The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Volume - III

Contents

Preface

Introduction

Part - I

Inscription at Ukkal

Melpadi

Karuvur

Manimangalam

Tiruvallam

Part - II

Kulottunga-Chola I

Vikrama Chola

Virarajendra I

Kulottunga-Chola III

Part - III

Aditya I

Parantaka I

Gandaraditya

Parantaka II

Uttama-Chola

Parthivendravarman

Aditya II Karikala

Part - IV

copper-plate Tirukkalar

Tiruchchengodu

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

XIV.- Inscriptions of Parakesarivarman Uttama-Chola

No. 129 to 133 Nagesvarasvamin, Umambesvara, Adimulesvara temples

No. 123 to 125 Madhuvanesvara, Mahalingasvamin, Varaha-Perumal temples

No. 126 to 127 Chandrasekhara & Ghritasthanesvara temples

No. 128 Madras Museum plates of Uttama-Chola

No. 134 to 137 Virattanesvara, Ujjivanathasvamin, Nagesvarasvamin temples

No. 138 to 141 Mahalingasvamin, Vatatirthanatha, Nedungalanatha temples

No. 142 Manikanthesvara temples at Tirumullaivayil

No. 143 to 147 Adhipurisvara, Apatsahayesvara, Umamahesvara temples

No. 148 to 150 Sivayoganathasvamin, Siddhanathasvamin temples

No. 151 Umamahesvarasvamin temple at Konerirajapuram

No. 151-A  On the east and north walls of the same shrine

No. 129.- ON THE WEST AND SOUTH WALLS OF THE NAGESVARASVAMIN TEMPLE AT KUMBAKONAM[1]

This inscription is dated in the 4th year of Parakesarivarman and registers the gift of a lamp to the temple of Tirukkil-kottam at Tirukkudamukkil (i.e., the Nagesvara temple at Kumbhakonam).  The astronomical details given in the record were verified by Diwan Bahadur L. D. Swamikkannu Pillai and found to be correct for Madhurantaka Uttama-Chola, the uncle of Rajaraja I.  The date corresponds to Thursday, the 22nd April A.D. 975[2].

In the 4th year of (the reign of) king Parakesarivarman, on the day of Makha which corresponded to a Thursday and to the ninth tithi of the month of Mesha, we the great men of the chief assembly (mulaparudai) of Tirukkudamukkil . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . which was a devadana in Pambur-nadu on the northern bank (of the Kaveri), sold the following land . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . on account of one sacred perpetual lamp which was placed for the great god (paramasvamin) at Tirukkil-kottam on behalf of Kari kolamban, one of the [Kai]kkolas. . . . . . . . . .

No. 130.- ON THE NORTH WALL OF THE CENTRAL SHRINE IN THE UMAMAHESVARA TEMPLE AT KONERIRAJAPURAM[3]

This inscription is dated in the 6th year of Parakesarivarman Uttama-Chola.  It registers the grant of a land for a lamp to the temple of Adityesvaram-Udaiya Mahadeva at Tirunallam.

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 6th year of (the reign of) Uttama-Chola alias king Parakesarivarman, the headman of Elinur . . . . . . . .. . . . . for burning one perpetual lamp, as long as the moon and the sun (endure), to (the temple of) Adityesvaramudaiya-Mahadeva at Tirunallam.  (The boundaries of) the land which I, on behalf of Devan[4] in presence of the ‘Karanikas’, (set boundaries of) the land which I, on behalf of lands of the god (are as follow) : - (the eastern boundary is) to the west of the land (called) Kulavampandal (belonging to) Palasiriyan of Midur ; the southern boundary is to the north of (the channel called) Rishabhavahana – vaykkal ; the western boundary is to the east of the land (belonging to) Palasiriyan Sattan Kari and (his) younger brother and to the channel of the village ; the northern boundary is to the south of the land (belonging to) these same (persons).

(L. 3.) (The total extent of) the land thus (described) (viz.) (one) quarter, one-fortieth, one three-hundred and twentieth and 1/320 of three-fourths, one hundred and sixtieth and one hundred and sixtieth[5].  This land was excluded (being set apart) for burning one perpetual lamp as long as the moon and the sun (endure).  (The assembly of) all Mahesvaras shall protect this (charity).  This lamp was given by this person.

No. 131.- ON THENORTH WALL OF THE CENTRAL SHRINE IN THE NAGESVARASVAMIN TEMPLE AT KUMBAKONAM[6]

This is another record of Parakesarivarman which supplies the astronomical details of week-day, month and nakshatra and enables us to fix the exact date of the record.  Diwan Bahadur Swamikkannu Pillai has calculated and found the details to be correctfor the eighth year of Parakesarivarman Uttama-Chola who ascended the throne in A.D. 969-70.  The date corresponds to Thursday, the 30th January A.D. 979.[7]  Udaiyar-Gandaradittatterinja-Kaikkolar[8] must have been the name of a regiment called after king Gandaraditya, the father of Uttama-Chola.

Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 8th year of (the reign of) king Parakesarivarman – in this year – on the day of Avitta (Sravishtha) which corresponded to a Thursday in the month of Kumbha of this year . . . . . . . . . . . tan Pichchan alias . . .. . . . . . .araiyan . . . . . . . . . . . . Udaiyar [Gandaradittateri]nja-Kaikkola . . . . . . . . . . . .. . gave 96 . . . . . . . . . . .for one perpetual sacred lamp to (the temple of) the god (paramasvamin) of Tirukkilkottam at Tirukkudamukkil which was a devadana of Pambur-nadu on the northern bank (of the Kaveri).  Having received these, the [shepherd] Madevan Kari . . . . . . . . .. . devanpuram, shall measure out . . . . . . . . . ghee . . . . . . . . . lamp also.  This is placed under the protection of (the assembly of) all Mahesvaras.

No. 132.- ON THE NORTH BASE OF THE SECOND PILLAR IN THE ROCK-CUT CAVE IN THE PUNDARIKAKSHA-PERUMAL TEMPLE AT TIRUVELLARAI[9]

This unfinished inscription is dated in the 8th year of Parakesarivarman and registers a gift of [2]0 kalanju of gold for offerings to the god Krishna and his consort Rukmini.  The donor was Irayirandevi-Ammanar, the wife of ‘the lord who died on the back of an elephant’.

This is the earliest reference in South-Indian Inscriptions to the worship of Krishna and Rukmini.  By the clause ‘the lord who died on the back of an elephant’ we have probably to understand Prince Rajaditya who, in the large Leyden grant, is stated to have met with his death on the back of an elephant in an encounter with Krishnaraja (i.e.,  The Rashtrakuta king Krishna III.)[10]  King Parakesarivarman must, therefore, be identified with either Mddhurantaka Uttama-Chola or with Aditya-Karikala II.

Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 8th year of (the reign of) king Parakesarivarman, (the following) was engraved (i.e., recorded) as the gift (made) by Irayirandevi-Ammanar, the consort of ‘the lord who died on the back of an elephant’ (Udaiyar Anaimerrunjinar) to the glorious (god) Krishna and the glorious goddess Rukmini in the sacred big temple (periya-srikoyil) at Tiruvellarai.  [Twenty] kalanju of gold (weighed) by the stone (called after) Tiruvellarai, were deposited for offering food prepared from four nali of rice to the glorious (gold) Krishna on each one of the (following) days (viz.,) the two vavu (?), Ashtami (eighth tithi) and Sankranti.  And for one lamp, deposited . . . . . . . .. . . . . . gold (weighed) by the stone (called after) Tiruvellarai.

No. 133.- ON THE WEST WALL OF THE CENTRAL SHRINE IN THE ADIMULESVARA TEMPLE AT TIRUPPALATTURAI[11]

The inscription is dated in the 8th year of Parakesarivarman and refers to the re-engraving of certain documents of land-gifts made in the 18th and 20th years of the reign of Parantaka I.  The original documents, which had been engraved on the steps (padikattu) of the old central shrine of the temple of Tiruppatturai had become weather-worn and it is stated that the assembly of Uttamasili-chaturvedimangalam ordered their restoration.

Among the boundaries of the lands granted are mentioned Virasri-Kamugavadi, Adichcha-vaykkal, Kodandaramavadi and Uttamasili-vaykkal already referred to in the other inscriptions from Tiruppalatturai.

The ruling king Parakesarivarman must be identified with one of the three kings, viz., Arinjaya, Aditya-Karikala II or Uttama-Chola Madhurantaka who bore that epithet, and ruled between Madiraikonda Parantaka I and Rajaraja I.  I am inclined to think that the reference is probably to the last.

Translation

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 8th year of (the reign of) king Parakesarivarman, we, (the members) of the big assembly of the prosperous Uttamasili-chaturvedimangalam (which was) a brahmadeya on the southern bank (of the Kaveri), made in this year the following (copies of inscriptions) according to the weathered writings[12] engraved on the steps of the old central shrine (sri-vimana) of (the god) Mahadeva-Bhattaraka of this (village) Tiruppatturai.

(L. 5.) In the 18th year of (the reign of) king Madiraikonda Parakesarivarman, the land which is not included in the utkurai of this village, (which lay) to the west of (the path called) Virasri-Kamugavadi, to the north of (the channel called) Adichcha-vaykkal and . . . . . . .. . . fourth and fifth kannaru from the eastern side of . . . . . . . . . .. was made tax-free and granted as a devadana . . . . . . . .

(L. 10.) The western half of the second kannaru from the east and the ground included in the third, fourth and the fifth kannaru  (lying) to the west of this same path (vadi), to the north of the channel (called) Palaivay, to the east of the field (servai ?) facing (the path called) Kodandarama-vadi on (its) northern side and to the south of the channel from the river.

(L. 12.) One ma of land made –tax-free and granted for burning two perpetual lamps day and night as long as the moon and the sun (endure), by Kumaran Solapperaiyan the headman of Mularikudi, after having purchased (it) from Akkisarma-Kramavittan of Mudapuram.  (This was) to the west of the western road passing from (this) village facing northwards, (and) to the north of (the channel called) Uttamasili-vaykkal and formed the northern side of the first sadiram from the south.

(L. 17.) In the 20th year (of the reign), Kamuduvan Nilanarayanan of Tirumilalai purchased the following land, made (it) tax-free and granted (it) for the sacred midday offerings : - One ma (of land) to the west of the four ma  on the northern side of the second sadiram which lay . . . . . . . . . . . . . path running westwards from the village and to the south of (the channel called) Uttamasili-vaykkal in . . . . . .. . . . . .  kannaru.

(L. 21.) Also two ma and odd (chinnam) of land, was sold, made tax-free and given (for worship) as archana-bhoga.  (The land was) to the west of this same path and to the south of this same channel, forming the southern portion of the first sadiram  in the second kannaru.

(L. 24.) Also one and a half ma  and odd of land, sold, made tax-free and given (for festivals) as tiruvilappuram – (it being the balance left) after deducting one kani and odd of (land occupied by) a tank on the north-western side, from the two ma (of land) adjoining the one ma which is (also) excluded and lies on the northern side of the first sadiram to the south of (the channel called) Uttamasili-vaykkal, in the first kannaru to the west of the western road which passes northwards from (this) village.

(L. 28.) To the east of (the pathway) Matiruvadi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .  Palai[13]-


[1]  No. 245 of 1911.

[2]  Vide Madras Epigraphical Report for 1912, page 65, paragraph 20.

[3]  The length of ra is indicated by a separate symbol.

[4]  The words Kaanikaridaiyan devaneikondu are not quite intelligible.  The translation offered is purely tentative.

[5]  The repetition of uraikanni in the text seems to be a mistake.

[6]  No. 229 of 1911.

[7]  Madras Epigraphical Report  for 1912, page 66, paragraph 20.

[8]  Compare similar names of regiments above, Vol. II, Introduction, page 9.

[9]  No. 534 of 1905.

[10] See Madras Epigraphical Report for 1912, page 62, paragraph 14.

[11]  No. 174 of 1907.

[12]  Ezhuthupadi has perhaps to be taken in the sense of ‘the scheme of writing.’

[13]  Perhaps paalai vaai neerodukol was meant as in line 10.

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