The Indian Analyst

Annual Reports








Tours of the Superintendent 1937-1938

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Appendix D

Appendix E

Appendix F



Cavern with Brahni inscription at Malakonda

The Cholas of Renandu

The Kalinga Kings

The Eastern Chalukya

The Western Chalukyas

The Western Gangas

The Rashtrakutas

The Vaidumbas

The Pallavas

The Later Pallavas

The Cholas

The Pandyas

The Hoysalas

The Gandagopalas

The Yadavas

The Kakatiyas

The Reddi Chiefs

The Vijayanagar Kings

The Madura Nayakas


Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27





Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India


FOR THE YEAR 1937-38.


  During the tear 1937-38, I was in tour for a total period of 3 months and 10 days between 19th May 1937 and 28th March 1938 and visited 36 village in all in the Madras Presidency and the Bombay Karnatak, where I inspected important monuments of epigraphical and Archæological interest. In the Nellore district I discovered in September 1937 a natural cavern on the high hillock of Mālakoṇḍa or Mālyādri in the Kandukur taluk. A close inspection of the area brought to light a Brāhmī-Prākṛit inscription in characters of the Asokan period engraved on the façade of the cavern above the drip-line, as in the case of the caverns in the Madura and Tinnevelly districts. It records the gift (not specified) made by a certain Vīriseṭṭi of the Atuvā[ḷa]-kula. The gift evidently consisted of the cavern made habitable for the religious occupants for whom it must have been intended. The present find so far north indicates the wide prevalence of this system of cavern-gifts and early cave-writing in South India.


  2. On the top of the Fort-Rock at Trichinopoly which was inspected by me in Februarys 1938, was also discovered a cavern with early inscriptions one of which is attributable to the second century B. C. This cavern which lies on a ledge of rock above the upper rock-cut cave of the Pallava king Mahēndra- varman (c. 625 A. D.) faces west and commands a picturesque view of the river Kāvērī for a few miles along its course. It had escaped notice till now as the approach to it is along a narrow edge of rock skirting the northern flank of the hill and a potion of the approach has to be negotiated by crawling on all fours underneath a projecting boulder, a false step meaning a fatal drop down the precipitous side. On the platform outside this cavern measuring about 30 feet by 25 feet, there are scooped out in the live rock a few beds smoothened and provided with pillows which must have been used by Buddhist or Jain monks of ancient times. Near one of these pillows was found an archaic inscription of about the 5th century A. D. The existence of the cavern seems to explain the origin of the suffix paḷḷi in the name of the town Tiruchchirā- paḷḷi (Trichinopoly) on account of its connection with an early Buddhist or Jain colony and to throw back the antiquity of the place by some centuries prior to Pallava times.

   3. Among the other places inspected by me in the Madras Presidency may be men tioned (1) Vaḷḷiyūr in the Tinnevelly district with its fine cavern-shrine of Subrahmaṇya on the hill, (2) Tiruveḷḷarai, Pugaḷūr, Śukkāliyūr and Tāntōnri- malai in the Trichinopoly district noted respectively for the old well in the form of a Svastikā constructed in the time of the Pallava Dantivarman, an ancient rock—cavern with Brāhinī inscriptions one of which mentions Karu-ūr (No. 343 of 1938), rock-cut beds, and a rock-cut cave temple of Veṅkaṭara- maṇasvāmin of the later Koṅgu period, (3) Nāmakkal in the Salem district with its rock-cut temples of Lakshmīnarasiṁha and Raṅganātha and early in scriptions in Pallava-Grantha script engraved on the rocky side of the hill near the two temples. Photographs of the large sculptured panels in the rock- cut temples of the locality were taken on this occasion (Nos. 1661-165 of Appendix D). Though the importance of these sculptures was recognised long ago, local priestly sentiment had made it impossible to take photographs of

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