The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Volume - III

Contents

Preface

Introduction

Part - I

Inscription at Ukkal

Melpadi

Karuvur

Manimangalam

Tiruvallam

Part - II

Kulottunga-Chola I

Vikrama Chola

Virarajendra I

Kulottunga-Chola III

Part - III

Aditya I

Parantaka I

Gandaraditya

Parantaka II

Uttama-Chola

Parthivendravarman

Aditya II Karikala

Part - IV

copper-plate Tirukkalar

Tiruchchengodu

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

VI.- Inscriptions of Kulottunga-Chola I

No. 71 to 72 Inscriptions at Kilappaluvur & Tiruvidaimarudur

No. 64 to 65 Inscriptions at Tiruvorriyur & Tiruvalangadu

No. 66 to 68 Inscriptions at Kolar, Somangalam & Conjeeveram

No. 69 to 70 Inscriptions at Tirukkalukkunram & Srirangam

No. 73 to 74 Inscriptions at Cholapuram & Conjeeveram

No. 75 to 76 Inscriptions at Tirukkalukkunram & Jambukesvara temple

No. 77 to 78 Inscriptions at Kavantandalam & Perumber

No. 71.- Inscription at Kilappaluvur.

This inscription (No. 105 of 1895) is engraved on the west wall of the second prakara  of the Vatamulesvara temple at Kilappaluvur in the Udaiyarpalaiyam taluka of the Trichinopoly district.[1]  This village is mentioned under the name of Paluvur in Tirunanasambandar’s Devaram.  The subjoined inscription calls it both Sirupaluvur (II. 18, 23, 25) and simply Paluvur (II. 26, 27).  It belonged to Kunra-kurram, a subdivision of the district of Uttongatonga-valanadu (1. 18).  According to their inscriptions at Kilappaluvur, the name of the Siva temple was Tiruvalandurai-Mahadeva, in which al, ‘the banyan,’ is the Tamil equivalent of vata, the first member of Vatamulesvara, the Sanskrit designation of the temple.  A Vishnu temple at the same village, which was named Vira-Sola-Vinnagar, is mentioned in line 28 of the subjoined inscription.

The date is the 20th year of the reign of Kulottunga I., when the assembly of Sirupaluvur sold one twentieth veli of land for one kasu to the mother of a certain Virudarajabhayamkara-Vanakovaraiyar.  This may have been the chief of Vanakoppadi, a district which is mentioned in an inscription at Tirukkovalur (No. 126 of 1900).  That he received his title from Kulottunga I., follows from the first portion of this name, Virudarajabhayamkara, which, according to the Kalingattu-Parani (x. verse 25), was a surname of Kulottunga I.  Another derivative of the same surname is the district of Virudaraja-bhayamkara-valanadu ; Gangaikondacholapuram and Tirumudukunram (i.e., Vriddhachalam in the South Arcot district) belonged to Merka-nadu, a subdivision of this district.[2]  A Telugu inscription of Kulottunga I.  mentions Manni-nandu as another sub-division of the same district.[3]

(Line 17.) In the twentieth year (of the reign) of king Rajakesarivarman, alias the emperor of the three worlds, Sri-Kulottunga-Soladeva, who etc.,[4] - we, the assembly of Sirupaluvur, a brahmadeya in Kunra-kurram, (a subdivision) of Uttongatonga-valanadu, sold the following land at a price (settled by) the assembly to Solakulasundaran-Vichchadiri Alvar, the mother of Vi[ru]darajabhayamkara-Vanako[va]raiyar.

(L. 19.) One fortieth (veli) of land on the eastern side of the one twentieth (veli) of land on the northern side of the four twentieths (veli) of land of the second square of the first kannaru[5] to the north of the Rajendra-Sola channel (and) to the east of the Pavilli[ram]anikka road.

((L. 20.) And one fortieth (veli) of land on the western side of the one twentieth (veli) of land on the northern side of the four twentieths (veli) of land (of) the second square of the second kannaru to the east of this road (and) to the north of this channel.

(L. 21.) Altogether, one twentieth (veli) of land.  The price which we have to receive from her for this one twentieth (veli) of land, (and) on which we have agreed, (is) one good kasu current at the time.[6]

(L. 22.) Having received this one kasu in full into the hand . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .[7] we, the assembly of the brahmadeya of Sirupaluvur, sold (the land) and made and gave a deed of sale.  For this one twentieth (veli) of land this alone shall be the record of sale, and this alone shall be the record of the final payment of the money,[8] and they (viz., the purchasers) shall not be bound to produce another record of the final payment of the money besides this.

(L. 24.) Having thus agreed, having received this one kasu, and having sold this one twentieth (veli) of land at the full price, we, the assembly of Sirupaluvur, have received the money in full.

(L. 25.) By their order, I, the Madhyastha[9] Pa[luvur-U]daiyan Ayirattirunurruvan Mudikondan, wrote this document (pramana) ; this is my writing.  I, Palasiriyan [Ila]kkuvanan (Lakshmana) [Ku]ttappan of [S]an[da]mangalam, (know) this ; this is my writing.  I, Sa[v]andi-Naranan (i.e., Narayana) of Paluvur[r], (know) this ; this is my writing.  This (is the writing) of Sandi Palasiriyan Viranarayanan.  This (is the writing of) Sa[va]udi Narayanan Maran.  Thus do I know, Narayanan Tiruva[yi]kkulam-Udaiyan,[10] who performs the worship of the temple of Vira-Sola-Vinnagar-Alvar in this village.  This do I know, the blacksmith of this village.  This (is) placed under the protection of all Mahesvaras.

No. 72.- Inscription at Tiruvidaimarudur.

This inscription (No. 132 of 1895) is engraved on the east wall of the second prakara  of the Mahalingasvamin temple at Tiruvidaimarudur[11] in the Kumbhakonam taluka of the Tanjore district.  This village is mentioned in Tirunanasambandar’s Devaram as Idaimarudu.  The Sanskrit equivalent of this name is Madhyarjuna,[12] in which Madhya corresponds to idai, ‘the middle,’ and arujuna to marudu, ‘Terminalia alata.’  In the subjoined inscription the village is called Tiruvidaimarudil[13] and its temple Tiruvidaimarud-Udaiyar (i.e., the lord of Tiruvidaimarudu).  It belonged to Tiraimur-nadu, a subdivision of Ulaguyyakkonda-Sola-valanadu.[14]  The inscription records a grant of 120 sheep for two lamps.  The Pujaris of the temple and the inhabitants of Tiruvidaimarudil and Tiraimur were appointed trustees of the grant.  Tiraimur I do not find on the map; but, as its inhabitants seem to have had a share in the management of the temple at Tiruvidaimarudur, it was probably not far distant from the latter.

The date is the 172nd day of the 26th year of the reign of Kulottunga I.  The historical introduction agrees with that of the 20th year (No. 71 above), but adds that the king conquered the Kalinga-mandalam (1. 4.).  Other inscriptions refer to a single queen, who is styled ‘the mistress of the whole world,’[15] and who is perhaps identical with Madurantaki, the daughter of Rajendradeva.[16] In addition to this queen, the subjoined inscription mentions three other queens, viz., Dinachintamani, Elisai-Vallabhi,[17] and Tyagavalli.  Of the last of these the Kalingattu-Parani (x. verse 55) states that “she had the right to issue orders together with the orders of the senni (i.e. the Chola king).”

(Line 4.)[18] (He) was pleased to seize the Kalinga-mandalam, whose rivers were checked (by dams)s, and was pleased to take his seat (on the throne) with the mistress of the whole world who remained (his) chief consort, while (his) valour and liberality shone like (his) necklace acquired in warfare and (like) the flower-garland on (his) royal shoulders ; while (all men on) earth worshipped (him) ; while the mistress of the whole world, Dinachintamani, was present, as Uma near Siva ; while the mistress of the seven worlds, Elisai-Valabhi, - may she prosper ! – the ornament of women, was calmly land joyfully seated, as Ganga takes her seat with her (viz. Uma) ; (and) while his (i.e., the king’s favourite) mistress of the world, Tyagavalli, possessing the splendour of Lakshmi who is inseparably clinging to the bosom of Tirumal (Vishnu) to the end of the world, was present.

(L. 5.) In the 26th year (of the reign) of this king Rajakesarivarman, aliaks the emperor Sri-Kulottunga-Soladeva,-The Panchacharya (who wears) a silk garment (in honour of) the feet of the god[19] Tiruvidaimarud-Udaiyar, and the Pujaris of the god were pleased to send a letter (srimugam) to the members of the assembly of Tiraimur, to the citizens of Tiruvidaimarudil, to the villagers of Tiraimur, to the temple-manager Vada-Sattamangalam-Udaiyan Kuttan[20] Somadevan, alias Kanna[gi]darapanirudan, alias Porkoyil Nambi,[21] of the Bharadvaja (gotra), and to the accountant – to the effect that it should be engraved on stone that, on the 172nd day of the 26th year (of the king’s reign), Pattiyur-Udaiyan Namban Madurantakadevan, alias Kulottunga-Sola-[Vi]rainattu Muvendavelan, had given a perpetual lamp[22] to (the temple of) Tiruvidaimarud-Udaiyar, the lord of Tiraimur-nadu, (a subdivision) of Ulaguyya[kk]onda-Sola-valanadu.

(L. 7.) When (this letter) arrived, (the addressees) placed (it) on (their) heads and felt honoured.  Pattiyur-Udaiyan Namban Madurantakadevan, alias Kulottunga-Sola-[Vi]rainattu Muvendavelan, had assigned 120 sheep for the two perpetual lamps given (by him), in order to supply one uri of ghee per day by the Ekanayakan  (measure).  These one hundred and twenty sheep were taken over by Manradi Tamodiran (Damodara) Vegadan,[23] Devan Idangondan, Marudan[24] Devan and Pattan Perran.  We, the Pujaris of the god, the members of the assembly of Tiraimur, the citizens of Tiruvidaimarudil, and the villagers of Tiruaimur, shall be bound to levy, as long as the moon and the sun exist, this one uri of ghee per day by the Ekanayakan (measure) from (the recipients of) these one hundred and twenty sheep and to sheep and to keep these two perpetual lamps burning.

(L. 8.) This (is) the writing of the accountant of the temple, Korramangalam-Udaiyan Arumoli Porkari.  This (is placed under) the protection of all Mahesvaras.


[1]  Mr. Sewell’s Lists of Antiquities, Vol. I. p. 265.

[2]  See No. 78 of 1892 and No. 137 of 1900.

[3]  Ep. Ind.  Vol. VI. P. 223.

[4]  The historical introduction of this inscription is the same as in No. 69.

[5]  See p. 73 above, note 6.

[6]  See above, p. 134 and note 5.

[7]  The meaning of the Aavanakaliye, which occurs also in other unpublished inscriptions, is not apparent.

[8]  This seems to be the meaning of the term poru[l]-mav-arudi-pporul-chchilc-olai.

[9]  Compare page 2 above.

[10]  See above, p. 151, note 7.

[11]  No. 160 on the Madras Survey Map  of the Kumbhakonam taluka.

[12]  Compare the Madhyarjuna-Mahatmya, No. 1079 in my Reports on Sanskrit Manuscripts in Southern India, No. II.

[13]  The same form of the name occurs in the Tanjore inscriptions ; e.g. above, Vol. II. p. 279 and note 7.

[14]  In No. 64 above this district is called Uyyakkondar-valanadu, which in a Tanjore inscription (above Vol. II. p. 52) is stated to be situated between the Arisil and Kaveri rivers.

[15]  Bhuvanamuzhuthudaiyal, above, No. 58, 1. 1, No. 67, 1. 2, and No. 68, 1. 2; Vol. II. No. 77, 1. 2, and No. 78, 1. 2.

[16]  See verse 12 of the Chellur plates of Vira-Choda, above, Vol. I. p. 59, and verse 11 of the Tithapuram plates of the same prince. Ep. Ind. Vol. V. p. 77.

[17]  The first part of this name, el-isai, means ‘the seven principal notes.’

[18]  The introduction of this inscription is the same as in No. 69 as far as the words “in order that the enemies might be scattered” (p. 147 above).

[19]  See above, p. 138 and note 12.

[20]  See above, Vol. II. p. 257, note 5.

[21]  The first part of this name refers to the ‘Golden Temple’ at Chidambaram ; compare above, Vol. II. No. 66, paragraph 294.

[22]  The word Thirunothavillaku is repeated in a clumsy manner ; it occurs before and after the name of the donor in line 6.  From lines 7 and 8 it appears that note one, but two lamps were actually granted.

[23]  See above, Vol. II. p. 253 and note 1.

[24]  See ibid.  p. 259, note 4.

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