The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Volume - III

Contents

Preface

Introduction

Part - I

Inscription at Ukkal

Melpadi

Karuvur

Manimangalam

Tiruvallam

Part - II

Kulottunga-Chola I

Vikrama Chola

Virarajendra I

Kulottunga-Chola III

Part - III

Aditya I

Parantaka I

Gandaraditya

Parantaka II

Uttama-Chola

Parthivendravarman

Aditya II Karikala

Part - IV

copper-plate Tirukkalar

Tiruchchengodu

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

VI.- Inscriptions of Kulottunga-Chola I

No. 77 to 78 Inscriptions at Kavantandalam & Perumber

No. 64 to 65 Inscriptions at Tiruvorriyur & Tiruvalangadu

No. 66 to 68 Inscriptions at Kolar, Somangalam & Conjeeveram

No. 69 to 70 Inscriptions at Tirukkalukkunram & Srirangam

No. 71 to 72 Inscriptions at Kilappaluvur & Tiruvidaimarudur

No. 73 to 74 Inscriptions at Cholapuram & Conjeeveram

No. 75 to 76 Inscriptions at Tirukkalukkunram & Jambukesvara temple

No. 77.- Inscription at Kavantandalam

In chronological order this inscription follows immediately after No. 67 above, and No. 78 after No. 68 above.  It was found impossible to insert them in their proper places, because Nos. 64 and 76 had been already set up in pages when Nos. 77 and 78 were copied.  Besides these two records, the following inscriptions commencing with pugazhmadhu villanga were copied in 1901, in addition to those noted under clause VIII. On page 126 above : -

30. 36th year : Tenneri, No. 195 of 1901.

31. 41st year : Tenneri No. 197 of 1901.

32. 42nd year : Achcharapakkam, No. 254 of 1901.

33. 43rd year : Achcharapakkam No. 259 of 1901.

34. 49th year : Achcharapakkam, No. 256 of 1901.

The subjoined inscription (No. 206 of 1901) is engraved on the south wall of the Lakshminarayana temple at Kavantandalam.  The same temple contains three earlier inscriptions (Nos. 207 to 209 to 1901), according to which it was built in the time of the Ganga-Pallava king Kampavarman[1] by a certain Manasarpa from Kulanur[2] in Vengai-nadu.

The inscription, which is incomplete, is dated in the 4th year of the reign of Rajendra-Chola II., but omits the reference to his queen which occurs in the Somangalam inscription of the 3rd year (No. 67 above).  It records the proceedings of a meeting of the assembly of Kayvantandalam (1. 3) in Tamanur-nadu, a subdivision of the district of Urrukkattu-kottam Kavantandalam, Tamanur[3] and Urrukkadu[4] are all included in the modern Conjeeveram taluka.[5]

(Line 2.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 4th year (of the reign) of king Rajakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Rajendra-Soladeva, who etc., - we, the great assembly of Kayvantandalam, alias Chaturvedimangalam, a brahmadeya in Tamanur-nadu, (a subdivision) of Urrukkattu-kottam, (a district) of Jayangonda-Sola-mandalam, being assembled, without a vacancy in the assembly,[6] in the court (murram) of the sacred temple of Virrirund-Alvar in the middle of our village on a Thursday which corresponded to (the day of) Tiruvonam (Sravana) and to the sixth tithi  of the first fortnight of the month of Vrischika in this year,[7] ordered (the following) writing, while the magistrate (adhikarain) Sola-Muvendavelar[8] also was walking about.

(L. 4.) Where as . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .  and ourselves had been unable to pay . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  which was due from us, the great assembly, [at] the festivals (on the days) of Sittirai (and) Tiruvonam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .  . .

No. 78 Inscription at Perumber

This inscription (No. 264 of 1901) is engraved on the west wall of the mandapa in front of the Tandonrisvara temple at Perumber in the Madurantakam taluka of the Chingleput district.  The ancient name of the temple  was Srikaranisvara (1. 22), and that of the village was Perumberur (II. 22 and 23).  From this and other inscriptions we learn that Sri-Madurantaka-chaturvedimangalam, which is the modern Madurantakam, formed a separate division of the district of Kalattur-kottam[9] (I. 21) ; that Achcharapakkam (9 miles south-south-west of Madurantakam) was a quarter of it ; and that Perumberur (3 miles south-west of achcharapakkam) was a hamlet on the south of it (I. 22).

The date is the 11th year of the reign of Kulottunga I. (1. 20 f.).  As stated in the introductory remarks to this chapter (p. 129 f.), the inscription carries the account of the king’s achievements as far as the defeat of Vikkalan and the conquest of Gangamandalam and Singanam.  It records that the assembly of Madurantakam remitted the taxes on certain land at Perumberur in favour of the temple, and breaks off with the signatures of a number of citizens in charge of different portions (seri) of the city, which were named after Chola kings.

To the list of inscriptions opening with pukazh suzhntha punari on p. 125 f. the following one, which I had overlooked, must be added : -

16. 15th year : Kadapperi near Madurantakam, No. 138 of 1896.

 (Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! While the wheel of his (authority) went as far as the golden circle (i.e., Mount Meru) on the earth, which was surrounded by the moat of the sea, that was (again) surrounded by (his) fame, (the king) newly wedded, in the time (when he was still) heir-apparent, the brilliant goddess of Victory at Sakkarakottam by deeds of valour and seized a herd of mountains of rut (i.e., rutting elephants) at Vayiragaram.

(L. 4.) (He) unsheathed (his) sword, showed the strength of (his) arm, established (his) fame, and spurred (his) war-steed, so that the army of the king of Kuntala, (whose spear had) a harp point, retreated.

(L. 5.) Having put on the garland of (the victory over) the Northern region, (he) came to put a stop to the prostitution of the goddess with the sweet and excellent lotus-flower (i.e., Lakshmi) of the Southern region and to the loneliness of the goddess of the good country whose garment is the Ponni, and put on by right (of inheritance) the pure royal crown of jewels, while the kings of the old earth bore his two feet (on their heads) as a large crown.

(L. 8. The river (of the rules) of the ancient king Manu  swelled, (and) and river (of the sins) of the Kali (age) dried up.  (His) sceptre swayed over every region ; the heavenly white light of (his) white parasol shone everywhere (on) the circle of the great earth ; (and his) tiger (-banner) fluttered unrivalled on the Meru (mountain).

(L. 10.) (Before him) stood a row of elephants showering jewels, which were presented by the kings of remote islands whose girdle is the sea.

(L. 11.) The excellent head of the refractory king of the South (i.e., the Pandya) lay outside his (viz Kulottunga’s) beautiful city, being peeked by kites.

(L. 12.) Not only did the speech (of Vikkalan) : - “After this day a permanent blemish (will attach to Kulottunga), as (to) the crescent (which is the origin) of (his) family,”[10] – turn out wrong, but the bow (in) the hand of Vikkalan was not (even) bent against (the enemy).

(L. 13.) Everywhere from Nangili of rocky roads – with Manalur in the middle – ot Tungabhadra, there were lying low the dead (bodies of his) furious elephants, his lost pride and (his) boasted valour.

(L. 14.) The very mountains which (he) ascended bent their backs ; the very rivers into which (he) descended eddied and breached (the banks) in their course ; (and) the very sea into which (he) plunged became troubled and agitated.

(L. 15.) (The Chola king)  seized simultaneously the two countries called Gangamandalam and Singanam, troops of furious elephants which had been irretrievably abandoned (by the enemy), crowds of women, (the angles of) whose beautiful eyes were as pointed as daggers, the goddess of fame, who gladly brought disgrace (on Vikkalan), and the great goddess of Victory, who changed to the opposite (side) and caused (Vikkalan) himself, who was desirous of the rule over the Western region, and (his) army to turn their backs again and again on many days.

(L. 19.) (He) was pleased to be seated (on the throne), while (his) valour and liberality shone like (his) necklace and (like) the flower-garland on (his) royal shoulders, (and) while (all his) enemies prostrated themselves on the ground.

(L. 20.) In the eleventh year (of the reign) of this king Rajakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Kulottunga-Soladeva.

(L. 21.) The writing of us, the great assembly[11] of Sri-Madurantaka-chaturvedimangalam, an independent village[12] in Kalattur-kottam, (a district) of Jayangonda-Sola-mandalam.

(L. 22.) We, the great assembly, have granted that (the following) tax-paying land, which is the property (kani) of (the god) Mahadeva of the Srikaranisvara (temple) in Perumberur, a hamlet in the south of our village, shall be caused to be engraved on stone and on copper (as belonging) to this god (and) as free from taxes as long as the moon and the sun shall last, and that we shall not levy (on it the taxes called) anlaraya[13] (and) maganmai ;[14] - Eight padagam[15] (of) the third square to the east of the Madurantaka  road in the first kanaru[16]  to the north [of the Srikrishnapura channel] (at) Perumberur, [and four (padagam) on the east] of the fourth square.  Eight padagam  (of) [the third square to the east of the same road] in the second kanaru, seven padagam (of) the fourth square, and three padagam on the northern side of the four padagam on the west (of) the fifth square.  Two and a quarter padagam on the northern side of the fourth square to the east of the same road in the third kanaru.  Altogether, thirty-two and a quarter padagam  (The tax due) on (this land is) eleven and three quarters kalanju and one and two tenths[17] manjadi of gold.[18]  Having added to this (sun) from the temple (funds) seven tenths and one twentieth (manjadi), (the total is) twelve kalanju of gold.[19]

(L. 28.) (The above) was ordered by Sottai[20] Govindabhattar of Irayur,[21] (in charge of) Sri-Madurantakachcheri ; Kunrakali Somayajiyar of Urupputtur,[22] (in charge of) Sri-Parantakachcheri ; Kattugai Narayana-Kramavittar of Nambur, (in charge of) Sri-Irumudi-Solachcheri ; Srikrishnabhattar of Aranaippuram,[23] (in charge of) Sri-Simhalantakachcheri ; Narayanabhatta-Sarvakratuvajape[ya]yajiyar of Pippirai, (in charge of) Sri-Vira-Solachcheri . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .

Postscript.

Before concluding this chapter on the inscriptions of Kulttunga I.  I have to make some additional remarks on the names of his queens.[24]  In the introduction to the inscriptions of his son Vikrama-Chola (page 182 below) it will be shown that the official title of the chief queen is often mentioned twice first in connection with her proper name, and a second time immediately before the name of the king himself, with whom she is stated to be seated on the throne.  If we re-examine the inscriptions of Kulottunga I. in the light of this observation, we find that, in an inscription of his 26th year (No. 72 above), there are mentioned (1) Dinachintamani with the title Bhuvanamulududaiyal, (2) Elisai-Vallabhi with the title Elulagamudiayal, (3) Tyagavalli with the title Ulagudaiyal, and (4) once more Bhuvanamulududaiyal (i.e., Dinachintamani) as seated on the throne with the king.  In two inscriptions of the 30th and 42nd years (Nos. 73 and 75 above) the order is (1) Tyagavalli Avanimulududaiyal, (2) Elisai-Vallabhi Elulagudaiyal or Elulagamudaiyal, and (3) again avanimulududaiyal (i.e., Tyagavalli).  In two inscriptions of the 45th and 47th years[25] we have (1) Tyagavalli Ulagadaiyal and (2) Elisai-Vallabhi Elulagamudaiyal, and No. 76 adds Ulagumudaiyal (i.e., Tyagavalli) a second time.  It follows from these references that in A.D. 1095-96 Dinachintamani occupied the place of chief queen, while Elisai-Vallabhi and Tyagavalli were the second and third queens.  In A.D. 1099-1100 Dinachintamani had died, Tyagavalli had been made chief queen, and Elisai Vallabhi remained second queen.  This arrangement was still in force in A.D. 1116-17 (No. 76 above).  It follows further that the title Ulagudaiyal, which occurs in inscriptions of A.D. 114-15 to 1117-18,[26] must be referred to Tyagavalli.  The title Bhuvanamulududaiyal or Avanimulududaiyal, which is found in numerous inscriptions between A.D. 1072-73 (No. 67 above) and A.D. 1118-19,[27] was first borne by Dinachintamani is perhaps identical with the Madurantaki of the Chellur and Pithapuram plates of Vira-Choda,[28] which are dated in A.D. 1090-91 and 1092-93, respectively.[29]  It may be noted in passing that the Tamil poem Kalingattu-Parani must have been composed later than A.D. 1095-96, because in this year Dinachintamani was still alive, while the poem already mentions Tyagavalli as chief queen.[30]


[1]  See page 8 above.

[2]  This is evidently another form of Kulam or Kolanu, the modern Ellore ; see above, Vol. II. p. 308.

[3]  See above, Vol. I. p. 180 and note 1.

[4]  See ibid. p. 181 and note 1 ; Vol. II. p. 345 ; Vol. III. p. 118 and note 2.

[5]  Nos. 404, 395 and 112 of the Madras Survey Map.

[6]  See above, p. 57, note 8.

[7]  This date regularly corresponds to Thursday, the 7th November A.D. 1073.  See the continuation of Professor Kielhorn’s paper on “Dates of Chola kings,”  which will appear in Ep. Ind. Vol. VII. Date No. 56.

[8]  This seems to have been an officer delegated to attend the meeting of the assembly.

[9]  See above, p. 143 and note 13.

[10]  See above, p. 147, notes 1 and 2.

[11]  The two terms kuri and sabhai appear to be synonymous ; see above, p. 17, note 3.

[12]  On taniyur see above, p. 3, note 7.

[13]  See above, p. 162, note 7.

[14]  With maganmai, ‘the daughter ship,’ compare the similar term maganmai, ‘the sonship,’ in No. 57 above, text line 9.

[15]  This is evidently the name of a land measure.

[16]  For sadiram, ‘a square,’ and kannaru or kanaru see above, p. 154 and note 7.

[17]  See above, Vol. II. p. 36, note 1.

[18]  This sum must have been paid to the assembly by a person whose name does not occur in the preserved portion of the inscription.

[19]  This total is wrong and seems to have been arrived at by adding further 3 1/20 manjadi for rounding.

[20]  According to the Guruparamparaprabhava this was the name of the family of the Vaishnava acharya Nadamuni.

[21]  The same place is mentioned in Nos. 29, 31, 32, 35 and 38 above.

[22]  See above, p. 168 and note 4.

[23]  The same place is mentioned in Nos. 30, 31, 32, 35 and 36 above.

[24]  See above, pp. 131, 156 and 159.

[25]  The unpublished Alangudi inscription (No. 44 of 1891) and No. 76 above.

[26]  Above, p. 126, clause VIII. Nos. 22, 23, 24 and 26.

[27]  An inscription at Achcharapakkam, No. 34 of the list on page 172 above.

[28]  See above, p. 131, note 13.

[29]  See Ep. Ind. Vol. VI. P. 335.

[30]  Kalingattu-Parani,  x 55 ; Ind. Ant. Vol. XIX. P. 333.

Home Page