The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Volume - III

Contents

Preface

Introduction

Part - I

Inscription at Ukkal

Melpadi

Karuvur

Manimangalam

Tiruvallam

Part - II

Kulottunga-Chola I

Vikrama Chola

Virarajendra I

Kulottunga-Chola III

Part - III

Aditya I

Parantaka I

Gandaraditya

Parantaka II

Uttama-Chola

Parthivendravarman

Aditya II Karikala

Part - IV

copper-plate Tirukkalar

Tiruchchengodu

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

V.- Inscriptions at Manimangalam

No. 34 to 35 outside of the east wall of the inner prakara

No. 27 to 28 Rajgopala-Perumal temple

No. 29 outside of the east wall of the inner prakara

No. 30 north wall of the mandapa

No. 31 to 33 south, west wall of the mandapa

No. 36 to 39 south, east wall of the mandapa in the perumal temple

No. 40 to 41 east wall of the Dharmesvara temple

No. 34.- On the west wall of the mandapa in the Rajagopala-Perumal temple

This inscription is dated in the 8th year of the reign of Tirubhuvanachakravartin Kulottunga-Choladeva.  It records that the villagers gave to the temple two pieces of land near the village, the first of which had been purchased from Sahanai Madhava-Bhattan.  The second piece of land had been purchased in the 13th year of the reign of Vikrama-Choladeva.

As it is improbable that a very long time could have passed between the purchase of the land in the 13th year of Vikrama-Choladeva and its grant to the temple in the 8th year of Kulottunga-Choladeva, it may be assumed that Kulottunga-Choladeva was the immediate successor of Vikrama-Choladeva.  According to the Chellur plates of Kulottunga II.,[1] Vikrama-Choda reigned for 15 years (A.D. 1112-1127)[2] and was succeeded by his son Kulottunga-Choda II.  Hence the former may be identified with Vikrama-Choladeva who is mentioned in the subjoined inscription, and the latter with Kulottunga-Choladeva to whose reign the inscription belongs.

(Line 1.) Hail! Prosperity! In the 8th year (of the reign) of the emperor of the three worlds, Sri-Kulottunga-Soladeva.  The writing of us, the great assembly of Manimangalam, alias Pandiyanai-irumadi-ven-kanda-Sola-chaturvedimangalam, in Kunrattur-nadu, (a subdivision) of Kulottunga-Sola-valanadu, (a district) of Jayankonda-Sola-mandalam.

(L. 3.) With the knowledge of the manager of the temple of Vanduvarapati-Emberuman in our village, and of the overseer of the Sri-Vaishnavas, we, the great assembly, have given (the following land), free of taxes, to continue as long as the moon and the sun.

(L. 4.) 210 kuli – two hundred and ten kuli – in the second Kannaru [3] to the east of the Manaiy-arudi channel[4] at the Alaimedu (hill)[5] in this village – which had been purchased for gold as a Tiruvidaiyattam[6]  to this Emberuman from [S]aha[n]ai Madhava-Bhattan.

(L. 5.) And a garden of 169 + ¾ + 2/20 + 1/80 kuli – one hundred and sixty-nine, three quarters, two twentieths and one eightieth kuli, - to the east of the large channel which flows to the north from the large sluice of this village ; to the west of the Alavadi (road) ;[7] to the north of Tiruvidaiyattam of this Emberuman in the second Kannaru ;[8] to the east of the large channel ; (and) to the south of the Kannaru, - which had been purchased for gold in the 13th year (of the reign) of Sri-Viravali [Uyya]kkondan Bhattan.

(L. 9.) Having heard the order, I, the accountant of this village, Ilakkuvanan Panchanedi. Alumbiran, alias Mahajanapriyan, wrote (the above).  This (is) my writing.

No. 35.- On the outside of the east wall of the inner prakara of the Rajagopala-Perumal temple

This inscription is dated in the 8th year of the reign of Parakesarivarman, alias Tribhuvanachakravartin  Rajarajadeva (1. 5), and opens with a panegyrical passage, from which we learn nothing of any importance but this is queen bore the name or title Mukkokkilanadigal.[9]  It records that some land near the village was purchased from Sahanai Madhava-Bhattan and assigned to the temple, with the condition that the produce of the land should be applied for providing offerings of boiled rice to the god.

At the time of the inscription of overseer of the Sri-Vaishnavas  was Arattamukkidasan.  As the same officer is referred to in two inscriptions of the 12th and 28th years of the reign of Kulottunga-Chola III.  (Nos. 36 and 37 below), it may be assumed either that Parakesarivarman, alias Rajarajadeva, was identical with that Rajarajadeva who succeeded Kulottunga-Chola III. or that he was the predecessor of the latter.  I am inclined to adopt the second alternative, because the present inscription mentions as the person from whom the granted land was purchased a certain Sahanai Madhava-Bhattan, whose name occurs in a similar connection in the inscription of Kulottunga-Chola II.  (No. 34 above).  Hence the king to whose reign the subjoined inscription belongs has to be styled Rajaraja II., and the successor of Kulottunga-Chola III.  will be Rajaraja III.  The reign of Rajaraja II.  would fall between A.D. 1132, the latest date of Kulottunga II,[10] and A.D. 1178, the date of the accession of Kulottunga III.[11]

I have impression of two other inscriptions of Rajaraja II. which open with the same panegyrical introduction.  The first of them, in the Svetaranyesvara temple at Kadapperi near Madurantakam in the Chingleput district (No. 132 of 1896), is dated in the 9th year ; and the second, in the Ekamranatha temple at Conjeeveram (No. 9 of 1893), is dated in the 15th year of the reign, “on the day of Punarvasu, which was a Thursday and the fourteenth tithi of the first fortnight of the month of Tai.”…..

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! While the goddess of prosperity, who carries a (lotus) flower, the goddess of the earth, the goddess of victory, the goddess of learning, who resided on (his) tongue, and the goddess, of fame lovingly embraced (him), and while all the rules prescribed in the sacred Vedas and the elegant Tamil flourished exceedingly, (the king) put on the jeweled crown by right of royal descent.

(L. 2.) The moon of (his) white parasol was glittering as if it were a matchless hall in which the eight elephants of the quarters abided ;[12] (his) scepter drove away, (like) a prostitute, the dark Kali (age) ; and (his) discus, powerful in battle, accompanied (his) sceptre), extending (his conquests on) the earth.

(L. 3.) Having won the heart (of the goddess) of the earth for countless ages, (he) was pleased to be seated on the throne of heroes, (made) of pure gold, with (his queen) Mukkokkilanadiga, the mistress of the world, while the Villavar (Cheras), Telungar, Minavar (Pandyas), Singalar, Pallavar and other kings prostrated themselves (before him).

(L. 5.) In the 8th year (of the reign) of (this) king Parakesarivarman, alias the emperor of the three worlds, Sri-Rajarajadeva.

(L. 6.) The writing of us, the great assembly of Manimangalam, alias Pandiyanai-irumadi-men-konda-Sola-chaturvedimangalam, in Kunrattur-nadu, (a subdivision) of Kulottunga-Sola-valanadu, (a district) of Jayankonda-Sola-mandalam.

(L. 7.) With the knowledge of Vishnu-Bhattan of Irayur, the manager of the temple of Vanduvarapati-Emberuman in our village, and of Arattamukkidasan the overseer of the Sri-Vaishanvas.

(L. 9.) In order that (the god) Vanduvarapati-Emberuman in our village might receive (every day) an offering of four nali of boiled rice before early dawn, the Mangalangilan  Velan Malaiginiyaninran of Urrukkadu,[13] alias Alagiya-Sola-nallur, in Urrukkadu-nadu, (a subdivision) of Urrukkattu-kottam, (a district) of the same mandalam,  purchased for money from [S]aganai[14] Madhava-Bhattan of our village (the following) land.

(L. 11.) Two hundred and five and a half kuli of Kakkambiral Srirama-Sirilango in the second Kannaru[15]  to the east of the large channel which flows to the north from the large sluice of this village,[16] and to the north of the Alavadi (road),[17] which that Madhava-Bhattan had purchased from Kakkambilal Karunakara-Bhattan of this village ; two hundred and seventeen kuli of Kakkambiral Srirama-Sirilango in the fourth Kannaru to the north of this road ; to the east of this, one hundred and nine kuli, equal to one tadi (and) bearing the same name ; and to the north of this, eighty kuli, . . . . . . . . . . . . .  .. . . in the field of Sahanai Bhattaraiyan, which that Madhava-Bhattan had received as a present from Tiruvengada-Bhattan of this village, - altogether,[18] six hundred and twelve and a half kuli according to the land-register.[19]

(L. 15.) Having received the gold required for making this land free of taxes from the Mangalangilan Velan Malaiginiyaninran, we the great assembly, gave it free of taxes, for as long as the moon and the sun exist.

(L. 16.) The designation which he desires for this land shall be engraved on stone and on copper, and the better half of the leavings of these offerings shall be given to travelers who are Sri-Vaishnavas  (and) have not (received it) before.[20]

(L. 17.) Having been present in the assembly, which met without a vacancy in the temple court in the middle of this village, and having heard the order of Purushottama-Bhattan of Aranippuram, I, Manimangalam-udaiyan [A]na[nda]bo[dha]n Velan Sriramadevan, wrote (the above).  This (is) my writing.

(L. 18.) To this (witness) I, the carpenter Vaduganadan Tiruvaykkulaman Tondainatt-acharyan, who possesses the better half of the land of the carpenters (tachcba-kani) in the village.  This (is) my writing.

(L. 19.)  This charity (is placed under) the protection of the Sri-Vaishnavas. Hari !


[1]  Ind. Ant. Vol. XIV. P. 55.

[2]  Ibid.  Vol. XX. P. 282.

[3]  See above, p. 73, note 6.

[4]  See above, p. 75, note 2.

[5]  See ibid, note 3.

[6]  This is a synonym of devadana ; see the Index to Vol. I.

[7]  Compare above, No. 31, text line 15.

[8]  This refers to the 210 kuli purchased from Sahanai Madhava-Bhattan.

[9]  Mukkokkilanadi had been the name of the chief queen of Vikrama-Chola ; see above, Vol. II. p. 309.

[10]  Ind. Ant.  Vol. XX. P. 285.

[11]  Ep. Ind.  Vol. IV. P. 266.

[12]  I.e., he ruled over the whole earth.

[13]  This is a village in the Conjeeveram taluka ; see above, Vol. II. p. 345, note 4.

[14]  This word is spelt Sahanai in text line 14 below ; see also above, p. 77, note 8.

[15]  See above, p. 73, note 6.

[16]  See No. 34, text line 6, and No. 30, text line 40.

[17]  See above, p. 78 and note 9.

[18]  By adding up the preceding amounts, only 611 ½  kuli are arrived at.

[19]  The same term (pottagam) occurs in Vol. II. No.22, second tier, text line 4.

[20]  The word apurvin is used similarly in Vol. II. No. 25, text line 36.

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