The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Volume - III

Contents

Preface

Introduction

Part - I

Inscription at Ukkal

Melpadi

Karuvur

Manimangalam

Tiruvallam

Part - II

Kulottunga-Chola I

Vikrama Chola

Virarajendra I

Kulottunga-Chola III

Part - III

Aditya I

Parantaka I

Gandaraditya

Parantaka II

Uttama-Chola

Parthivendravarman

Aditya II Karikala

Part - IV

copper-plate Tirukkalar

Tiruchchengodu

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

VI.- Inscriptions of Kulottunga-Chola I

No. 69 to 70 Inscriptions at Tirukkalukkunram & Srirangam

No. 64 to 65 Inscriptions at Tiruvorriyur & Tiruvalangadu

No. 66 to 68 Inscriptions at Kolar, Somangalam & Conjeeveram

No. 71 to 72 Inscriptions at Kilappaluvur & Tiruvidaimarudur

No. 73 to 74 Inscriptions at Cholapuram & Conjeeveram

No. 75 to 76 Inscriptions at Tirukkalukkunram & Jambukesvara temple

No. 77 to 78 Inscriptions at Kavantandalam & Perumber

No. 69.- Inscription at Tirukkalukkunram.

This inscription (No. 174 of 1894) is engraved on the wall of the strong-room of the Vedagirisvara temple at Tirukkalukkunram, a large village in the Chingleput district on the road from Chngleput to the port of Madras.[1]  This village is mentioned in Sundaramurti’s Devaram as Kalukkunram, ‘the hill of the kites.’  The ancient name of the temple was Mulasthana.[2]  Tirukkalukkunram itself bore the surname Ulagalanda-Solapuram and belonged to Kalattur-nadu, a subdivision of the district of Kalattur-kottam.  The names of this district and of its subdivision are derived from Kalattur, a village on the south of Chingleput.[3]

The inscription records the grant of two lamps, made in the 14th and 15th years of the reign of Kulottunga I.  (II. 32 and 38).  The historical introduction agrees on the whole with that of No. 68 as far as line 11.  It then relates that Kulottunga I. drove Vikkalan (i.e., Vikramaditya VI.) from nangili (in the Kolar district)[4] by way of Manalur[5] to the Tungabhadra river, and that he conquered the Ganga-mandalam and Singanam, by which the dominions of Jayasimha III. seem to be meant.[6]  Having secured his frontiers in the north, he turned against the Pandyas[7] and subdued the south-western portion of the peninsula as far as the Gulf of Mannar, the Podiyil mountain (in the Tinnevelly district), Cape Comorin, Kottaru, the Sahya (i.e., the Western Ghats) and Kudamalai-nadu (i.e., Malabar).  From the statement that he “fixed the boundary of the Southern country” (1. 27), it may be concluded that he limited the territories of the Pandya king to the Madura district.  In order to pacify the newly acquired country, he settled some of his officers on the roads passing through Kottaru, etc. An inscription of the 39th year of his reign at Cholapuram, a portion of Kottaru (No. 46 of 1896), actually mentions one of those military settlers.

(Line  1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! While the wheel of his (authority) went as far as the golden circle (i.e.,  Mount Meru) on the earth, which was surrounded by the moat of the sea, that was (again) surrounded by (his) fame, (the king) newly wedded, in the time (when he was still) heir-apparent, the brilliant goddess of victory at sakkarakottam by deeds of valour and seized a herd of mountains of rut (i.e., rutting elephants) at Vayiragaram.

(Line 3.) (He) unsheathed (his) sword, showed the strength of (his) arm, and spurred (his) war-steed, so that the army of the king of Kondala, (whose spear had)  a sharp point, retreated.

(L. 4.) Having established (his) fame, having put on the garland of (the victory over) the Northern region, and having stopped the prostitution of the goddess with the sweet and excellent lotus-flower (i.e., Lakshmi) of the Southern region, and the loneliness of the goddess of the good country whose garment is the Ponni, (he) put on by right (of inheritance) the pure royal crown of jewels, while the kings of the earth bore his two feet (on their heads) as a large crown.

(L. 6.) The river (of the rules) of the ancient king Manu swelled, (and) the river (of the sins) of the Kali (age) dried up.

(L. 7.) (His) sceptre swayed over every (quarter of) this continent of the naval (tree) ; the white light of the sacred shadow of (his) white parasol shone everywhere on the circle of the great earth ; (and his) tiger (-banner) fluttered unrivalled on the Meru (mountain).

(L. 9.) (Before him) stood a row of elephants showering jewels, which were presented (as) tribute by the king of remote islands whose girdle is the sea.

(L. 10.) The excellent head of the refractory king of the South (i.e.,  the Pandya) lay outside his (viz., Kulottunga’s) beautiful city, being pecked by kites.

(L. 11.) Not only did the speech (of Vikkalan) : - “After this day a permanent blemish (will attach to Kulottunga), as to the crescent[8] (which is the origin) of (his) family,”[9] – turn out wrong, but the bow (in) the hand of Vikkalan was not (even) bent against (the enemy).

(L. 13.) Everywhere from Nangili of rocky roads – with Manalur in the middle – to the Tungabhadra, there were lying low the dead (bodies of his) furious elephants, his lost pride and (his) boasted valour.

(L. 14.) The very mountains which (he) ascended bent their backs ; the very rivers into which (he) descended eddied and breached (the banks) in their course ; (and) the very seas into which (he) plunge became troubled and agitated.

(L. 16.) (The Chola king) seized simultaneously the two countries (pani) called Gangamandalam and Singanam, troops of furious elephants which had been irretrievably abandoned (by the enemy), crowds of women, (the angles of) whose beautiful eyes were as pointed as daggers, the goddess of fame, who gladly brought disgrace (on Vikkalan), himself and (his) father, who were desirous of the rule over the Western region, to turn their backs again and again on many days.

(L. 20.) Having resolved in (his) royal mind to conquer also the Pandi-mandalam (i.e., the Pandya country) with great fame, (he) dispatched his great army, - which possessed [excellent horses (resembling) the waves of the sea], war-elephants (resembling) ships, and troops (resembling) water, - as though the Northern ocean was overflowing the Southern ocean.

(L. 22.) (He) completely destroyed the forest which the five Panchavas (i.e., Pandyas) had entered as refuge, when they were routed on a battlefield where (he) fought (with them), and fled cowering with fear.

(L. 24.) (He) subdued (their) country, drove them into hot jungles (in) hills where woodmen roamed about, and planted pillars of victory in every region.

(L. 25.) (He) was pleased to seize the pearl fisheries,[10] the Podiyil (mountain) where the three kinds of Tamil (flourished),[11] [the (very) centre of the (mountain) Saiyam[12]] where furious rutting elephants were captured, and Kanni,[13] and fixed the boundaries of the Southern (i.e., Pandya) country.

(L. 27.) While all the heroes[14] in the Western hill-country (Kudamalai-nadu)[15] ascended voluntarily to heaven, (he) was pleased to bestow on the chiefs of his army, who were mounted on horses, settlements on every road, including (that which passed) Kottaru,[16] in order that the enemies might be scattered, and took his seat on the throne acquired in warfare.

(L. 29.) (He) was pleased to be seated (on it) while (his) valour and liberality shone like (his) necklace of great splendour and (like) the flower-garland on (his) royal shoulders, (and) while (all his) enemies prostrated themselves on the ground.

(L. 31.) In the [1]4th year (of the reign) of this king Rajakesarivarman, alias the emperor Sri-Kulottunga-Soladeva, 1 – one – perpetual lamp was given to Mahadeva, the lord of the Sri-Mulasthana (temple) at Tirukkalukkunram, alias Ulagalanda-Solapuram, a devadana in its own circle (kuru)[17] in Kalattur-nadu, (a subdivision) of Kalattur-kottam, (a district) of Jayangonda-Sola-mandalam, by . . . . . .. . . . . ppalli Selvan Paumadaiyan, alias Kulottunga-Sola-Periyarayan, who resided at Sevur,[18] alias Solakeralanallur, in Oymanadu.[19]

(L. 36.) In order (to supply) to (this lamp) one ulakku of ghee per day, (measured) by the Arumolidevan-ulakku,[20] (he) granted ninety full-grown ewes, which must neither die nor grow old.[21]

(L. 37.) The feet of him who will continue this (grant) as long as the moon and the sun exist, shall be on my head.  This (is placed under) the protection of all Mahesvaras.

(L. 38.) In the 15th year (of the king’s reign) the above-mentioned person (also) granted ninety full-grown ewes, which must neither die nor grow old, for 1 (other) perpetual lamp which (he) had given.  This (is placed under) the protection of all Mahesvaras.

No. 70.- Inscription at Srirangam.

This inscription (No. 62 of 1892) is engraved on the east wall of the third prakara of the Ranganatha temple[22] on the island of Srirangam near Trichinopoly.  It mentions Srirangam as Tiruvarangam (1. 16) and the temple as Tiruvarangadevar (1. 10).

The date is the 18th year of the reign of Kulottunga I.  The historical introduction does not add any fresh details to those narrated at the beginning of the inscriptions of the 14th and 15th years.[23]  The inscription records that a certain Kalingarayar granted to the temple 6 ¼ kasu with the condition that the interest should be applied to defraying the cost of offerings on two festival days.

As discovered by Mr. Venkayya,[24] the subjoined inscription fixes the time before which two of the twelve Vaishnava Alvars, who were the authors of the Nalayiraprabandham, must have lived.  For, (1) it refers to the recital of the text beginning with Tettarundiral (1. 13), which is the 2nd chapter of the sacred hymns of Kulasekhara ; and (2) the names of three of the temple officials who are mentioned in the inscription prove that the Vaishanava saint Sathagopa or Nammalvar was already at that time well known and highly venerated.[25]  As noticed before, his work, the Tiruvaymoli, is presupposed already in an inscription of Rajaraja I.[26]  These epigraphical evidences are fatal to the theory of Dr. Caldwell, who placed the Alvars in the 12th or 13th century.[27]

(Line 10.) In the [eighteenth] year (of the reign) of king Rajakesarivarman, alias the emperor Sri-Kulottunga-Soladeva, who etc.[28] – by order of the magistrate (adhikarin) Nisha[dha]rajar, the manager of the temple of the god Tiruvarangadevar, the following was agreed on and given in writing to Arayan [Garu]da[v]ahan, alias Kalingarayar, by us, the Pujaris (kanmi) of the god, such as (1) the members of the committee[29] of the Sri-Vaishnavas : Tiruvelu[di]nadu-Dasar,[30] Vadamadurappiranda[n]-[31] Nambi, Irayura[li]-Nambi, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r Narayana-Nambi, Srisadagopa-Dasar[32] of Perum[ba]rrappuliyur, and Arikulavarana-Nambi of Markkamangalam ; (2) the members of the committee of the temple treasury : Kurugaikavalan[33] Aravamudu of the Harita (gotra), Tiruvaykkulam-Udaiyan[34] Sriraghavan of the Ilarita (gotra), Kesuvan (Kesava) [Ta]ni-Ila[n]jingam of the Harita (gotra), Kesuvan Arivariyan of the Bharadvaja (gotra), [Tiru]va[ran]ga-Narayanan Srikrishnan of the Bharadvaja (gotra), and Aravamudu Sriraman of the [Il]arita (gotra) ; (3) the accountants of the assembly : Arayan Ambala . . . . . . . . . . . . . and . . . . . . . . . . . . . .arruvappiriyan ; and (4) the accountant of the Sri-vaishnavas  : Tiruvengadavan[35] Soman, alias Padinettunadu-Kilavan.[36]

(L. 13.) During the car festival in (the month of) Appigai  (Aippasi) and during the festival in Panguni  (Panguni), on the night of that day on which the bathing-water (of the idol) is distributed, at the time when (the idol) has been placed under the sacred punnai (tree) and is listening to (the recital of the hymn) Tettarundiral, (the following requirements have to be supplied) on this day of either festival : - For one hundred cakes to be offered (to the god) are required one padakku of old rice, three nali of pulse (paruppu), three nali of ghee, one hundred palam of sugar, three ulakku of cumin, three ulakku of salt, fifty plantains, five cocoanuts, ten young cocoanuts, one hundred and twenty areca-nuts, one sevidu and a half of camphor-oil, twelve bundles of teri[37] leaves, and two manjadi of camphor.  (For all this), for those who pound (the rice into) flour for the cakes, for those who carry water, for those who fetch firewood, for those who fry the cakes, for pots, and for other requirements, he[38] deposited six and a quarter kasu, to continue as long as the moon and the sun.

(L. 15.) Having received these six and a quarter kasu, we shall be bound to supply the offerings in this way at both festivals out of the interest for as long as the moon and the sun shall exist.  Thus [it should be] caused to be engraved on stone.  Having agreed thus, we, the pujaris of the god, gave a written agreement.

(L. 16.) We, the great assembly of Tiruvarangam, shall be bound to continue this as long as the moon and the sun exist.  This (is placed under) the protection of the Sri-Vaishnavas.


[1]  See Ep. Ind. Vol. III. p. 276, and Ind. Ant. Vol. XXI.  P. 343.

[2]  See line 34 of the present inscription, and the four inscriptions quoted in the preceding note.

[3]  See Ind. Ant. Vol. XXI. P. 197, note 1.

[4]  See above, Vol. II. p. 235, note 5.

[5]  This place cannot be identified.

[6]  See above, Vol. II. p. 235, note 7, and p. 391, note 7.

[7]  Here (1. 22 f.), as in the Chidambaram inscription (Ep. Ind. Vol. V. p. 104) and in the Kalingattu-Parani (xi. Verse 69), ‘five Pandyas’ are spoken of.  Mr. Venkayya has drawn attention to the word Panchavan, ‘one of the five,’ which is used in this inscription (1. 22) and in Tamil literature as a title of the Pandya kings, and concludes that “very often, if not always, there were five Pandya princes ruling at the same time”  (Int. Ant.  Vol. XXII. P. 60 f.).  I suspect that this custom may have been due to the desire of imitating the mythical Pandava brothers, who were five in number.

[8]  The spot in the moon is alluded to.

[9]  The Eastern Chalukya family, from which Kulottunga I.  was descended in the male line, claimed the Moon as its ancestor.

[10]  This refers to the coast of the Gulf of Mannar.

[11]  See above, Vol. II. p. 236, notes 1 and 2.

[12]  This the Tamil form of Sahya, the Sanskrit name of the Western Ghats.

[13]  See above, Vol. II. p. 236, note 3.

[14]  In Malayalam, chaver (Tamil saveru) means ‘one who has elected to die, moriturs.’  Interesting details about the chavers are found in Mr. Logan’s Malabar, Vol. I. pp. 162 to 169.

[15]  This term does not refer to Coorg as I suggested in Vol. I. p. 63, but is probably identical with the modern Malayalam or Malabar.

[16]  This is the well known town near Cape Comorin ; see Ep. Ind. Vol. V. p. 104, note 3.

[17]  See p. 3 above, note 7.

[18]  In accordance with the next following note, this must be Chevur near Tindivanam ; see Mr. Sewell’s Lists of Antiquities, Vol. I. p. 207.

[19]  According to the inscriptions of the Tintrinisvara temple at Tindivanam, this place belonged to Oyamandu.

[20]  See above, p. 8, note 3.

[21]  See above, Vol. II. p. 375, note 3.

[22]  Regarding a few other inscription in the same temple see Ind. Ant. Vol. XXI. P. 344 ; Ep. Ind. Vol. III. pp. 7 and 117, and Vol. IV. P. 148.

[23]  See below, p. 151, note 1.

[24]  See above, Vol. II. p. 252, note 7.

[25]  See below, p. 151, notes 3, 5 and 6.

[26]  See page 2 above.

[27]  Comparative Grammar, p. 143 of the Introduction.

[28]  The historical introduction of this inscription is the same as in No. 69 and in the Tanjore inscription of the 15th year (above, Vol. II. No. 58).

[29]  Variyam is probably connected with vara, on which see Professor Kielhorn’s remarks in Ep. Ind. Vol. V. p. 138, note 7.  It occurs also in the Ukkal inscriptions, where I have translated it by ‘elected for’ or ‘in charge of’; see p. 2 above.

[30]  This person was named after the Vaishnava saint Sathagopa, who, according to the Nalayiraprabandham, came from Tiruvalaudi-nadu.

[31]  I.e., ‘he who was born in the northern Mathura,’ viz., Krishna.

[32]  See note 3 above.

[33]  I.e., ‘the protector of Kurugai.’  The saint Suthagopa was the son of Kari, the adhikarin of the city of Kurugai.

[34]  This title is perhaps derived from Tiruvaykkulam, one of the names of the Rajagopala-Perumal temple at Manimangalam ; see p. 49 above, and Ep. Ind.  Vol. V. p. 72.

[35]  This person was called after the god of Tirupati.

[36]  I.e., ‘the chief of eighteen districts.’

[37]  This word is not found in the dictionary.  Probably betel-leaves are meant.

[38]  This refers to Kalingarayar (1. 12.)

Home Page