Inscriptions of Kulottunga-Chola I
77 to 78 Inscriptions at Kavantandalam & Perumber
64 to 65 Inscriptions at Tiruvorriyur & Tiruvalangadu
66 to 68 Inscriptions at Kolar, Somangalam & Conjeeveram
69 to 70 Inscriptions at Tirukkalukkunram & Srirangam
71 to 72 Inscriptions at Kilappaluvur & Tiruvidaimarudur
73 to 74 Inscriptions at Cholapuram & Conjeeveram
75 to 76 Inscriptions at Tirukkalukkunram & Jambukesvara temple
77.- Inscription at Kavantandalam
chronological order this inscription follows immediately after No.
67 above, and No. 78 after No. 68 above. It was found impossible to insert them in their proper
places, because Nos. 64 and 76 had been already set up in pages when
Nos. 77 and 78 were copied. Besides
these two records, the following inscriptions commencing with
pugazhmadhu villanga were copied in 1901, in addition to those noted
under clause VIII. On page 126 above : -
36th year : Tenneri, No. 195 of 1901.
41st year : Tenneri No. 197 of 1901.
42nd year : Achcharapakkam, No. 254 of 1901.
43rd year : Achcharapakkam No. 259 of 1901.
49th year : Achcharapakkam, No. 256 of 1901.
subjoined inscription (No. 206 of 1901) is engraved on the south
wall of the Lakshminarayana temple at Kavantandalam.
The same temple contains three earlier inscriptions (Nos. 207
to 209 to 1901), according to which it was built in the time of the
Ganga-Pallava king Kampavarman
by a certain Manasarpa from Kulanur
inscription, which is incomplete, is dated in the 4th
year of the reign of Rajendra-Chola II., but omits the reference to
his queen which occurs in the Somangalam inscription of the 3rd
year (No. 67 above). It
records the proceedings of a meeting of the assembly of
Kayvantandalam (1. 3) in Tamanur-nadu, a subdivision of the district
of Urrukkattu-kottam Kavantandalam, Tamanur
and Urrukkadu are all included in the
modern Conjeeveram taluka.
2.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 4th year (of the reign)
of king Rajakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Rajendra-Soladeva,
who etc., - we, the great assembly of Kayvantandalam, alias
Chaturvedimangalam, a brahmadeya in Tamanur-nadu, (a
subdivision) of Urrukkattu-kottam, (a district) of
Jayangonda-Sola-mandalam, being assembled, without a vacancy in the
in the court (murram) of the sacred temple of Virrirund-Alvar
in the middle of our village on a Thursday which corresponded to (the
day of) Tiruvonam (Sravana) and to the sixth tithi
of the first fortnight of the month of Vrischika in this
ordered (the following) writing, while the magistrate (adhikarain)
Sola-Muvendavelar also was walking about.
4.) Where as . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . and ourselves had been unable to pay . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
which was due from us, the great assembly, [at] the festivals
(on the days) of Sittirai (and) Tiruvonam . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . .
78 Inscription at Perumber
inscription (No. 264 of 1901) is engraved on the west wall of the mandapa
in front of the Tandonrisvara temple at Perumber in the Madurantakam
taluka of the Chingleput district. The ancient name of the temple
was Srikaranisvara (1. 22), and that of the village was
Perumberur (II. 22 and 23). From
this and other inscriptions we learn that Sri-Madurantaka-chaturvedimangalam,
which is the modern Madurantakam, formed a separate division of the
district of Kalattur-kottam (I. 21) ; that
Achcharapakkam (9 miles south-south-west of Madurantakam) was a
quarter of it ; and that Perumberur (3 miles south-west of
achcharapakkam) was a hamlet on the south of it (I. 22).
date is the 11th year of the reign of Kulottunga I. (1.
20 f.). As stated in
the introductory remarks to this chapter (p. 129 f.), the
inscription carries the account of the king’s achievements as far
as the defeat of Vikkalan and the conquest of Gangamandalam and
Singanam. It records
that the assembly of Madurantakam remitted the taxes on certain land
at Perumberur in favour of the temple, and breaks off with the
signatures of a number of citizens in charge of different portions (seri)
of the city, which were named after Chola kings.
the list of inscriptions opening with pukazh suzhntha punari on p.
125 f. the following one, which I had overlooked, must be added : -
15th year : Kadapperi near Madurantakam, No. 138 of 1896.
1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! While the wheel of his (authority)
went as far as the golden circle (i.e., Mount Meru) on the
earth, which was surrounded by the moat of the sea, that was (again)
surrounded by (his) fame, (the king) newly wedded, in
the time (when he was still) heir-apparent, the brilliant
goddess of Victory at Sakkarakottam by deeds of valour and seized a
herd of mountains of rut (i.e., rutting elephants) at
4.) (He) unsheathed (his) sword, showed the strength
of (his) arm, established (his) fame, and spurred (his)
war-steed, so that the army of the king of Kuntala, (whose spear
had) a harp point, retreated.
5.) Having put on the garland of (the victory over) the
Northern region, (he) came to put a stop to the prostitution
of the goddess with the sweet and excellent lotus-flower (i.e., Lakshmi)
of the Southern region and to the loneliness of the goddess of the
good country whose garment is the Ponni, and put on by right (of
inheritance) the pure royal crown of jewels, while the kings of
the old earth bore his two feet (on their heads) as a large
8. The river (of the rules) of the ancient king Manu
swelled, (and) and river (of the sins) of the
Kali (age) dried up. (His) sceptre swayed over every region ; the heavenly
white light of (his) white parasol shone everywhere (on)
the circle of the great earth ; (and his) tiger (-banner)
fluttered unrivalled on the Meru (mountain).
10.) (Before him) stood a row of elephants showering jewels,
which were presented by the kings of remote islands whose girdle is
11.) The excellent head of the refractory king of the South (i.e.,
the Pandya) lay outside his (viz Kulottunga’s) beautiful
city, being peeked by kites.
12.) Not only did the speech (of Vikkalan) : - “After this
day a permanent blemish (will attach to Kulottunga), as (to)
the crescent (which is the origin) of (his) family,”
– turn out wrong, but the bow (in) the hand of Vikkalan was not (even)
bent against (the enemy).
13.) Everywhere from Nangili of rocky roads – with Manalur in the
middle – ot Tungabhadra, there were lying low the dead (bodies
of his) furious elephants, his lost pride and (his)
14.) The very mountains which (he) ascended bent their backs
; the very rivers into which (he) descended eddied and
breached (the banks) in their course ; (and) the very
sea into which (he) plunged became troubled and agitated.
15.) (The Chola king) seized simultaneously the two countries called Gangamandalam
and Singanam, troops of furious elephants which had been
irretrievably abandoned (by the enemy), crowds of women, (the
angles of) whose beautiful eyes were as pointed as daggers, the
goddess of fame, who gladly brought disgrace (on Vikkalan),
and the great goddess of Victory, who changed to the opposite (side)
and caused (Vikkalan) himself, who was desirous of the rule
over the Western region, and (his) army to turn their backs
again and again on many days.
19.) (He) was pleased to be seated (on the throne), while (his)
valour and liberality shone like (his) necklace and (like)
the flower-garland on (his) royal shoulders, (and)
while (all his) enemies prostrated themselves on the ground.
20.) In the eleventh year (of the reign) of this king
Rajakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Kulottunga-Soladeva.
21.) The writing of us, the great assembly
of Sri-Madurantaka-chaturvedimangalam, an independent village
in Kalattur-kottam, (a district) of Jayangonda-Sola-mandalam.
22.) We, the great assembly, have granted that (the following)
tax-paying land, which is the property (kani) of (the god)
Mahadeva of the Srikaranisvara (temple) in Perumberur, a
hamlet in the south of our village, shall be caused to be engraved
on stone and on copper (as belonging) to this god (and)
as free from taxes as long as the moon and the sun shall last, and
that we shall not levy (on it the taxes called) anlaraya
(and) maganmai ;
- Eight padagam
(of) the third square to the east of the Madurantaka
road in the first kanaru
to the north [of
the Srikrishnapura channel] (at) Perumberur, [and four
(padagam) on the east] of the fourth square.
Eight padagam (of)
[the third square to the east of the same road] in the second kanaru,
seven padagam (of) the fourth square, and three padagam
on the northern side of the four padagam on the west (of)
the fifth square. Two
and a quarter padagam on the northern side of the fourth
square to the east of the same road in the third kanaru.
Altogether, thirty-two and a quarter padagam
(The tax due) on (this land is) eleven and
three quarters kalanju and one and two tenths
manjadi of gold.
Having added to this (sun) from the temple (funds)
seven tenths and one twentieth (manjadi), (the total is)
twelve kalanju of gold.
28.) (The above) was ordered by Sottai
Govindabhattar of Irayur,
(in charge of) Sri-Madurantakachcheri ; Kunrakali Somayajiyar
of Urupputtur, (in charge of)
Sri-Parantakachcheri ; Kattugai Narayana-Kramavittar of Nambur, (in
charge of) Sri-Irumudi-Solachcheri ; Srikrishnabhattar of
Aranaippuram, (in charge of)
Sri-Simhalantakachcheri ; Narayanabhatta-Sarvakratuvajape[ya]yajiyar
of Pippirai, (in charge of) Sri-Vira-Solachcheri . . . . . .
. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .
concluding this chapter on the inscriptions of Kulttunga I.
I have to make some additional remarks on the names of his
In the introduction to the inscriptions of his son
Vikrama-Chola (page 182 below) it will be shown that the official
title of the chief queen is often mentioned twice first in
connection with her proper name, and a second time immediately
before the name of the king himself, with whom she is stated to be
seated on the throne. If
we re-examine the inscriptions of Kulottunga I. in the light of this
observation, we find that, in an inscription of his 26th
year (No. 72 above), there are mentioned (1) Dinachintamani with the
title Bhuvanamulududaiyal, (2) Elisai-Vallabhi with the title
Elulagamudiayal, (3) Tyagavalli with the title Ulagudaiyal, and (4)
once more Bhuvanamulududaiyal (i.e., Dinachintamani) as
seated on the throne with the king.
In two inscriptions of the 30th and 42nd
years (Nos. 73 and 75 above) the order is (1) Tyagavalli
Avanimulududaiyal, (2) Elisai-Vallabhi Elulagudaiyal or
Elulagamudaiyal, and (3) again avanimulududaiyal (i.e.,
Tyagavalli). In two
inscriptions of the 45th and 47th years
we have (1) Tyagavalli Ulagadaiyal and (2) Elisai-Vallabhi
Elulagamudaiyal, and No. 76 adds Ulagumudaiyal (i.e.,
Tyagavalli) a second time. It
follows from these references that in A.D. 1095-96 Dinachintamani
occupied the place of chief queen, while Elisai-Vallabhi and
Tyagavalli were the second and third queens.
In A.D. 1099-1100 Dinachintamani had died, Tyagavalli had
been made chief queen, and Elisai Vallabhi remained second queen.
This arrangement was still in force in A.D. 1116-17 (No. 76
above). It follows
further that the title Ulagudaiyal, which occurs in inscriptions of
A.D. 114-15 to 1117-18,
must be referred to Tyagavalli.
The title Bhuvanamulududaiyal or Avanimulududaiyal, which is
found in numerous inscriptions between A.D. 1072-73 (No. 67 above)
and A.D. 1118-19,
was first borne by Dinachintamani is perhaps identical with the
Madurantaki of the Chellur and Pithapuram plates of Vira-Choda,
which are dated in A.D. 1090-91 and 1092-93, respectively.
It may be noted in passing that the Tamil poem Kalingattu-Parani
must have been composed later than A.D. 1095-96, because in this
year Dinachintamani was still alive, while the poem already mentions
Tyagavalli as chief queen.