillaiyar being frequently applied in this sense.
Mr. Thurston under the heading Saliyans
mentions the two main divisions of that class, one of which was pattasaliyan
evidently the pattasalin mentioned above.
The Saiva quarters Ranajayappadi, Ekavirappadi and
Vamanasankarapadi of Conjeevaram are also mentioned.
Solaniyamam seems to have been still another such quarter of
Conjeeveram in which according to lines 89 to 93 the inhabitants
were exempted from all taxes in consideration of their payment of
fixed quantities of rice and oil to the temple of Uragam.
In this connexion it is also interesting to learn that this
quarter of Solaniyamam was at first inhabited by a class of people
known as Tolachcheviyar of Elakkaiyar.
literally means ‘those whose ears are not bored’ and Elakkaiyar
‘those whose hands would not accept gifts’.
The first is perhaps the opposite of Karnapravritas
mentioned in a Tanjore inscription
and of Tollaikkadar a term applied to the tribes of Maravan,
Kallan, Sanan, etc., according to Winslow’s Tamil Dictionalry.
Two other cheris of Kachchippedu which we learn from
the inscription were Tundunukkachcheri whose lands were watered
by the two irrigation channels named respectively ‘the high-level
sluice’ and ‘the low level-sluice’ and Virappadi.
Whether these several quarters (padi or cheri in
Tamil and vati or vataka in Sanskrit) were suburban villages
adjoining Conjeeveram or the different quarters of that city cannot
Conjeeveram must have also been the seat of the king
whose palace is referred to in 1. 13. The temple of Uragam (Sanskrit
Uraka) at Kachchippedu is mentioned in the Nalayiraprabandham
and has been identified by Professor Hultzsch with the present
Ulagalanda-Perumal some of whose inscription mentions the temple by
The Karikala-terri hall which formed an important
portion of the temple must have been so called after the
ancient Chola king Karikala.
temple of Ulagalanda – Perumal which is
in a badly neglected condition shows that the surrounding hall, if
at all contemporaneous with the central shrine, must have been
renovated in a much later period and could not represent the old Karikala-terri.
which were assigned to the temple of Uragam (1. 15 f.) are explained
in the Sanskrit portion (1. 4) as ‘tolls on (articles)
measured by weight (tula) and by capacity (prastha)’.
The city had a strong guild of merchants (nagara 1. 110,
1. 119, or managarattom 1. 120f.) who apparently
represented the city council with a chief person (managaramalvan) at
The guild was given full liberty to supervise the proper
management of the temple business, to appoint the watchman and
clerks of the temple and to exempt these latter from payment of
An item of interesting information supplied by the record is
that a Brahmana knowing the Vedas was appointed for worship
in the temple of Uragam, only in case a man conversant with the
Vaishnava system of temple-worship (koyil-nambu)
was not available.
Vedic Brahmanas as a rule do not appear to have had anything
to do with temple-worship from early times.
The details of expenditure recorded in the grant on account
of the several festivals were audited by the Chief Merchant and the
Annual-Supervision Committee and all difficulties in way of the
proper conduct of the charities were to be removed by the Vaishnava
devotees of the temple, in the 18 nadus.
geographical names that occur in the inscription, viz., Kuram,
Ariyar Perumbakkam, Ulai-ur and Olukkaipakkam, are all situated in
the Chingleput district and are respectively identical with Kuram
and Ariyaperumbakkam in the Conjeeveram taluk and Olaiyur and
Olukarai (?) in the Madurantakam taluk.
Sikkal the native village of the officer Solamuvendavelan is
identical with Sikkil near Negapatam in the Tanjore district.
1.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and he
likewise invested (for interest) these two hundred pieces of
gold in those same quarters (vataka) called Karuvulanpati,
Kamasahappati, Atimanappati and Erruvalichcheri of those pattasalins
of the two families.
There being no managers (srikaryakrit) to supervise
the receipts and expenses of that same (temple of) Hari (i.e.,
Vishnu), - of the income arising out of the interest on gold
(invested) and the tolls on (things) measured by
weight, capacity, etc., that same king himself appointed for
doing the work of (temple) management (srikarya) those same
weavers born in the two quarters, viz., Atimanappati and
Karuvulanpati of those same (four) quarters.
6.) The Chold (king) who was the destroyer of Madhura (i.e.,
Uttama-Chola Madhurantaka) commanded that the residents of
Solaniyamam must give per month two prasthas and one kudubaka
of rice and (one) prastha of oil to (the god)
Tridhamam (Vishnu) standing in (the temple of) Uraka and that
no taxes which may be levied by the king be collected (from these)
in consideration of (their) poverty.
There upon the city-magnates also authorized this.
Consequently the house-holders residing in Solaniyamam
together with the managers of (the temple of) Hari whose
abode is in Uraka, must write out in turn one after another the (accounts
of) income and expenditure and show (them) every month to
these weavers of royal garments living in the four quarters (mentioned
11.) In the sixteenth year (of the reign) of the glorious
king Parakesarivarman alias the illustrious Uttama-Choladeva,
when (this) lord was pleased to remain in the (hall called)
Chitra-mandapa on the southern side within (his) palace
at Kachchippedu, the officer (adhikari) Solamuvendavelar
seeing that no provision for expenses (nibandam) was
previously made for this god, made the request that the king (emberuman)
may be pleased to order that the kolnirai-kuli and kalalavu-kuli
of this Kachchippedu together with the proceeds in the enjoyment of
this (god) from the lands purchased for this same god in
Kachchippedu and Tundunukkachcheri and other (income) derived
by interest (poliyuttu) (may be used) to provide for
the nibandam of the god who is pleased to stand in (the
temple of) Uragam
at this Kachchippedu and that the two cheris of this
Kachchippedu may manage the business (srikarya) of this god.
21.) (The king) was pleased to order (as follows) : -
“You shall yourself have the (necessary) provision made for
the nibandam of the god who is pleased to stand in (the
temple of) Uragam at this Kachchippedu, (from) the kolnirai-kuli
of this village, (from) the lands acquired (by the
temple) by purchase and (from) the income derived by
The two cheris of this village, viz.,
Kambulanpadi and Atimanappadi, shall manage the business of this
In this way shall you carry out the nibandam.”
25.) (Thus) at the request of the officer Nakkan Kanichchan alias
Sola-Muvendavelan of Sikkal, the nibandam, which was caused
to be made (from) the kalalavu-kuli, and the kolmirai-kuli;
from the income from the lands purchased by this god ; from
the five hundred kadi of paddy which (being the income)
as interest of this god according to the investment deed (engraved)
on stone in the 22nd year of (the reign of) king
Parakesarivarman was measured out by (the measure called)
ennalipporkal of their village for one year, (as interest)
on the 250 kalanju of gold deposited with the members of the
assemblies of Kuram and Ariyar Perumbakkam ; from the one hundred
and fifty kadi of paddy which was measured out as interest
for one year on fifty kalanju of gold received by the members
of the assembly of Ulaiyur (in the same year of the same king)
according to the deed (engraved) on stone ; and from one kalanju
and four manjadi of
gold which was paid as interest, for one year, on the twenty-four kalanju
of gold received by the members of the assembly of Olukkaipakkam,
according to the deed (engraved) on stone in the 9th
year of (the reign of) king Vijaya Kampavarman, was
38.) Three kuruni and six nali of paddy for sacred
offerings (to be given) at the three junctures (sandhi)
(of the day) ; four nali of paddy for two vegetable
offerings to be given at the three junctures (of the day);
five nali of paddy for (one) ulakku of the
daily ghee offering; three nali of paddy for (one) nali
and (one) uri
of curd which was (to be offered) at the three
junctures (of the day) at the rate of one uri
of curd each time ; three nali of paddy for areca-nut
offering at the three junctures ; two nali of paddy for
firewood ; one padakku of paddy for one Brahmana who knows
the Vedas and performs worship; five kalanju of gold (given)
to this man as cloth money (pudavai-mudal) for the period of
one year ; six nali of paddy for one mani
who does service (in the temple) ; one kalanju
of gold (given) to this man as cloth money (pudavai-mudal)
for the period of one year; one kuruni of paddy daily for one
man who watches the sacred images (of the temple) ; two kalanju
of gold (given) to this man as cloth money (pudavai-mudal)
for the period of one year ; one kuruni of paddy daily for
one man who watches the sacred images (of the temple) ; two kalanju
of gold (given) to this man as cloth money (pudavai-mual)
for the period of one year ; one kuruni and four nali
of paddy per day for two persons who work in the flower
garden ; (one) kalanju of gold (given) to these
fifteen kalanju and a half of gold for a period of one year
for (sandal-paste) rubbed over the sacred body (of the god)
and sacred smoke (inscnse), at the rate of one-eighth pon per
month; three-quarters of a pon for the period of one year for
three sacred baths (namanigai) ; (one) kalanju
of gold for the period of one year for three sacred clothes.
One hundred and fifty kadi of paddy (which is the
income) by interest (measured out) by Ulai-ur (were
assigned) inclusive of cloth money to nine persons of musicians
(ugachchagal), viz., one (who beats) the talaipparai,
two drummers (mattali), one (who beats) the karadigai,
one (who strikes) the talam, one (who beats) the segandigai,
blow) the trumpets and one (who sounds) the
(of land) called Sittiravallipperunjeru (included)
in the lands purchased from the merchants (nagarattar) of
Kachchippedu and (one) patti of land of five tadis,
consisting of three tadis (included) in the land
purchased at Tundunukkachcheri which lies to the north of the land
of Sendaraippottan and is irrigated by the channel which flows from
the high level sluice, of one seruvu to the north of the (field)
Kadadi-kundil and of (one) kundil to the
north of (the land which is in the) enjoyment of Koneriyar
and is (included) in the lands irrigated by the channel which
flows from the low-level sluice, - in all, these two patties
provide the expenses (nibanda) on account of the nine persons
who form the musical troupe.
Three nali of paddy (were provided) daily to
those who smear (the temple) with cow-dung.
Also (the following) are to be the expenses (nibanda)
of the two gods mentioned below : - three kuruni and six nali
of paddy on account of the two gods in the sculptured hall of
Karikala (Karikala-terri), at six nali
of rice (and) one (kuruni) and four nali
of rice (to be offered respectively) at the three junctures
daily (of the day) to (each of) these two gods : four nali
of paddy for vegetable offerings (to be given) at the three
junctures (of the day); three nali of paddy for firewood ;
five nali of paddy for (one) ulakku of
ghee-offering (required) at the three junctures (of the
day) ; one kuruni and four nali of paddy for (one)
uri of ghee (required) for two sacred perpetual lamps
to the two gods; twelve manjadi of gold for (sandal paste)
rubbed over the sacred body (of the images) and for the
sacred smoke (incense) for the period of one year at the rate
of (one) manjadi of gold per month.
72.) In the 16th year of (the reign of) king
Parakesarivarman, from the god who was pleased to stand (in the
temple) of Uragam at Kachchippedu, the residents of Kambulanpadi
(a quarter) of this village, received 73 kalanju and a
half of gold; the residents of (the quarter) of this village,
received 73 kalanju
and a half of gold ; the residents of (the quarter)
Atimanappadi received 35 kalanju of gold and the residents of
(the quarter) Erruvalichcheri received 18 kalanju of
(Thus) for the total gold of 200 kalanju, the
interest which accrues for the period of one year at the rate of one
on each kalanju (for a month), was thirty kalanju
of gold. These thirty kalanju of gold were used in providing
for the expenses (nibanda) of the Sittirai-tiruvila (festival)
of this god in the following manner:- 7 kalanju of gold for
oil (required) for the seven days of the festival, 2 kalanju
of gold for sweet-smelling flowers and scented sandal-paste on
(these) seven days ; 5 kalanju of gold for food and presents
to the devotees who form the kotti (goshthi)
during (these) seven days by purchasing paddy . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
and feeding (them) ; (one) kalanju of gold for
the palanquin-bearers who carry the palanquin of the bed-chamber of
the god and for the musicians invited for the seven days of the
festival ; and 5 kalanjj of gold for miscellaneous expenses.
Thus the gold being equal (to the expenses specified),
the lamp-bearers and flag-hoisters for the festival (shall be)
the residents of Kambulanpadi, Atimanappadi, Erruvalichcheri and
89.) Whereas Tolachcheviyar alias Elakkaiyar, the former
residents of Solaniyamam, a cheri (quarter) of god,
have decreased in numbers and these Elakkaiyar are unable to pay
taxes as per old custom, the inhabitants who come from outside this cheri
settle (in it) (shall) give (one) nali
and (one) ulakku of oil and two nali of rice
per house per month as tax (payable) only to this god, and
shall not pay any other taxes fixed by the two magnates.
Those who show (in the books) against them any taxes
other than the said (taxes) shall incur the sin committed by the
people who commit (sin) between Ganga (the Ganges) and
Kumari (Cape Comorin).
96.) Thus this god shall receive these taxes from these inhabitants
in the manner described above, according to the very settlement (vyavasthai)
made by the merchants of this Kachchippedu in the eighteenth year of
(the reign of) the glorious Parakesarivarman who took Madirai
(Madura) and Ilam (Ceylon). The accounts of this god
shall be maintained by (one of) the inhabitants of this cheri
and he shall be paid from the treasury of this god (one) kuruni
of paddy per day and two kalanju of gold per year.
100.) The Sankarappadiyar
of the three quarters, viz., Ranajayappadi, Ekavirappadi and
Vamana-Sankarappadi of this village having received twenty kalanju
of gold shall burn one perpetual lamp which these inhabitants of the
above-mentioned quarters have agreed (to do) and an evening
lamp from the oil supplied by the inhabitants of Solaniyamam.
103.) For bathing the gods in the two sacred temples (sirkoyil) (on
occasion of) Uttaramayana (Uttarayana)-Samkranti
Sittirai-Vishu, for the lamp-bearers and the man who hoists the
flag during (these) festivals and for the chiefs of the
assembly (parushai) who enter the sacred court (of the
temple, to supervise), one tuni of rice (has been provided)
; for one who organizes the goshthi
tuni and (one) padakku of rice ; and
half a kalanju of gold as honorarium (for the same).
Other items (of expense) in the sacred temple which
are omitted (to be mentioned) shall be met from miscellaneous
expenditure, without taking note of the provision (nibanda) (made
108.) The (Srivaishnava) devotees of the 18 nadu shall
alone supervise and set right all obstructions to the management of
the (temple) business of these gods.
The Chief Merchant (nagaram-alvan) of this guild (nagara),
(the members of the) Annual Supervision Committee (attai-variyar),
the residents of Erruvalichcheri and Kanjagappadi, shall, every
year, look into the accounts of the expenses (incurred) on (visam)
these gods, soon after the festivals are celebrated.
The residents of the above-mentioned two cheris alone
shall provide for the watch of the sacred images as per the
settlement (nibandam) deposited in the treasury of the gods.
113.) The mercantile guild shall itself choose the superintendent of
the sacred business (in the temple) of these gods, the
watchman of the sacred images and the accountant and shall not
receive (any) taxes (from them).
If persons fully knowing the (duties of) worship in
sacred temples are not obtainable for (this) sacred temple, a
Brahmana versed in the Vedas shall alone be appointed to perform the
117.) Thus at the command of the officers I, Narpattennayira
Mangaladittan, an arbitrator (madhyastha) of Virappadi of
this city, executed (i.e., wrote) this document (aria-olai)
(This is) my writing.
We (the members) of the great guild of merchants sold
with excess and deficiency (in measurement), the land (lying)
east to west
In the (field) Lokamarayapperunjeru (which we had)
purchased from the citizens of this Kachchippedu.
Arantangi Pormugaviran . . . . . . . . who engraved the
letters of this charter (sasanam).