The Indian Analyst

South Indian Inscriptions



Volume - III




Part - I

Inscription at Ukkal





Part - II

Kulottunga-Chola I

Vikrama Chola

Virarajendra I

Kulottunga-Chola III

Part - III

Aditya I

Parantaka I


Parantaka II



Aditya II Karikala

Part - IV

copper-plate Tirukkalar


Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27





Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India


VI.- Inscriptions of Kulottunga-Chola I

No. 64 to 65 Inscriptions at Tiruvorriyur & Tiruvalangadu

No. 66 to 68 Inscriptions at Kolar, Somangalam & Conjeeveram

No. 69 to 70 Inscriptions at Tirukkalukkunram & Srirangam

No. 71 to 72 Inscriptions at Kilappaluvur & Tiruvidaimarudur

No. 73 to 74 Inscriptions at Cholapuram & Conjeeveram

No. 75 to 76 Inscriptions at Tirukkalukkunram & Jambukesvara temple

No. 77 to 78 Inscriptions at Kavantandalam & Perumber

No. 64.- Inscription at Tiruvorriyur

This inscription (No. 106 of 1892) is engraved on the west and south walls of the first prakara of the Adhipurisvara temple at Tiruvorriyur in the Saidapet taluka of the Chingleput district.[1]  The name of the temple is derived from Adhipura,[2]  i.e., ‘the mortgage-village,’ which is the Sanskrit equivalent of Orriy-ur.  That this Siva temple is a very ancient one, follows from the fact that Orriyur is mentioned by each of the three authors of the Devaram.[3]

Like the two next following inscriptions (Nos. 65 and 66), this one is dated in the 2nd year of the reign of Rajakesarivarman, alias Rajendra-Choladeva (II.).  From the Chellur plates of Vira-Choda[4] we know that Rajendra-Choda was the original name of Kulottunga I., who is distinguished from his maternal grandfather Parakesarivarman, alias Rajendra-Chola I., by the surname Rajakesarivarman.  That the Rajendra-Chola of this inscription is identical with Kulottunga-Chola I. follows from its historical introduction, which mentions the capture of elephants at Vayiragaram and the conquest of the king of Dhara at Sakkarakottam.  The first of these two deeds is also referred to in the later inscriptions of Kulottunga I.[5]  And both these and the Kaligattu-Parani report that he conquered Sakkarakottam when still a Yuvaraja.[6]  Further the subjoined inscription says that he took possession of the eastern country, by which his original dominion, the country of Vengi,[7] may be meant.  Perhaps he took Vengi from his uncle Vijayaditya VII., who appears to have received it from the Chola king Virarajendra I.[8]  The southern limit of the dominions of Rajendra-Chola II. in the second year of his reign is perhaps roughly indicated by a line connecting Tiruvorriyur, Tiruvalangadu and Kolar, the localities of the inscriptions Nos. 64 and 66.  The subjoined inscription implies that he felt himself already at that time as a member of the Chola family to which his mother and grandmother belonged,[9] and not as an Eastern Chalukya, because it mentions as his crest the tiger, and not the boar.  But he cannot yet have taken possession of the Chola country on the banks of the Kaveri.  For, his victory over the Kuntala king (Vikramaditya VI.) and his accession to the Chola throne are referred to only in later inscriptions of his, and in these he bears the new name Kulottunga, which, to judge from verse 11 of the Chellur plates,[10] he assumed on the very occasion of his coronation as Chola king and after his victory over Vikramaditya VI.[11]

The purpose of this inscription is to record that a general, whose name we know already from an inscription of Adhirajendra,[12] granted 240 kasu, which the temple authorities employed for purchasing certain land from five villages.  Three of these belonged, like Tiruvorriyur itself, to Pulal-nadu, a subdivision of Pularkottam; one to a sub-division of Puliyur-kottam; and the last to Elumur-nadu.  Both Pulal[13] and Puliyur[14] now belong to the Saidapet taluka.  Pulal-nadu must have comprised the north-eastern portion of that taluka, where we find Tiruvorriyur and two of the three other villages which the inscription locates in Pulal-nadu, viz., Manali[15] and Ambilavayil.[16]  Elumur-nadu owes its name to Elumbur (Egmore), now a portion of the city of Madras.

Hail ! Prosperity ! With his arms which resembled two mountains, (and between) which the goddess of prosperity permanently rested and shone, and with (his) sword as (only) helps, (the king) overcame the treachery of (his) enemies ; carried off many herds of elephants at Vayiragaram (Vajrakara) ; and was pleased to levy tribute (which) illuminated (all) directions from the king of Dhara at the rich[17] Sakkarakottam (Chakrakotta).  (He) gently raised, without wearying (her) in the least, the lotus-like goddess of the earth residing in the region of the rising of the sun,[18] - just as (the god) Tirumal (Vishnu), having assumed the form of the primeval boar, had raised (the earth) on the day when (she) was submerged in the ocean (by the demon Hiranyaksha), - and seated (her) under the shade of his parasol, (where she) experienced delight.  (He) made the wheel (of his authority) and the tiger (-banner) go in every direction and established (his) fame and justice in every country.  While valour, liberality, pride and compassion, as (his) intimate relatives, were resplendent on the undivided[19] earth, he took his seat (on the throne) with (the goddess of) victory and put on by right the jeweled crown of (his) family.  While the rulers of the earth bore his feet (on their heads), (he) wielded the sceptre in every (quarter of the) beautiful continent of the naval (tree).[20]

In the second year (of the reign) of this king Rajakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Rajendra-Soladeva, - the general (senapati) Rajarajan-Paranriparakshasanar, alias Vira-Sola-Ilangovelar, the headman of [Nad]ar in Tiraimur-nadu, (a subdivision) of Uyyakkondar-valanadu, (a district) of Sola-mandalam, deposited – for the expenses required for anointing (the idol of) Karanai-Vidangadevar in the temple of the god of Tiruvorriyur in Pulal-nadu, (a subdivision) of Pularkottam, (a district) of Jayangonda-Sola-mandalam, - in the treasury of this god two hundred and forty good[21] kasu current at the time.  After these two hundred and forty kasu had been deposited in the treasury of this god, (the following) deed of sale of land was drawn up in writing against (the receipt of) these kasu by us, the assembly of Manali, alias Simhavishnu-chaturvedimangalam,[22] a devadana of this (temple) in Pulal-nadu, (a subdivision) of Pularkottam, and by us, the villagers of Ambilavayil and Iganaiyur in the same nadu, of Velasarru in Tudarmunni-nadu, (a subdivision) of Puliyur-kottam, and of Pirayapakkam in [E]lumur-nadu . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

No. 65.- Inscription at Tiruvalangadu

This inscription (No. 14 of 1896) is engraved on the east wall of the second prakara  of the Vataranyesvara temple at Tiruvalangadu, a village in the Karvetnagar Zamindari, 3 miles north-north-east of the Chinnamapet Railway Station.  The present name of the temple is derived from Vat-aranya, ‘the banyan forest,’ which is the Sanskrit equivalent of Alan-gadu.  In Tirunanasambandar’s Devaram the place is mentioned by the name Palaiyanur-Alangadu, i.e., ‘Alangadu (near) Palaiyanur.’  And the subjoined inscription speaks of it as “Tiruvalangadu (near) Palaiyanur in Palaiyanur-nadu, (a subdivision) of Menmalai.”  Palaiyanur is found on the Madras Survey Map of the Karvetnagar Zamindari ; it is close to Tiruvalangadu and 3 miles north-east of the Chinamapet Railway Station.  According to another inscription at Tiruvalangadu (No. 16 of 1896), Melmalai, the district to which Palaiyanur-nadu belonged, was included in Jayangonda Solamandalam.

The historical introduction and the date of this inscription are identical with those of No. 64.  The inscription records that Rajendra-Chola II. issued an order to the effect that twenty-five families of Sankarappadi should be settled on the land of Tiruvalangadu, that the new settlement should be called Rajendra-Solappadi (after the name of the king), and that the settlers should have the duty of looking after fifteen lamps of the temple.

(Line 3.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the second year (of the reign) of king Rajakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Rajendra-Soladeva, who & c.[23] – the following royal order was received with the signature of the royal secretary (tiru-mandirav-olai) Arumoli-Vilupparayar : - “While (we) were dining in the day-residence (pagal-irukkai) at Sivapuram in Purisai-nadu, (a subdivision) of Manaiyirkottam,[24] (a district) of Jayangonda-Sola-mandalam, (and) when Vira-Sola-Pallavaraiyan, (one) among our officials (kanmi), submitted to us that twenty-five families of Sankarappadi should be settled on the land of this village, (that this settlement should be called) by the name of Rajendra-Solappadi, and that (they) should supply the oil required for, and keep burning, fifteen perpetual lamps (in the temple) of Mahadeva at Tiruvalangadu (near) Palaiyanur in Palaiyanur-nadu, (a subdivision) of Menmalai, - we granted that the twenty-five families of sankarappadi should supply lamp-oil to this god.”

(L. 6.) Accordingly, the magistrate (adhikarin) Nangorra-Kadamban ordered : - “Let it be engraved on stone that those who shall cause injury to this charity will have disobeyed the royal order.” . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

[1]  No. 27 on the Madras Survey Map of that taluka.  In Mr. Sewell’s Lists of Antiquities, Vol. I. p. 176, the name is erroneously spelt ‘Tiruvattiyur.’

[2]  This name occurs in a short Sanskrit inscription of Kulottunga I. at Tiruvorriyur ; Ep. Ind. Vol. V. p. 106.

[3]  See above, Vol. II. pp. 152, 252 and note 9 ; and Ep. Ind. Vol. III. p. 277 f.

[4]  Above, Vol. I. p. 52.

[5]  See above, Vol. II. p. 235.

[6]  See ibid.  p. 230 and note 4.

[7]  See above, Vol. I. p. 51.

[8]  See above, p. 128, note 9.

[9]  See, e.g., the Table in Vol. II. p. 232.

[10]  Above, Vol. I. p. 59.

[11]  This view is supported by the fact that the Vikramankadevacharita does not yet call him Kulottunga, but Rajiga, which is a familiar abbreviation of his original name Rajendra-Chola ; see above, Vol. II. p. 231.

[12]  Above, No. 57, text line 6 f.

[13]  See above, p. 76, note 15.

[14]  See above, p. 49, note 9.

[15]  No. 26 on the Madras Survey Map of the Saidapet taluka.

[16]  Now Amulavayal, No. 23 on the same map.

[17]  Literally ‘not deficient.’

[18]  I.e., he conquered the eastern country.

[19]  I.e., not shared in by other kings.

[20]  I.e., Jambudvipa.  Naval is the Tamil equivalent of Jambu ; compare above, Vol. II. p. 253.

[21]  I.e., of full weight ; compare p. 111 above.

[22]  This surname may go back to the Pallava king Simhavishnu ; see above, Vol. II. p. 314.

[23]  The historical introduction of this inscription is the same as in No. 64.

[24]  This district is the same as Manayirkottam or Manavirkottam in Vol. I. p. 147.

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