The Indian Analyst

South Indian Inscriptions



Volume - III




Part - I

Inscription at Ukkal





Part - II

Kulottunga-Chola I

Vikrama Chola

Virarajendra I

Kulottunga-Chola III

Part - III

Aditya I

Parantaka I


Parantaka II



Aditya II Karikala

Part - IV

copper-plate Tirukkalar


Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27





Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India


VI.- Inscriptions of Kulottunga-Chola I

No. 73 to 74 Inscriptions at Cholapuram & Conjeeveram

No. 64 to 65 Inscriptions at Tiruvorriyur & Tiruvalangadu

No. 66 to 68 Inscriptions at Kolar, Somangalam & Conjeeveram

No. 69 to 70 Inscriptions at Tirukkalukkunram & Srirangam

No. 71 to 72 Inscriptions at Kilappaluvur & Tiruvidaimarudur

No. 75 to 76 Inscriptions at Tirukkalukkunram & Jambukesvara temple

No. 77 to 78 Inscriptions at Kavantandalam & Perumber

No. 73.- Inscription at Cholapuram

The inscriptions of Kulottunga I. inform us that he conquered and colonized Kottaru.[1]  This ancient town now belongs to the Travancore State and is situated about 10 miles north of Cape Comorin and near the British Post Office.  “Nagercoil.”  A temple named Cholesvara is now included in a quarter of Nagercoil which bears the name Cholapuram, while according to the subjoined inscription it belonged to Kottaru itself.  The inscription (No. 31 of 1896) is engraved on the north, west and south walls of the first prakara of this temple.

The date is the 180th day of the [30]th year of the reign of Kulottunga I.  The historical introduction agrees on the whole with that of No. 72.  But, among the queens, Dinachintamani is omitted and Tyagavalli mentioned in the first place.  Hence it may be concluded that Dinachintamani died between the 26th and 30th years of the king’s reign.[2]

 The inscription records that Kulottunga I. himself, while staying in his palace at Kanchipuram, granted to the temple the village of Andayakkudi, which received the new name Rajendra-Sola-nallur.  The temple itself, we are told, was built by one of the king’s officers and named Rajendra-Sola-Isvara.  Both this name and the new name of the village granted must have been chosen with reference either to Rajendra-Chola II.,[3] the name which Kulottunga I bore during the first few years of his reign, or to Rajendra-Chola I., the name of his maternal grandfather.  Kottaru had the surname Mummudi-Sola I., the name of his maternal grandfather.  Kottaru had the surname Mummudi-Sola-nallur[4] and belonged to Nanji-nadu,[5] a subdivision of Uttama-Sola-valanadu, a district of Rajaraja-Pandi-nadu.[6]

The inscription is incomplete at the end, and lines 5 and 6 are so much damaged that they cannot be published.  They contain a detailed description of the boundaries of the village granted and mention the villages of Alagiya-Pandiyapuram (11.  4 and 6), Sivindiram,[7] Tarumapuram, Irasak[ka]mangalam (1. 5), Sillur, and the temple of Manivannisvara (1. 6).

[The historical introduction is the same as in No. 69, with the following differences.]

(Line 12 f. of No. 69.) For “Vikkalan” No. 73 substitutes “Velpulattarasu.”

(L. 13 f. of No. 69.) “At Altti there were lying low herds of elephants abandoned (by him), the dead (bodies of his) fiery horses, his lost pride and (his) boasted valour.

(L. 16 of No. 69.) “(The Chola king) seized simultaneously the two countries (called) Ganga-mandalam and Kongana-desam,[8] troops of furious elephants,” & c.

[Instead of the passage in line 4 f. of No. 72, which was translated on page 158 above, No. 73 reads :] “(He) was pleased to take his seat on the throne of heroes for life-time with the mistress of the whole earth, while (his) valour and liberality shone like (his) necklace acquired in warfare and (like) the flower-garland on (his) royal shoulders ; while (all men on) earth worshipped (him) ; while the mistress of the whole earth, Tyagavalli, was present, as Uma near Siva ; (and) while the mistress of the seven worlds, Elisai-Vallabhi, - may she prosper ! – the ornament of women, was pleasantly and joyfully seated, as Ganga takes her seat with him (viz., Siva).”

(L. 3.) While this king Rajakesarivarman, alias the emperor Sri-Kulottunga-Soladeva, was graciously seated on the sottai (?) in the while (?) mandapa  (called after) Rajendra-Solan in the west of the octangular (court ?) within the royal palace at Kanchipuram,[9] he was pleased to order as follows : - “To (the god) Mahadeva (of the temple) of Rajendra-Sola-Isvara, which Araiyan Madurantakan, alias Kulottunga-Sola-Keralarajan, the lord of Mulaiyur in Manni-nadu,[10] (a district) of Sola-mandalam, had caused to be built at Kottaru, alias Mummudi-Sola-nallur, in Nanji-nadu, (a subdivision) of Uttama-Sola-valanadu, (a district) of Rajaraja-Pandi-nadu, shall be paid, for the expenses required by this god, from the [30]th year (of my reign) forty-five and a half, three twentieths and one fortieth madai[11] by (the village of) Andayakkudi in the same nadu.  According to (the settlement of) payments (that had taken place) in the seventh year after the accession of Rajendra-Soladeva,[12] (this) tax was paid instead of the (original) land-tax of seventy-nine kasu and three hundred and twenty four kalam of paddy.  The previous name of this village having been cancelled and the name of Rajendra-Sola-nallur (having been substituted), let it be entered in the revenue-register (vari)[13] as a tax-free devadana from the thirtieth year (of my reign), including rents, internal revenue,[14] and small rights, such as ur-kalanju, kumara-kachchanam, the fishing-rent,[15] the tax on looms,[16] the rent of the goldsmiths,[17] madai-kuli, dasavandam[18] and kal-alavu-kuli.”

(L. 4.) In accordance with this royal order, received with the signature of the royal secretary, Keralantaka-Pallavarayan, it was entered in the revenue-register as a tax-free devadana on the one-hundred-and-eightieth day of the . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ..  . .. . . . . . the year (of the king’s reign) in the presence of the Puravaritinaikkala-nayagam[19] Panchanedi Tirukkannapuram-Udaiyan, the lord of Nagangu[di] in Arumolideva-valanadu ; Velan Kumaran, alias Kuvalayasundara-Muvendavelan, the headman of Mullur ; the Puravaritinaikkalattu-Mugavetti[20]  N[a]rayanan Tiruchchirrambalam-Udaiyan, the lord of Andakku[di] in Abar-nadu, (a subdivision) of Rajasundara-valanadu; and Araiyan Kuditangi, alias Rajan[a]rayana – Muvendavelan, the lord of Ku . . . . . . . . . . . . . [lur].  The chief (on) of this village, Rajarajan alias Kulottunga-Sola-Nanjinad-Udaiya[n], (drew up) a document specifying[21] the four great boundaries of this village.  According to the document drawn up (by him),  the eastern boundary of this (village is) to the west of the road leading to Alagiya-Pandiyapuram . . . . . . . .  . . . . .. . . .

No. 74.- Inscription in the Pandava-Perumal Temple

This inscription (No. 18 of 1893) is engraved on the south wall of the Pandava Perumal temple at Conjeeveram.  As in No. 68 above, the name of the temple is given as Tiruppadagam (1. 3).

The date is the 39th year of the reign of Kulottunga I.  But the historical introduction agrees almost literally with an inscription of the 5th year in the same temple (No. 68 above), while the intervening inscriptions (Nos. 69 to 73, 78, and Vol. II. No. 58) contain much additional matter.

The inscription records that a merchant of Kanchipuram paid two kalanju and two manjadi of gold to the Pujaris of the temple, who pledged themselves to have the god supplied daily with two nali of curds.

(Line 3.) In the thirty-ninth year (of the reign) of king Rajakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Kulottunga-Soladeva, who etc.,[22] - the following writing on stone was made and given by me, Ninranarayana-Bhattan of the Bharadvaja (gotra) and by me, Du[da]kari[23] Tiruvarangamani-Bhattan, who are performing the worship in the temple of Tiruppadagatt-Alvan at Kanchipuram, a city in Eyirkottam,[24] (a district) of Jayangonda-Sola-mandalam.  From Tottangilanadan Soman, a merchant who resides in the great street of Rajasraya[25] in this city, we have received two kalanju and two manjadi of gold, weighed by the standard of the city (kudinai-kal) (and) equal (in fineness) to the Madurantaka-madai.[26]

(L. 4.) Out of the interest from (this) we shall be bound to pay for supply daily to this god two nali of curds by the Ninran (? Measure).  If we are not able (to pay it), we shall be bound to make over this gold to those who will pay (it).  If (our) right (to serve) in this temple should cease, we two shall be bound to refund this money before leaving.

[1]  See page 141 above.

[2]  A mutilated inscription in the Lakshminarasimhasvamin temple at Simhachalam in the Vizagapatam taluka (No. 333 of 1899) opens with the same introduction as No. 73.  The name of the king and the year of his reign are lost.  The first line of the inscription contains a Saka date, the first two figures of which are 1000 and 20, while the unit is oblit-rated.

[3]  See page 132 above.

[4]  This designation is derived from a surname of the Chola king Rajaraja I. ; see p. 29 above.

[5]  Suchindram near Cape Comorin was included in the same nadu ; Ep. Ind.  Vol. V. pp. 43, 44, 45 and 46.

[6]  This is an abridged form of “Pandi-nadu, alias Rajaraja-mandalam,” on which see above, Vol. II. p. 149 and note 7.

[7]  This is the ancient name of the present Suchindram between Kottaru and Cape Comorin ;  Ep. Ind.  Vol. V. p. 41 ff.

[8]  Instead of this all other inscriptions, both earlier and later ones, read Singanam.

[9]  Similar detailed descriptions of the place in which the Chola king was seated at the time of a grant occur in Vol. II. No. 1, 1. 5 f ; No. 20 1. 12 f.; Vol. III. No. 9, 1. 3 f. ; No. 20, 1. 11 f. ; No. 65, 1. 3 ; in the large Leyden grant, 1. 116 f. ; and in the small Leyden grant, 1. 4 f.

[10]  In the time of Rajaraja I. Manni-nadu formed a subdivision of the district of Rajendrasimha-valanadu ; above, Vol. II. pp. 125, 324 and 336k.  A Telugu inscription of Kulottunga I. refers to Manni-nandu as a subdivision of Birudarajabhayamkara-valanandu ; Ep. Ind. Vol. VI. P. 223.

[11]  See page 136 above.

[12]  This statement seems to refer to the reign of Rajendra-Chola I.

[13]  Compare page 38 above.

[14]  For antaraya see above, No. 57, 1. 10 ; p. 121, note 3 ; and No. 61, 1. 5.

[15]  The same three terms occur in No. 57 above, 1. 8 f.

[16]  The same term occurs in Vol. I. No. 59, 1. 6 ; No. 61, 1. 4 ; No. 62, 1. 16 ; and No. 78, 1. 2.

[17]  See Ep. Ind. Vol. V. p. 53, note 6.

[18]  This term is used in Kanarese and telugu and means ‘one tenth of the produce.’

[19]  Compare above, p. 117, note 10

[20]  See above, p. 139, note 1.

[21]  Arai-olai, araiyolai or aravolai occurs in the large Leyden grant (passim) ; in the large Tiruppuvanam grant (twice) ; in Vol. II. No. 76, 1. 100 ; and Ep. Ind. Vol. V. No. 8, 1. 22.  In the two last cases it has been erroneously translated by ‘the order of the king.’

[22]  The introduction of this inscription is the same as in No. 68 above.

[23]  This is the Tamil spelling of Duta-Hari, i.e., ‘Krishna as messenger (of the Pandaas).’  With it may be connected Pandavaduta-Perumal, which is given by Mr. Kanakasabhai Pillai (Ind. Ant. Vol. XXI p. 281) as the name of the Pandava-Perumal temple.

[24]  See above, Vol. II. p. 390.

[25]  This was one of the surnames of Rajaraja I. ; see above, Vol. II. p. 260, note 5.

[26]  On kudinai-kal and Madurantaka-madai see Ep. Ind. Vol. V. p. 106, notes 1 and 3.

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