The Indian Analyst

South Indian Inscriptions



Volume - III




Part - I

Inscription at Ukkal





Part - II

Kulottunga-Chola I

Vikrama Chola

Virarajendra I

Kulottunga-Chola III

Part - III

Aditya I

Parantaka I


Parantaka II



Aditya II Karikala

Part - IV

copper-plate Tirukkalar


Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27





Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India


XIV.- Inscriptions of Parakesarivarman Uttama-Chola

No. 128 Madras Museum plates of Uttama-Chola

No. 123 to 125 Madhuvanesvara, Mahalingasvamin, Varaha-Perumal temples

No. 126 to 127 Chandrasekhara & Ghritasthanesvara temples

No. 129 to 133 Nagesvarasvamin, Umambesvara, Adimulesvara temples

No. 134 to 137 Virattanesvara, Ujjivanathasvamin, Nagesvarasvamin temples

No. 138 to 141 Mahalingasvamin, Vatatirthanatha, Nedungalanatha temples

No. 142 Manikanthesvara temples at Tirumullaivayil

No. 143 to 147 Adhipurisvara, Apatsahayesvara, Umamahesvara temples

No. 148 to 150 Sivayoganathasvamin, Siddhanathasvamin temples

No. 151 Umamahesvarasvamin temple at Konerirajapuram

No. 151-A  On the east and north walls of the same shrine


These copper-plates belong to the Madras Museum.  A full description of them together with that of the huge ring and seal on which they are hung and a short abstract of contents, have been given by Professor Hultzsch in his Report on Epigraphy  for the half-year ending March 1891, page 4, paragraph 9[1]. The plates are published below for the first time with text and translation.  Mr.  Sewell does not mention them in the list of copper-plate grants which he gives at the beginning of his Lists of Madras Antiquities, Volume II.  It cannot be ascertained how and when the plates were acquired by the Museum.

Early Chola copper-plate grants published so far are only two in number.  These are known as the large and the small Leyden grants which belong to the time of Rajendra-Chola I.  Hence the subjoined plates which bear on them the record of Parakesarivarman Uttama-Choladeva, the uncle of Rajaraja I., and the grandfather of Rajendra-Chola I., will be the earliest Chola record[2] published.

A few plates of the set are missing at the beginning and one at least at the end.  The portion of the record on the existing five copper-plates consists of a short Sanskrit prose passage (II. 1 to 6), three Sanskrit verse (II. 6 to 11) the Tamil prose (II. 11 to 121).  The construction of the Tamil portion is often involved and irregular[3].  The word near in 1. 87, e.g., is used in the still current commercial sense of adjustment of receipts and payments and the meaning of visam in 1. 111 is not quite intelligible[4]  As regards the palaeography and orthography of the plates the following may be noted.  The initial vowels e and e  are not  distinguished, though in other inscriptions of this period the distinction is marked by adding the sign of length (kaal) to the short e.   This method of distinguishing the long from the short is however observed in o, in II. 52 and 53.  The secondary i and i signs are distinguished, the latter by a loop attached to the end of the semi-circular cap which represents the former, e.g., ni  and vi  in II. 22 and 23 respectively.  The I super-added to da or ta is, as usual, marked by the semi-circular cap; but in certain cases as in II. 26, 34, etc., it is shown by the head of the letter itself being bent and drawn out almost into a loop.  The vowel signs u and u added to m are distinguished, the former by a plain curve bent towards the left and attached to the prolonged vertical of ma from its middle and the latter by the same curve doubled like the English numeral 3.  The same remarks apply as well to lu and lu.  When added to ka and u and u signs are doubled in either case, the distinction, however, being that in the former the curve bends to the left and in the latter to the right.  In ya, va and pa these signs are marked as at present by a vertical line attached to the right limb of the letter in the one case, and by a curve affixed to the latter, in the other.  In the case of letters, na, na, la and nya the u-sign is detached kaal-symbol which at present however is joined to the u-sign of the letter.  Sandhi  (punarchchi) is but optionally adopted.  The doubling of consonants has been omitted evidently by mistake in II. 68, 70, 71, etc.,  Case terminations are added to the last word of a group (e.g., II.  16f, 82).  In I. 44 Anjukalanju is written for Ain-kalanju.  The forms nisadam and nisada both occur.  So also the forms Ugachchegal, Uvachchergal, and Uvachar (II. 54, 64, 86).

The Sanskrit portion states that 200 pieces of gold were deposited with two classes of pattasalins residing in the quarters (of Kachchippedu) known as Karuvulan-pati, Kamasahappati, Atimanappati and Erruvalichcheri and that the residents of two of the above-said quarters were appointed managers of the temple by the king (Uttama-Chola).  Also this same Chola king ‘who destroyed Madhura’ is stated to have ordered that the residents of Solaniyamam, another quarter of Kachchippedu, should give to the god at Uraka two prastha and one kudubaka of rice and one prastha of oil and thus be exempted from all other taxes payable to the king.  These residents of Solaniyamam together with the managers appointed from among the weavers who made cloths for a king and lived in the four quarters mentioned above, were further required to write out by turns the accounts of the temple of Vishnu at Uragam.

The Tamil portion which begins in line 11 is dated in the 16th year of Parakesarivarman alias Uttama-Choladeva and records that while the king was seated in the Chitra-mandapa inside his palace (koyil) at Kachchippedu, his officer Solamuvendavelar whose name was Nakkan Kanichchan of Sikkal (1. 25 f.) requested that the income of the god of the temple of Uragam which consisted of (1) kolniraikuli and kalalavu-kuli collected at Kachchippedu, (2) of the (produce) from) lands purchased at Kachchippedu and Tundunukkachcheri and (3) on interest (in paddy and in money) accruing on investments by the temple, might be apportioned for the several services in the main temple and in the two shrines of the hall called Karikalaterri(I. 65) and that the residents of the two quarters of Kachchippedu, viz., Kambulanpadi and Atimanappadi (1. 23) may be appointed to supervise and carry out this apportionment.  The king entrusted the matter in the hands of the chief who made the request and the latter settled the required apportionment of income.

The lands purchased and the investments made are detailed with reference to the original documents written on stone.  These were : - (1) document dated in the 22nd year of king Parakesarivarman, by which the assemblies of Kuram and Ariyar-Perumbakkam having received 250 kalanju of gold from the temple had agreed to measure every year as interest thereon 500 kadi of paddy ; (2) document dated in the same year by which the assembly of Ulai-ur received 50 kalanju and agreed to measure annually an interest thereon of 150 kadi of paddy ; (3) document dated in the 9th year of king Vijaya-Kampavarman, by which the assembly of Olukkaippakkam received 24 kalanju and agreed to pay an interest every year of one kalanju and four manjadi of gold.

With line 72 commences a fresh grant made in the 16th year of Parakesarivarman (Uttama-Chola), to the temple of Uragam at Kachchippedu for maintaining the Sittirai-tiruvila festival of that god.  For this purpose 200 kalanju of gold were deposited with the residents of Kambulanpadi, Atimanappadi, Kanjagappadi and Erruvalichcheri on perpetual interest of 30 kalanju for one year, at the rate of one pilavu on each kalanju per month.  This money (i.e., 30 kalanju) being fully adjusted (ner) for expenses detailed in lines 81 to 89, the lamp-holders for the festival and the flag-hoisters had to be secured by the residents of the four quarters mentioned above (free of cost).

Lines 99 to 100 register a few other items of expense apparently in connection with the same festival.  It is stated that in the 18th year of Parakesarivarman, ‘who took Madirai and Ilam’ (i.e., Parantaka I), a concession had been granted , viz., exemption from municipal taxes, to the residents who had newly settled down in the quarter called Solaniyamam (of Kachchippedu) in consideration of their giving certain fixed quantities of oil and rice to the temple of Uragam, which the Tolachcheviyar alias  Elakkaiyar the former residents of this quarter were regularly contributing but had discontinued on account of their decline.  This concession was now (i.e., in the 16th year) ratified by king (Uttama-Chola).  It was further ordered that the residents of this quarter, viz., Solaniyamam, must provide also an accountant who would be given every day from the temple treasury 2 kuruni of paddy and every year 2 kalanju of gold.

According to lines 100 to 103 a further grant of 23 kalanju was made to the residents in the three Saiva quarters (Sankarappadi) of Kachchippedu, viz., Rajajayappadi Ekavirappadi and Vamanasankarappadi, in order to maintain a perpetual lamp in the temple and to burn twilight lamps from the oil supplied by the residents of Solaniyamam mentioned in the previous paragraph.

Other miscellaneous items of provision (II.  103 to 108) included the cost of the sacred festivals of Uttarayana – Samkranti and Chitra-Vishu, the organization of the goshthi of devotees, etc.  The president of the City Corporation, the members of the Annual Supervision Committee and the residents of Erruvalichcheri and Kanjagappadi were required to check the accounts at the end of each festival, while the residents of these two quarters were to supply also the watchman of the temple (II.  110 ff.).  (The city assembly) was further entrusted with the authority of appointing the managers for carrying out the temple business, the watchman and the accountant and of exempting these from payment of all municipal taxes (I. 113 f.).  The document was drawn up by Narppattennayiramangaladittan, an arbitrator (madhyastha) of Virappadi, a quarter of Kachchippedu (I.  119 f.).

From the above abstract of contents it is clear that the preserved Sanskrit portion of the grant refers in brief to what has been elaborately detailed in II. 72 to 115 of the Tamil portion.  Consequently the contents covered by lines 11 to 71 of the Tamil portion together with the genealogical portion of the grant, if any – all in Sanskrit – should have been lost in the missing plates at the beginning of the record.  The reference to previous kings in the body of the Tamil portion is very interesting inasmuch as it enables us to identify king Parakesarivarman Uttama-Chola, the 16th year of whose reign is quoted twice in II. 11f. and 72 f., with the uncle and immediate predecessor of Rajaraja I.  These references as stated already are the 22nd year of a certain Parakesarivarman (I. 28 f.), the 9th year of Vijaya-Kampavarman ( I. 34 f.) and the 18th year of Parakesarivarman, ‘who took Madirai (Madura) and Ilam (Ceylon)’ (I. 96 f.) Vijaya-Kampavaraman has been attributed to the 9th century A.D. by Professor Hultzsch, and Parakesarivarman, ‘who took Madirai and Ilam’ is Madiraikonda Parantaka I.[5] whose reign extended over the first half of the 10th century A.D.  Consequently the unidentified Parakesarivarman referred to in 1. 28 f.  appears to be no other than Parakesarivarman Vijayalaya, who was the first of the resuscitated line of the Tanjore Cholas and to whom Professor Kielhorn doubtfully attributes certain Chola records from Conjeeveram Ukkal and Suchindram ranging in date from the 4th to the 34th years of his reign.[6]

The inscription also supplies some valuable information about the town Kachchippedu (i.e., the modern Conjeeveram).  Four quarters are referred to, viz., Kambulanpadi (II.  74 and 88) spelt in the Sanskrit text as Karuvulanpati (II. 1 and 3) ; Atimanappadi (II. 2 and 75) ; Kanjagappadi (Sanskrit Kamsahappati) (II. 1f. and 75 f. and Erruvalichcheri (II. 2 and 76) which were mostly inhabited by weavers who were patronized by the king (I. 10) and consisted of two sections of pattasalins.  The appointment of these pattasalins as the managers of the temple and the royal patronage extended them suggests the high social status which they must have been enjoying at this early period.  Even now the name Pillaipalaiyam given to the weavers’ quarters suggest the favourite position which these weavers occupied either with reference to the temple or to the king – the word pillai or pillaiyar being frequently applied in this sense.  Mr. Thurston under the heading Saliyans[7] mentions the two main divisions of that class, one of which was pattasaliyan evidently the pattasalin mentioned above.  The Saiva quarters Ranajayappadi, Ekavirappadi and Vamanasankarapadi of Conjeevaram are also mentioned.  Solaniyamam seems to have been still another such quarter of Conjeeveram in which according to lines 89 to 93 the inhabitants were exempted from all taxes in consideration of their payment of fixed quantities of rice and oil to the temple of Uragam.  In this connexion it is also interesting to learn that this quarter of Solaniyamam was at first inhabited by a class of people known as Tolachcheviyar of Elakkaiyar.  Tolachcheviyar  literally means ‘those whose ears are not bored’ and Elakkaiyar ‘those whose hands would not accept gifts’.  The first is perhaps the opposite of Karnapravritas mentioned in a Tanjore inscription[8] and of Tollaikkadar a term applied to the tribes of Maravan, Kallan, Sanan, etc., according to Winslow’s Tamil Dictionalry.  Two other cheris of Kachchippedu which we learn from the inscription were Tundunukkachcheri whose lands were watered by the two irrigation channels named respectively ‘the high-level sluice’ and ‘the low level-sluice’ and Virappadi.  Whether these several quarters (padi or cheri in Tamil and vati or vataka in Sanskrit) were suburban villages adjoining Conjeeveram or the different quarters of that city cannot be ascertained[9].  Conjeeveram must have also been the seat of the king[10] whose palace is referred to in 1. 13. The temple of Uragam (Sanskrit Uraka) at Kachchippedu is mentioned in the Nalayiraprabandham and has been identified by Professor Hultzsch with the present Ulagalanda-Perumal some of whose inscription mentions the temple by that time.  The Karikala-terri hall which formed an important portion of the temple must have been so called after the  ancient Chola king Karikala.  The present  temple of Ulagalanda – Perumal which  is in a badly neglected condition shows that the surrounding hall, if at all contemporaneous with the central shrine, must have been renovated in a much later period and could not represent the old Karikala-terri.

Kolnirai-kuli and kalalavu-kuli which were assigned to the temple of Uragam (1. 15 f.) are explained in the Sanskrit portion (1. 4) as ‘tolls on (articles) measured by weight (tula) and by capacity (prastha)’.  The city had a strong guild of merchants (nagara 1. 110, nagarattar  1. 119, or managarattom 1. 120f.) who apparently represented the city council with a chief person (managaramalvan) at their head.  The guild was given full liberty to supervise the proper management of the temple business, to appoint the watchman and clerks of the temple and to exempt these latter from payment of (municipal) taxes.  An item of interesting information supplied by the record is that a Brahmana knowing the Vedas was appointed for worship in the temple of Uragam, only in case a man conversant with the Vaishnava system of temple-worship (koyil-nambu)[11] was not available.  Vedic Brahmanas as a rule do not appear to have had anything to do with temple-worship from early times.  The details of expenditure recorded in the grant on account of the several festivals were audited by the Chief Merchant and the Annual-Supervision Committee and all difficulties in way of the proper conduct of the charities were to be removed by the Vaishnava devotees of the temple, in the 18 nadus.

The geographical names that occur in the inscription, viz., Kuram, Ariyar Perumbakkam, Ulai-ur and Olukkaipakkam, are all situated in the Chingleput district and are respectively identical with Kuram and Ariyaperumbakkam in the Conjeeveram taluk and Olaiyur and Olukarai (?) in the Madurantakam taluk.  Sikkal the native village of the officer Solamuvendavelan is identical with Sikkil near Negapatam in the Tanjore district.

(Line 1.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and he likewise invested (for interest) these two hundred pieces of gold in those same quarters (vataka) called Karuvulanpati, Kamasahappati, Atimanappati and Erruvalichcheri of those pattasalins of the two families.  There being no managers (srikaryakrit) to supervise the receipts and expenses of that same (temple of) Hari (i.e., Vishnu), - of the income arising out of the interest on gold (invested) and the tolls on (things) measured by weight, capacity, etc., that same king himself appointed for doing the work of (temple) management (srikarya) those same weavers born in the two quarters, viz., Atimanappati and Karuvulanpati of those same (four) quarters.

(L. 6.) The Chold (king) who was the destroyer of Madhura (i.e., Uttama-Chola Madhurantaka) commanded that the residents of Solaniyamam must give per month two prasthas and one kudubaka of rice and (one) prastha of oil to (the god) Tridhamam (Vishnu) standing in (the temple of) Uraka and that no taxes which may be levied by the king be collected (from these) in consideration of (their) poverty.  There upon the city-magnates also authorized this.  Consequently the house-holders residing in Solaniyamam together with the managers of (the temple of) Hari whose abode is in Uraka, must write out in turn one after another the (accounts of) income and expenditure and show (them) every month to these weavers of royal garments living in the four quarters (mentioned above).

(L. 11.) In the sixteenth year (of the reign) of the glorious king Parakesarivarman alias the illustrious Uttama-Choladeva, when (this) lord was pleased to remain in the (hall called) Chitra-mandapa on the southern side within (his) palace[12] at Kachchippedu, the officer (adhikari) Solamuvendavelar seeing that no provision for expenses (nibandam) was previously made for this god, made the request that the king (emberuman) may be pleased to order that the kolnirai-kuli and kalalavu-kuli of this Kachchippedu together with the proceeds in the enjoyment of this (god) from the lands purchased for this same god in Kachchippedu and Tundunukkachcheri and other (income) derived by interest (poliyuttu) (may be used) to provide for the nibandam of the god who is pleased to stand in (the temple of) Uragam[13] at this Kachchippedu and that the two cheris of this Kachchippedu may manage the business (srikarya) of this god.

(L. 21.) (The king) was pleased to order (as follows) : - “You shall yourself have the (necessary) provision made for the nibandam of the god who is pleased to stand in (the temple of) Uragam at this Kachchippedu, (from) the kolnirai-kuli  and kalalavu-kuli  of this village, (from) the lands acquired (by the temple) by purchase and (from) the income derived by interest.  The two cheris of this village, viz., Kambulanpadi and Atimanappadi, shall manage the business of this god.  In this way shall you carry out the nibandam.”

(L. 25.) (Thus) at the request of the officer Nakkan Kanichchan alias Sola-Muvendavelan of Sikkal, the nibandam, which was caused to be made (from) the kalalavu-kuli, and the kolmirai-kuli;  from the income from the lands purchased by this god ; from the five hundred kadi of paddy which (being the income) as interest of this god according to the investment deed (engraved) on stone in the 22nd year of (the reign of) king Parakesarivarman was measured out by (the measure called) ennalipporkal of their village for one year, (as interest) on the 250 kalanju of gold deposited with the members of the assemblies of Kuram and Ariyar Perumbakkam ; from the one hundred and fifty kadi of paddy which was measured out as interest for one year on fifty kalanju of gold received by the members of the assembly of Ulaiyur (in the same year of the same king) according to the deed (engraved) on stone ; and from one kalanju and four manjadi  of gold which was paid as interest, for one year, on the twenty-four kalanju of gold received by the members of the assembly of Olukkaipakkam, according to the deed (engraved) on stone in the 9th year of (the reign of) king Vijaya Kampavarman, was thus organized.

(L. 38.) Three kuruni and six nali of paddy for sacred offerings (to be given) at the three junctures (sandhi) (of the day) ; four nali of paddy for two vegetable offerings to be given at the three junctures (of the day); five nali of paddy for (one) ulakku of the daily ghee offering; three nali of paddy for (one) nali  and (one) uri  of curd which was (to be offered) at the three junctures (of the day) at the rate of one uri  of curd each time ; three nali of paddy for areca-nut offering at the three junctures ; two nali of paddy for firewood ; one padakku of paddy for one Brahmana who knows the Vedas and performs worship; five kalanju of gold (given) to this man as cloth money (pudavai-mudal) for the period of one year ; six nali of paddy for one mani  who does service (in the temple) ; one kalanju of gold (given) to this man as cloth money (pudavai-mudal) for the period of one year; one kuruni of paddy daily for one man who watches the sacred images (of the temple) ; two kalanju of gold (given) to this man as cloth money (pudavai-mudal) for the period of one year ; one kuruni of paddy daily for one man who watches the sacred images (of the temple) ; two kalanju of gold (given) to this man as cloth money (pudavai-mual) for the period of one year ; one kuruni and four nali  of paddy per day for two persons who work in the flower garden ; (one) kalanju of gold (given) to these for cloth[14]; fifteen kalanju and a half of gold for a period of one year for (sandal-paste) rubbed over the sacred body (of the god) and sacred smoke (inscnse), at the rate of one-eighth pon per month; three-quarters of a pon for the period of one year for three sacred baths (namanigai) ; (one) kalanju of gold for the period of one year for three sacred clothes.  One hundred and fifty kadi of paddy (which is the income) by interest (measured out) by Ulai-ur (were assigned) inclusive of cloth money to nine persons of musicians (ugachchagal), viz., one (who beats) the talaipparai, two drummers (mattali), one (who beats) the karadigai, one (who strikes) the talam, one (who beats) the segandigai, two (who  blow) the trumpets and one (who sounds) the hand-bell (kai-mani).  One patti  (of land) called Sittiravallipperunjeru (included) in the lands purchased from the merchants (nagarattar) of Kachchippedu and (one) patti of land of five tadis, consisting of three tadis (included) in the land purchased at Tundunukkachcheri which lies to the north of the land of Sendaraippottan and is irrigated by the channel which flows from the high level sluice, of one seruvu to the north of the (field)  Kadadi-kundil and of (one) kundil to the north of (the land which is in the) enjoyment of Koneriyar and is (included) in the lands irrigated by the channel which flows from the low-level sluice, - in all, these two patties provide the expenses (nibanda) on account of the nine persons who form the musical troupe.  Three nali of paddy (were provided) daily to those who smear (the temple) with cow-dung.  Also (the following) are to be the expenses (nibanda) of the two gods mentioned below : - three kuruni and six nali of paddy on account of the two gods in the sculptured hall of Karikala (Karikala-terri), at six nali  of rice (and) one (kuruni) and four nali of rice (to be offered respectively) at the three junctures daily (of the day) to (each of) these two gods : four nali of paddy for vegetable offerings (to be given) at the three junctures (of the day); three nali of paddy for firewood ; five nali of paddy for (one) ulakku of ghee-offering (required) at the three junctures (of the day) ; one kuruni and four nali of paddy for (one) uri of ghee (required) for two sacred perpetual lamps to the two gods; twelve manjadi of gold for (sandal paste) rubbed over the sacred body (of the images) and for the sacred smoke (incense) for the period of one year at the rate of (one) manjadi of gold per month.

(L. 72.) In the 16th year of (the reign of) king Parakesarivarman, from the god who was pleased to stand (in the temple) of Uragam at Kachchippedu, the residents of Kambulanpadi (a quarter) of this village, received 73 kalanju and a half of gold; the residents of (the quarter) of this village, received 73 kalanju  and a half of gold ; the residents of (the quarter) Atimanappadi received 35 kalanju of gold and the residents of (the quarter) Erruvalichcheri received 18 kalanju of gold.  (Thus) for the total gold of 200 kalanju, the interest which accrues for the period of one year at the rate of one pilavu[15] on each kalanju (for a month), was thirty kalanju of gold. These thirty kalanju of gold were used in providing for the expenses (nibanda) of the Sittirai-tiruvila (festival) of this god in the following manner:- 7 kalanju of gold for oil (required) for the seven days of the festival, 2 kalanju of gold for sweet-smelling flowers and scented sandal-paste on (these) seven days ; 5 kalanju of gold for food and presents to the devotees who form the kotti (goshthi)[16] during (these) seven days by purchasing paddy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .[17] and feeding (them) ; (one) kalanju of gold for the palanquin-bearers who carry the palanquin of the bed-chamber of the god and for the musicians invited for the seven days of the festival ; and 5 kalanjj of gold for miscellaneous expenses.  Thus the gold being equal (to the expenses specified), the lamp-bearers and flag-hoisters for the festival (shall be) the residents of Kambulanpadi, Atimanappadi, Erruvalichcheri and Kanjagappadi.

(L. 89.) Whereas Tolachcheviyar alias Elakkaiyar, the former residents of Solaniyamam, a cheri (quarter) of god, have decreased in numbers and these Elakkaiyar are unable to pay taxes as per old custom, the inhabitants who come from outside this cheri  and settle (in it) (shall) give (one) nali and (one) ulakku of oil and two nali of rice per house per month as tax (payable) only to this god, and shall not pay any other taxes fixed by the two magnates.  Those who show (in the books) against them any taxes other than the said (taxes) shall incur the sin committed by the people who commit (sin) between Ganga (the Ganges) and Kumari (Cape Comorin).

(L. 96.) Thus this god shall receive these taxes from these inhabitants in the manner described above, according to the very settlement (vyavasthai) made by the merchants of this Kachchippedu in the eighteenth year of (the reign of) the glorious Parakesarivarman who took Madirai (Madura) and Ilam (Ceylon). The accounts of this god shall be maintained by (one of) the inhabitants of this cheri and he shall be paid from the treasury of this god (one) kuruni of paddy per day and two kalanju of gold per year.

(L. 100.) The Sankarappadiyar[18] of the three quarters, viz., Ranajayappadi, Ekavirappadi and Vamana-Sankarappadi of this village having received twenty kalanju of gold shall burn one perpetual lamp which these inhabitants of the above-mentioned quarters have agreed (to do) and an evening lamp from the oil supplied by the inhabitants of Solaniyamam.

(L. 103.) For bathing the gods in the two sacred temples (sirkoyil)  (on occasion of) Uttaramayana  (Uttarayana)-Samkranti  and Sittirai-Vishu, for the lamp-bearers and the man who hoists the flag during (these) festivals and for the chiefs of the assembly (parushai) who enter the sacred court (of the temple, to supervise), one tuni of rice (has been provided) ; for one who organizes the goshthi[19]  (one)  tuni and (one) padakku of rice ; and half a kalanju of gold as honorarium (for the same).  Other items (of expense) in the sacred temple which are omitted (to be mentioned) shall be met from miscellaneous expenditure, without taking note of the provision (nibanda) (made above).

(L. 108.) The (Srivaishnava) devotees of the 18 nadu shall alone supervise and set right all obstructions to the management of the (temple) business of these gods.  The Chief Merchant (nagaram-alvan) of this guild (nagara), (the members of the) Annual Supervision Committee (attai-variyar), the residents of Erruvalichcheri and Kanjagappadi, shall, every year, look into the accounts of the expenses (incurred) on (visam[20]) these gods, soon after the festivals are celebrated.  The residents of the above-mentioned two cheris alone shall provide for the watch of the sacred images as per the settlement (nibandam) deposited in the treasury of the gods.

(L. 113.) The mercantile guild shall itself choose the superintendent of the sacred business (in the temple) of these gods, the watchman of the sacred images and the accountant and shall not receive (any) taxes (from them).  If persons fully knowing the (duties of) worship in sacred temples are not obtainable for (this) sacred temple, a Brahmana versed in the Vedas shall alone be appointed to perform the worship.

(L. 117.) Thus at the command of the officers I, Narpattennayira Mangaladittan, an arbitrator (madhyastha) of Virappadi of this city, executed (i.e., wrote) this document (aria-olai) by order.  (This is) my writing.  We (the members) of the great guild of merchants sold with excess and deficiency (in measurement), the land (lying) east to west[21] In the (field) Lokamarayapperunjeru (which we had) purchased from the citizens of this Kachchippedu.  Arantangi Pormugaviran . . . . . . . . who engraved the letters of this charter (sasanam).

[1]  For a facsimile of the seal see Epigraphia Indica  Vol.  III, plate facing page 104, No. 3.

[2]  The late Mr. T.A. Gopinatha Rao has discovered a set of still earlier copper-plates of the time of Sundara-Chola Parantaka II., the father of Rajaraja I., which is being published in the Epigraphia Indica.

[3]  See Mr. Venkayya’s remarks on the history of Tamil Philology of the Tanjore inscriptions in South Indian Inscriptions,  Vol. II, Introduction, page 15.

[4]  This word must be different from visam  which in a record of Virarajendradeva is used in the sense of a servant.

[5] Parantaka I.  was the first of the Chola kings of Tanjore who crushed the power of the Pandya and captured their capital Madura.  The title ‘who conquered Madura and Ceylon’ was not assumed by him till a very late period in his reign (see Madras Epigrahical Report for 1907, paragraphs 32 to 34).  The mention of this latter title early in the 18th year of his reign becomes explicable when it is understood that it is only a quotation.

[6]  List of Inscriptions of Southern India, page 113, Nos. 672 to 675.  There is nothing in these records to show definitely that the king Parakesarivarman referred to is Vijayalaya.  The statement in our grant that a stone inscription (sila-lekha) of his 22nd year did provide for permanent income to a temple at Kachchippedu is proof enough to show that though he  was the first of the new line, Vijayalaya had a peaceful, long and prosperous rule like any of his powerful successors.  In is not possible, however, to say that as early as his time the Chola rule extended so far south as Suchindram in the Pandya country.

[7]  Castes and Tribes, Vol. VI, page 279.

[8]  South-India Inscriptions, Vol. II, p. 202, footnote 2.

[9]  The names Atimanappadi, Ranajayappadi and Ekavirappadi were evidently named after the titles Atimana, Ranajaya and Ekavira which were commonly held by Pallava kings.  Ekavirappadi as the name of a cheri of Kachchippedu occurs already in an inscription of Parantaka I. in the temple of Rajasimhesvara (South-Indian Inscriptions, Vol. I, No. 145.)

[10] In was the chief capital of the early Chola kings long before the time of Vijayalaya.  During the reign of Vijayalaya and his successors, however, it must have been recognized second only to Tanjore.

[11]  Dr. Winslow states that nimbi is the son of a Brahman father and a Kshatriya mother and a worshipper of Vishnu.

[12]  Sometimes koyil is also taken for a temple; it is doubtful if the king’s palace always adjoined a temple or was otherwise connected with it.

[13]  This is the name of one of the old temples at Kanchi mentioned in the Nalayiraprabandham and refers to the present Ulagalanda-Perumal temple (Madras Epigraphical Report  for 1893, page 6.)

[14]  The words ‘ for the period of one year’ are omitted here by mistake.

[15]  The word generallymeans a split or fraction.  Dr. Winsow gives it as being equal to one half of a kundumani  (weight) of gold.

[16]  The words Devaradiyar and kotti may also be taken in the sense of dancing girls and some particular form of their dance; but this is not likely, for then the word poosanai ‘worship’ would not have been used in connexion with the temple dancing girls.

[17]  Andradagathal of the original is not intelligible.

[18]  The term Sankarappadi appears to be a general  name applied to the quarter in which the saivas of the town lived.

[19]  A term applied to the congregation of devotees who sing the glory of the god, either Siva or Vishnu.

[20]  The word visam is not found in Dr. Winslow’s Tamil Dictionary.  It may stand for Veesam in which case Veesam alinthathu would mean the smallest amount spent.

[21]   Kilakkilmer may perhaps be a mistake for kizhakkil medu i.e., the high ground on the eastern side.

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