129 to 133 Nagesvarasvamin, Umambesvara, Adimulesvara temples
123 to 125 Madhuvanesvara, Mahalingasvamin, Varaha-Perumal temples
126 to 127 Chandrasekhara & Ghritasthanesvara temples
128 Madras Museum plates of Uttama-Chola
134 to 137 Virattanesvara, Ujjivanathasvamin, Nagesvarasvamin
138 to 141 Mahalingasvamin, Vatatirthanatha, Nedungalanatha temples
142 Manikanthesvara temples at Tirumullaivayil
143 to 147 Adhipurisvara, Apatsahayesvara, Umamahesvara temples
148 to 150 Sivayoganathasvamin, Siddhanathasvamin temples
151 Umamahesvarasvamin temple at Konerirajapuram
151-A On the east and north walls of the same shrine
129.- ON THE WEST AND SOUTH WALLS OF THE NAGESVARASVAMIN TEMPLE AT
inscription is dated in the 4th year of Parakesarivarman
and registers the gift of a lamp to the temple of Tirukkil-kottam at
Tirukkudamukkil (i.e., the Nagesvara temple at Kumbhakonam).
The astronomical details given in the record were verified by
Diwan Bahadur L. D. Swamikkannu Pillai and found to be correct for
Madhurantaka Uttama-Chola, the uncle of Rajaraja I.
The date corresponds to Thursday, the 22nd April
the 4th year of (the reign of) king Parakesarivarman, on
the day of Makha which corresponded to a Thursday and to the ninth tithi
of the month of Mesha, we the great men of the chief assembly (mulaparudai)
of Tirukkudamukkil . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . which was
a devadana in Pambur-nadu on the northern bank (of the
Kaveri), sold the following land . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . on
account of one sacred perpetual lamp which was placed for the great
god (paramasvamin) at Tirukkil-kottam on behalf of Kari
kolamban, one of the [Kai]kkolas. . . . . . . . . .
130.- ON THE NORTH WALL OF THE CENTRAL SHRINE IN THE UMAMAHESVARA
TEMPLE AT KONERIRAJAPURAM
inscription is dated in the 6th year of Parakesarivarman
It registers the grant of a land for a lamp to the temple of
Adityesvaram-Udaiya Mahadeva at Tirunallam.
1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 6th year of (the reign
of) Uttama-Chola alias king Parakesarivarman, the headman
of Elinur . . . . . . . .. . . . . for burning one perpetual lamp,
as long as the moon and the sun (endure), to (the temple
of) Adityesvaramudaiya-Mahadeva at Tirunallam.
(The boundaries of) the land which I, on behalf of
in presence of the ‘Karanikas’, (set boundaries of) the
land which I, on behalf of lands of the god (are as follow) :
- (the eastern boundary is) to the west of the land (called)
Kulavampandal (belonging to) Palasiriyan of Midur ; the
southern boundary is to the north of (the channel called)
Rishabhavahana – vaykkal ; the western boundary is to the east of
the land (belonging to) Palasiriyan Sattan Kari and (his)
younger brother and to the channel of the village ; the northern
boundary is to the south of the land (belonging to) these
3.) (The total extent of) the land thus (described) (viz.) (one)
quarter, one-fortieth, one three-hundred and twentieth and 1/320 of
three-fourths, one hundred and sixtieth and one hundred and sixtieth.
This land was excluded (being set apart) for burning
one perpetual lamp as long as the moon and the sun (endure).
(The assembly of) all Mahesvaras shall protect
This lamp was given by this person.
131.- ON THENORTH WALL OF THE CENTRAL SHRINE IN THE NAGESVARASVAMIN
TEMPLE AT KUMBAKONAM
is another record of Parakesarivarman which supplies the
astronomical details of week-day, month and nakshatra and
enables us to fix the exact date of the record.
Diwan Bahadur Swamikkannu Pillai has calculated and found the
details to be correctfor the eighth year of Parakesarivarman
Uttama-Chola who ascended the throne in A.D. 969-70.
The date corresponds to Thursday, the 30th January A.D. 979.
must have been the name of a regiment called after king Gandaraditya,
the father of Uttama-Chola.
! Prosperity ! In the 8th year of (the reign of) king
Parakesarivarman – in this year – on the day of Avitta (Sravishtha)
which corresponded to a Thursday in the month of Kumbha of this year
. . . . . . . . . . . tan Pichchan alias . . .. . . . . . .araiyan
. . . . . . . . . . . . Udaiyar [Gandaradittateri]nja-Kaikkola . . .
. . . . . . . . .. . gave 96 . . . . . . . . . . .for one perpetual
sacred lamp to (the temple of) the god (paramasvamin) of
Tirukkilkottam at Tirukkudamukkil which was a devadana of
Pambur-nadu on the northern bank (of the Kaveri).
Having received these, the [shepherd] Madevan Kari . . . . .
. . . .. . devanpuram, shall measure out . . . . . . . . . ghee . .
. . . . . . . lamp also.
This is placed under the protection of (the assembly of) all Mahesvaras.
132.- ON THE NORTH BASE OF THE SECOND PILLAR IN THE ROCK-CUT CAVE IN
THE PUNDARIKAKSHA-PERUMAL TEMPLE AT TIRUVELLARAI
unfinished inscription is dated in the 8th year of
Parakesarivarman and registers a gift of 0 kalanju of gold
for offerings to the god Krishna and his consort Rukmini.
The donor was Irayirandevi-Ammanar, the wife of ‘the lord
who died on the back of an elephant’.
is the earliest reference in South-Indian Inscriptions to the
worship of Krishna and Rukmini.
By the clause ‘the lord who died on the back of an
elephant’ we have probably to understand Prince Rajaditya who, in
the large Leyden grant, is stated to have met with his death on the
back of an elephant in an encounter with Krishnaraja (i.e.,
The Rashtrakuta king Krishna III.)
King Parakesarivarman must, therefore, be identified with
either Mddhurantaka Uttama-Chola or with Aditya-Karikala II.
! Prosperity ! In the 8th year of (the reign of)
king Parakesarivarman, (the following) was engraved (i.e., recorded)
as the gift (made) by Irayirandevi-Ammanar, the consort of
‘the lord who died on the back of an elephant’ (Udaiyar
Anaimerrunjinar) to the glorious (god) Krishna and the
glorious goddess Rukmini in the sacred big temple (periya-srikoyil)
[Twenty] kalanju of gold (weighed) by the stone
(called after) Tiruvellarai, were deposited for offering food
prepared from four nali of rice to the glorious (gold)
Krishna on each one of the (following) days (viz.,)
the two vavu (?), Ashtami (eighth tithi) and Sankranti.
And for one lamp, deposited . . . . . . . .. . . . . . gold
(weighed) by the stone (called after) Tiruvellarai.
133.- ON THE WEST WALL OF THE CENTRAL SHRINE IN THE ADIMULESVARA
TEMPLE AT TIRUPPALATTURAI
inscription is dated in the 8th year of Parakesarivarman
and refers to the re-engraving of certain documents of land-gifts
made in the 18th and 20th years of the reign
of Parantaka I.
The original documents, which had been engraved on the steps
(padikattu) of the old central shrine of the temple of
Tiruppatturai had become weather-worn and it is stated that the
assembly of Uttamasili-chaturvedimangalam ordered their restoration.
the boundaries of the lands granted are mentioned Virasri-Kamugavadi,
Adichcha-vaykkal, Kodandaramavadi and Uttamasili-vaykkal already
referred to in the other inscriptions from Tiruppalatturai.
ruling king Parakesarivarman must be identified with one of the
three kings, viz., Arinjaya, Aditya-Karikala II or
Uttama-Chola Madhurantaka who bore that epithet, and ruled between
Madiraikonda Parantaka I and Rajaraja I.
I am inclined to think that the reference is probably to the
1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 8th year of (the reign
of) king Parakesarivarman, we, (the members) of the big assembly
of the prosperous Uttamasili-chaturvedimangalam (which was) a
brahmadeya on the southern bank (of the Kaveri), made
in this year the following (copies of inscriptions)
according to the weathered writings
engraved on the steps of the old central shrine (sri-vimana)
of (the god) Mahadeva-Bhattaraka of this (village)
5.) In the 18th year of (the reign of) king
Madiraikonda Parakesarivarman, the land which is not included in the
utkurai of this village, (which lay) to the west of (the
path called) Virasri-Kamugavadi, to the north of (the channel
called) Adichcha-vaykkal and . . . . . . .. . . fourth and fifth
kannaru from the eastern side of . . . . . . . . . .. was
made tax-free and granted as a devadana . . . . . . . .
10.) The western half of the second kannaru from the east and
the ground included in the third, fourth and the fifth kannaru
(lying) to the west of this same path (vadi),
to the north of the channel (called) Palaivay, to the east of
the field (servai ?) facing (the path called)
Kodandarama-vadi on (its) northern side and to the south of
the channel from the river.
12.) One ma of land made –tax-free and granted for burning
two perpetual lamps day and night as long as the moon and the sun (endure),
by Kumaran Solapperaiyan the headman of Mularikudi, after having
purchased (it) from Akkisarma-Kramavittan of Mudapuram.
(This was) to the west of the western road passing
from (this) village facing northwards, (and) to the
north of (the channel called) Uttamasili-vaykkal and formed
the northern side of the first sadiram from the south.
17.) In the 20th year (of the reign), Kamuduvan
Nilanarayanan of Tirumilalai purchased the following land, made (it)
tax-free and granted (it) for the sacred midday offerings : -
One ma (of land) to the west of the four ma
on the northern side of the second sadiram which lay .
. . . . . . . . . . . . path running westwards from the village and
to the south of (the channel called) Uttamasili-vaykkal in .
. . . . .. . . . . .
21.) Also two ma and odd (chinnam) of land, was sold,
made tax-free and given (for worship) as archana-bhoga.
(The land was) to the west of this same path and to
the south of this same channel, forming the southern portion of the
in the second kannaru.
24.) Also one and a half ma
and odd of land, sold, made tax-free and given (for
festivals) as tiruvilappuram – (it being the balance
left) after deducting one kani and odd of (land
occupied by) a tank on the north-western side, from the two ma
(of land) adjoining the one ma which is (also)
excluded and lies on the northern side of the first sadiram
to the south of (the channel called) Uttamasili-vaykkal, in
the first kannaru to the west of the western road which
passes northwards from (this) village.
28.) To the east of (the pathway) Matiruvadi . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .