The Indian Analyst
 

Annual Reports

 

 

Contents

Index

Introduction

Contents

PART I.

Tours of the Superintendent 1937-1938

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Appendix D

Appendix E

Appendix F

Images

PART II.

Cavern with Brahni inscription at Malakonda

The Cholas of Renandu

The Kalinga Kings

The Eastern Chalukya

The Western Chalukyas

The Western Gangas

The Rashtrakutas

The Vaidumbas

The Pallavas

The Later Pallavas

The Cholas

The Pandyas

The Hoysalas

The Gandagopalas

The Yadavas

The Kakatiyas

The Reddi Chiefs

The Vijayanagar Kings

The Madura Nayakas

Miscellaneous

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

PART II.

Dharmachakra as object of worship.
   were located, and which perhaps gave their name to the two congregations designated as such (Ep. Ind. Vol. XX, pp. 10-11). The Dharmachakradhvaja referred to here, was probably a free-standing column surmounted by the Dharmachakra of the type represented in the Amarāvati sculptures. It was probably set up at the eastern entrance of the Mahāvihāra ; but it is not stated whether it served as an ornamental adjunct to the entrance or was set up as an object of worship. That the Dharmachakra was as object of adoration is evident from the Buddhist sculptures, where it is represented is mounted on top of an upright column, placed on a throne and canopied by an umbrella and with gods and human beings worshipping it (Buddhist Stupas of Amaravati and Jaggayapeta, Plate XXXVIII, fig, 1). It symbolised Lord Buddha’s teaching in the Deer Park and thus became later a venerated object of worship for the Buddhist devotees.

Ancient name of Trichinopoly.
   3. At Trichinopoly which was visited during the year, some interesting dis- coveries were made. Its ancient name as found in the hymns of Jñānasambandha in the Dēvāram is Chirāppaḷḷi and the same -occurs also in the long verse inscription of about the 11th century A. D. engraved in the Pallava cave on the hill. This name was in vogue for several centuries in inscriptions as well as in literature, until the time of the Vijayanagara rulers, in a few of whose records, however, the incorrect from ‘Tiruchchināppaḷḷi’ was sometimes used, and this has given rise to the modern anglicised name ‘Trichinopoly’. Though the word paḷḷi has several meanings, it appears to have, in this case, special reference to its associated with the Jaina or Buddhist religion, ancient vestiges of which have now been discovered here.

Cavern with beds and epigrapha at Trichinopoly.
   Behind the huge boulder which contains the shrine of god Uchchi-Piḷḷaiyār on the top of the fort-rock at his place, an overhanging rock forms a recessed cavern which contains early Bauddha or Jaina vestige. On the platform under this rock there are planed put several stone beds provided, in some cases, with pillows shapes cut of the stone. The beds which are about 4’ long and 1½’ wide may be considered to be rather cramped for comfortable sleeping. A few of the stone pillows show traces of obliterated writing of about the 5th century A. D., recording possibly the names of the occupants of the beds. One of these bears the name ‘Chirā’, the bearer of which was perhaps a monks of repute and possibly the settlement was called Tiruchirāppaḷḷi after him. On the way leading to this caver, on the northern slope of the hill, is engraved in Brāhmī characters of the 2nd century B. C., one line of damaged writing which may perhaps be read as ‘Kupagaghari’ (No. 139).

  In three or four places on the ledge of the rock leading to the cavern is deeply cut a label which reads ‘Kaṁṭṭuhu’* in characters of about the 7th century A. D. (No. 134). In three cases, a different label in early script is also engraved faintly below this word, giving the names ‘Amitanam[ta]’, ‘Gatadōsa’ and ‘Kaiyviḷakku’ (Nos. 137, 138 and 140─See Plate I_. In two places are found the words Taṁchahara[ka] (No. 135) and ‘Śēnataṇḍan’ (No. 136). The script in which the label ‘Kaṁṭṭuhu’ is engraved resembles that of a few labels on one of the pillar in the Pallava rock-cut Śiva temple just below this cavern. The form of the label, which may be interpreted as a Sanskritised Telugu word meaning ‘enemy’, also been his biruda. Śaiva tradition as embodied in the Periyapurāṇam avers that a Pallava king named Guṇabhara who was originally a Jaina was converted to Śaivisim by the efforts of Saint Appar, and that thereupon this ardent royal convert built many Siva temples throughout his dominions for the propagation of his new faith. This king has been identified with Mahēndravarman I who bore the title ‘Guṇabhara’. As the word ‘Kaṁṭṭuhu’ is engraved at four different places along the precipitous approach, it is possible that this cavern was patronised by Mahēndravarman prior to his conversion to the Śaiva faith. On his conversion to Śaivism the king may have excavated the rock-cut temple of Śiva called the Lalitāṅkura-Pallavēśvara-gṛiham, wherein in a Sanskrit

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* Evidently meant for Kaṁṭṭuḥ.

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