Inscriptions of Kulottunga-Chola I
69 to 70 Inscriptions at Tirukkalukkunram & Srirangam
64 to 65 Inscriptions at Tiruvorriyur & Tiruvalangadu
66 to 68 Inscriptions at Kolar, Somangalam & Conjeeveram
71 to 72 Inscriptions at Kilappaluvur & Tiruvidaimarudur
73 to 74 Inscriptions at Cholapuram & Conjeeveram
75 to 76 Inscriptions at Tirukkalukkunram & Jambukesvara temple
77 to 78 Inscriptions at Kavantandalam & Perumber
69.- Inscription at Tirukkalukkunram.
inscription (No. 174 of 1894) is engraved on the wall of the
strong-room of the Vedagirisvara temple at Tirukkalukkunram, a large
village in the Chingleput district on the road from Chngleput to the
port of Madras.
This village is mentioned in Sundaramurti’s Devaram
as Kalukkunram, ‘the hill of the kites.’
The ancient name of the temple was Mulasthana.
Tirukkalukkunram itself bore the surname Ulagalanda-Solapuram
and belonged to Kalattur-nadu, a subdivision of the district of
names of this district and of its subdivision are derived from
Kalattur, a village on the south of Chingleput.
inscription records the grant of two lamps, made in the 14th
and 15th years of the reign of Kulottunga I.
(II. 32 and 38). The historical introduction agrees on the whole with that of
No. 68 as far as line 11. It
then relates that Kulottunga I. drove Vikkalan (i.e.,
Vikramaditya VI.) from nangili (in the Kolar district)
by way of Manalur to the Tungabhadra river,
and that he conquered the Ganga-mandalam and Singanam, by which the
dominions of Jayasimha III. seem to be meant.
Having secured his frontiers in the north, he turned against
and subdued the south-western portion of the peninsula as far as the
Gulf of Mannar, the Podiyil mountain (in the Tinnevelly district),
Cape Comorin, Kottaru, the Sahya (i.e., the Western Ghats)
and Kudamalai-nadu (i.e., Malabar).
From the statement that he “fixed the boundary of the
Southern country” (1. 27), it may be concluded that he limited the
territories of the Pandya king to the Madura district.
In order to pacify the newly acquired country, he settled
some of his officers on the roads passing through Kottaru, etc.
An inscription of the 39th year of his reign at
Cholapuram, a portion of Kottaru (No. 46 of 1896), actually mentions
one of those military settlers.
1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! While the wheel of his (authority)
went as far as the golden circle (i.e.,
Mount Meru) on the earth, which was surrounded by the moat of
the sea, that was (again) surrounded by (his) fame, (the
king) newly wedded, in the time (when he was still)
heir-apparent, the brilliant goddess of victory at sakkarakottam by
deeds of valour and seized a herd of mountains of rut (i.e.,
rutting elephants) at Vayiragaram.
3.) (He) unsheathed (his) sword, showed the strength
of (his) arm, and spurred (his) war-steed, so that the army
of the king of Kondala, (whose spear had) a sharp point, retreated.
4.) Having established (his) fame, having put on the garland
of (the victory over) the Northern region, and having stopped
the prostitution of the goddess with the sweet and excellent
lotus-flower (i.e., Lakshmi) of the Southern region, and the
loneliness of the goddess of the good country whose garment is the
Ponni, (he) put on by right (of inheritance) the pure
royal crown of jewels, while the kings of the earth bore his two
feet (on their heads) as a large crown.
6.) The river (of the rules) of the ancient king Manu
swelled, (and) the river (of the sins) of the Kali (age)
7.) (His) sceptre swayed over every (quarter of) this
continent of the naval (tree) ; the white light of the sacred
shadow of (his) white parasol shone everywhere on the circle
of the great earth ; (and his) tiger (-banner)
fluttered unrivalled on the Meru (mountain).
9.) (Before him) stood a row of elephants showering jewels,
which were presented (as) tribute by the king of remote
islands whose girdle is the sea.
10.) The excellent head of the refractory king of the South (i.e.,
the Pandya) lay outside his (viz., Kulottunga’s)
beautiful city, being pecked by kites.
11.) Not only did the speech (of Vikkalan) : - “After this day a
permanent blemish (will attach to Kulottunga), as to the
(which is the origin) of (his) family,”
– turn out wrong, but the bow (in) the hand of Vikkalan was
not (even) bent against (the enemy).
13.) Everywhere from Nangili of rocky roads – with Manalur in the
middle – to the Tungabhadra, there were lying low the dead (bodies
of his) furious elephants, his lost pride and (his) boasted
14.) The very mountains which (he) ascended bent their backs
; the very rivers into which (he) descended eddied and
breached (the banks) in their course ; (and) the very
seas into which (he) plunge became troubled and agitated.
16.) (The Chola king) seized simultaneously the two countries
(pani) called Gangamandalam and Singanam, troops of furious
elephants which had been irretrievably abandoned (by the enemy),
crowds of women, (the angles of) whose beautiful eyes were as
pointed as daggers, the goddess of fame, who gladly brought disgrace
(on Vikkalan), himself and (his) father, who were
desirous of the rule over the Western region, to turn their backs
again and again on many days.
20.) Having resolved in (his) royal mind to conquer also the
Pandi-mandalam (i.e., the Pandya country) with great fame, (he)
dispatched his great army, - which possessed [excellent horses (resembling)
the waves of the sea], war-elephants (resembling) ships, and
troops (resembling) water, - as though the Northern ocean was
overflowing the Southern ocean.
22.) (He) completely destroyed the forest which the five
Panchavas (i.e., Pandyas) had entered as refuge, when they
were routed on a battlefield where (he) fought (with them),
and fled cowering with fear.
24.) (He) subdued (their) country, drove them into hot
jungles (in) hills where woodmen roamed about, and planted
pillars of victory in every region.
25.) (He) was pleased to seize the pearl fisheries, the Podiyil (mountain)
where the three kinds of Tamil (flourished),
[the (very) centre of the (mountain) Saiyam]
where furious rutting elephants were captured, and Kanni,
and fixed the boundaries of the Southern (i.e., Pandya)
27.) While all the heroes
in the Western hill-country (Kudamalai-nadu)
ascended voluntarily to heaven, (he) was pleased to bestow on
the chiefs of his army, who were mounted on horses, settlements on
every road, including (that which passed) Kottaru,
in order that the enemies might be scattered, and took his seat on
the throne acquired in warfare.
29.) (He) was pleased to be seated (on it) while (his)
valour and liberality shone like (his) necklace of great
splendour and (like) the flower-garland on (his) royal
shoulders, (and) while (all his) enemies prostrated
themselves on the ground.
31.) In the 4th year (of the reign) of this
king Rajakesarivarman, alias the emperor Sri-Kulottunga-Soladeva,
1 – one – perpetual lamp was given to Mahadeva, the lord of the
Sri-Mulasthana (temple) at Tirukkalukkunram, alias
Ulagalanda-Solapuram, a devadana in its own circle (kuru)
in Kalattur-nadu, (a subdivision) of Kalattur-kottam, (a
district) of Jayangonda-Sola-mandalam, by . . . . . .. . . . .
ppalli Selvan Paumadaiyan, alias Kulottunga-Sola-Periyarayan,
who resided at Sevur,
alias Solakeralanallur, in Oymanadu.
36.) In order (to supply) to (this lamp) one ulakku
of ghee per day, (measured) by the Arumolidevan-ulakku,
(he) granted ninety full-grown ewes, which must neither die
nor grow old.
37.) The feet of him who will continue this (grant) as long
as the moon and the sun exist, shall be on my head.
This (is placed under) the protection of all Mahesvaras.
38.) In the 15th year (of the king’s reign) the
above-mentioned person (also) granted ninety full-grown ewes,
which must neither die nor grow old, for 1 (other) perpetual
lamp which (he) had given.
This (is placed under) the protection of all Mahesvaras.
70.- Inscription at Srirangam.
inscription (No. 62 of 1892) is engraved on the east wall of the
third prakara of the Ranganatha temple
on the island of Srirangam near Trichinopoly.
It mentions Srirangam as Tiruvarangam (1. 16) and the temple
as Tiruvarangadevar (1. 10).
date is the 18th year of the reign of Kulottunga I.
The historical introduction does not add any fresh details to
those narrated at the beginning of the inscriptions of the 14th
and 15th years.
The inscription records that a certain Kalingarayar granted
to the temple 6 ¼ kasu with the condition that the interest
should be applied to defraying the cost of offerings on two festival
discovered by Mr. Venkayya,
the subjoined inscription fixes the time before which two of the
twelve Vaishnava Alvars, who were the authors of the
Nalayiraprabandham, must have lived.
For, (1) it refers to the recital of the text beginning with Tettarundiral
(1. 13), which is the 2nd chapter of the sacred hymns
of Kulasekhara ; and (2) the names of three of the temple officials
who are mentioned in the inscription prove that the Vaishanava saint
Sathagopa or Nammalvar was already at that time well known and
As noticed before, his work, the Tiruvaymoli, is
presupposed already in an inscription of Rajaraja I.
These epigraphical evidences are fatal to the theory of Dr.
Caldwell, who placed the Alvars in the 12th or 13th
10.) In the [eighteenth] year (of the reign) of king
Rajakesarivarman, alias the emperor Sri-Kulottunga-Soladeva,
– by order of the magistrate (adhikarin) Nisha[dha]rajar,
the manager of the temple of the god Tiruvarangadevar, the following
was agreed on and given in writing to Arayan [Garu]da[v]ahan, alias
Kalingarayar, by us, the Pujaris (kanmi) of the god, such as
(1) the members of the committee
of the Sri-Vaishnavas : Tiruvelu[di]nadu-Dasar,
Nambi, Irayura[li]-Nambi, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r
of Perum[ba]rrappuliyur, and Arikulavarana-Nambi of Markkamangalam ;
(2) the members of the committee of the temple treasury :
Aravamudu of the Harita (gotra), Tiruvaykkulam-Udaiyan
Sriraghavan of the Ilarita (gotra), Kesuvan (Kesava) [Ta]ni-Ila[n]jingam
of the Harita (gotra), Kesuvan Arivariyan of the Bharadvaja (gotra),
[Tiru]va[ran]ga-Narayanan Srikrishnan of the Bharadvaja (gotra),
and Aravamudu Sriraman of the [Il]arita (gotra) ; (3) the
accountants of the assembly : Arayan Ambala . . . . . . . . . . . .
. and . . . . . . . . . . . . . .arruvappiriyan ; and (4) the
accountant of the Sri-vaishnavas :
Soman, alias Padinettunadu-Kilavan.
13.) During the car festival in (the month of) Appigai
(Aippasi) and during the festival in Panguni
(Panguni), on the night of that day on which the
bathing-water (of the idol) is distributed, at the time when
(the idol) has been placed under the sacred punnai (tree)
and is listening to (the recital of the hymn) Tettarundiral,
(the following requirements have to be supplied) on this day
of either festival : - For one hundred cakes to be offered (to
the god) are required one padakku of old rice, three nali
of pulse (paruppu), three nali of ghee, one hundred palam
of sugar, three ulakku of cumin, three ulakku of salt,
fifty plantains, five cocoanuts, ten young cocoanuts, one hundred
and twenty areca-nuts, one sevidu and a half of camphor-oil,
twelve bundles of teri leaves, and two manjadi
of camphor. (For all
this), for those who pound (the rice into) flour for the
cakes, for those who carry water, for those who fetch firewood, for
those who fry the cakes, for pots, and for other requirements, he
deposited six and a quarter kasu, to continue as long as the
moon and the sun.
15.) Having received these six and a quarter kasu, we shall
be bound to supply the offerings in this way at both festivals out
of the interest for as long as the moon and the sun shall exist.
Thus [it should be] caused to be engraved on stone.
Having agreed thus, we, the pujaris of the god, gave a
16.) We, the great assembly of Tiruvarangam, shall be bound to
continue this as long as the moon and the sun exist.
This (is placed under) the protection of the Sri-Vaishnavas.