The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Volume - III

Contents

Preface

Introduction

Part - I

Inscription at Ukkal

Melpadi

Karuvur

Manimangalam

Tiruvallam

Part - II

Kulottunga-Chola I

Vikrama Chola

Virarajendra I

Kulottunga-Chola III

Part - III

Aditya I

Parantaka I

Gandaraditya

Parantaka II

Uttama-Chola

Parthivendravarman

Aditya II Karikala

Part - IV

copper-plate Tirukkalar

Tiruchchengodu

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

IV.- Inscriptions at Manimangalam

No. 31 to 33 south, west wall of the mandapa

No. 27 to 28 Rajgopala-Perumal temple

No. 29 outside of the east wall of the inner prakara

No. 30 north wall of the mandapa

No. 34 to 35 outside of the east wall of the inner prakara

No. 36 to 39 south, east wall of the mandapa in the perumal temple

No. 40 to 41 east wall of the Dharmesvara temple

No. 31.- On the west wall of the mandapa in the Rajagopala-Perumal temple

This inscription belongs to the 48th year of the reign of Rajakesarivarman, alias Kulottunga-Choladeva (I.), and opens with the same introduction as two inscription as two inscriptions at Kanchi, which I have published in Vol. II. (Nos. 77 and 78).  It is dated on a week-day (1. 8) which, according to Professor Kielhorn’s calculation,[1] corresponds to Friday, the 25th January A.D. 1118.  On this day a private person purchased from several other persons 1,050 kuli of land near the village and granted them to the temple, with the condition that the produce of the land might be used for defraying the cost of processions of new-moon days.

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity !  In the 48th year (of the reign) of king Rajakesarivarman, alias the emperor of the three worlds, Sri-Kulottunga-Soladeva, who,- while the goddess of fame became renowned (through him), while the goddess of victory was coveting (him), while the goddess of the earth became brilliant (with joy), (and) while the goddess with the (lotus) flower (i.e., Lakshmi) wedded (him), - had put on by right of inheritance the excellent crown of jewels ; who had caused the wheel of his (authority) to roll over all regions, so that the Minavar (pandyas) lost (their) firmness, the Villavar (Cheras) trembled, (and) the other kings were defeated the suffered disgrace ; and who, having anointed himself (in commemoration of his) victories, was graciously seated on the throne of heroes in union with (his queen) Ulagudaiyal.[2]

(L. 4.) The writing of us, the great assembly of Manimangalam, alias Pandiyanai-irumadi-ven-konda-Sola-chaturvedimangalam, in Kunrattur-nadu, (a subdivision) of Kulottunga-Sola-valanadu.

(L. 6.) With the knowledge of Kesuvapattan (i.e., Kesava-Bhatta) of Allur and Tiruvaykkula-Pittan of Aranaipuram, the managers of the temple Vanduvarapati-Emberuman in our village, - in the [48]th year (of the king’s reign), on the day of Satabhishaj, which corresponded to a Friday and to the second tithi of the first fortnight of the month of Kumbha.

(L. 8.) In order that (the god) might be  carried in procession at new-moon from this year forward as long as the moon and the sun exist, Nulappiyaru-[Kil]an Velan [Pe]rayiram-udaiyan, alias Tandaganad-udaiyan, of Nulappiyaru in Ambatturnadu,[3] (a subdivision) of Rajendra-Sola-valanadu,[4] purchased from Donaya-Kramavittan of Kundur one hundred and twenty-five kuli at the Alaimedu (hill).[5]  In the same place (he) purchased from the arbitrator (madhyastha) Urappondan and (his) younger brothers one hundred and fifteen kuli.  From Tiruppori-Kramavittan of Irayur (he) purchased one hundred and twenty-three kuli  to the east of the channel above the ‘Bignonia field.’[6]  In the same place (he) purchased from Vishnu Tiruvengada-Kramavittan of Irayur one hundred and seventeen kuli.  In the same place (he) purchased from Aiyakki Vanduvarapati-Pichchar one hundred and ten kuli.  In the same place (he) purchased from Ya[jna]narayana-Kramavittan of Irayur one hundred and twenty-seven kuli.  In the second Kannaru[7]  to the north of the Alavadi (road) (he) purchased from Viravali Tiruvarangam-udaiyan Sahasran one hundred and twenty kuli.  In the third Kannaru at the same place (he) purchased from Nandi-Kramavittan of Irayur one hundred and eight kuli on the northern side.  In the first Kannaru to the east of the Arivalvadi (road) (he) purchased from . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Karambichchettu[8] Nanamalai-Kramavittan one hundred and fifteen kuli.

(L. 18.) In order that these one thousand and fifty kuli [9] might continue as long as the moon and the sun, for providing[10] (the processions) at new-moon, - having received from him as purchaser the gold necessary for making (the land) tax-free, we, the assembly, gave (it) free of taxes, agreeing that we, the assembly, shall have to pay the taxes due on this land.

(L. 21.) Having engraved this on stone and copper, we, the great assembly, gave (it) free of taxes, to continue as long as the moon and the sun.

(L. 22.) Having been present in the assembly, I, the arbitrator of this village, Manimangalam-udaiyan Velan Peran, wrote (the above) at the order of Aiyyakki Vanduvarapati-Pichchar.  This (is) my writing.

No. 32– On the south wall of the mandapa in the Rajagopala-Perumal temple

This inscription is mutilated at the end.  It records the purchase of some land near the village, the produce of which was assigned to the temple for providing offerings.  The name of the purchaser and donor was Viravali Tiruvarangam-udaiyan Sahasran, and the two temple managers at the time of the purchase were Kesava-Bhattan of Allur and Tiruvaykkula-Pittan of Aranaippuram.  As the same three persons are mentioned in the preceding inscription (No. 31), which belongs to the reign of Kulottunga I., it follows that the subjoined inscription, which is dated in the 48th year of Tribhuvanachakravartin  Kulottunga-Choladeva, has to be assigned also to Kulottunga I.

(Line 1.) Hail! Prosperity! In the 48th year (of the reign) of the emperor of the three worlds, Sri-Kulottunga-Soladeva, on the day of Satabhishaj, which corresponded to a Friday and to the twelfth tithi[11] of the first fortnight of the month of Kumbha.

(L. 2.) The writing of the great assembly of Manimangalam, alias Pandiyanai-irumadi-ven-kanda-Sola-valanadu, (a district) of Jayankonda-Sola-mandalam.

(L. 3.) With the knowledge of Kesava-Bhattan of [Alu]r and Tiruvaykkula-Alvar, which is the temple in the middle of our village.

(L. 4.) Viravali Tiruvarangam-udaiyan Sahasran of this village purchased, for providing offerings of this Alvar, from  Damodara-Kramavittan of Irayur and Chandradeva-Anna[t]ti-Kramavittan of Kundur, (two residents) of this village [2]6[6] kuli of cultivated land in the second kannaru[12] to the east of the Manai-arudi channel[13] at the Alaimedu (hill)[14] in this village, enclosed within the following four boundaries : - The eastern boundary of the land (is) to the west of the third Kannaru ; the southern boundary (is) to the north of a channel which flows towards the east ; the western boundary (is) to the east of this second Kannaru ; (and) the northern boundary (is) to the south of the Perunalvadi  (road) [15] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

No. 33.- On the west wall of the mandapa in the Rajagopala-Perumal temple

This inscription is dated in the 4th year of the reign of Parakesarivarman, alias Vikrama-Choladeva (1. 17), and opens with an introduction which resembles that of the Tanjavur inscription of this king, but is only partially preserved.  It records that certain land was purchased from the villagers and granted to the temple.  The land was situated in Pulvayppappan-Kulattur – evidently a portion of the village of Kulattur which is referred to in No. 27 above.

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 4th year (of the reign) of king Parakesarivarman, alias the emperior of the three worlds, Sri-Vikrama-Soladeva, who, & c.[16]

(L. 18.) The hand-writing, (referring to) a deed of sale (vilaiy-avanam) of land,[17] of us, the great assembly of Manimangalam, alias Pandiyanai-irumadi-men-konda-Sla-chaturvedimangalam, in Kunratur-nadu, (a subdivision) of Kulottunga-Sola-valanadu, (a district) of Jayankonda-Sola-mandalam.

(L. 19.) We have sold the following land to Kesavan Perayiram-udaiyan, alias Tandaganad-udaiyan, the headman of Nulappiyaru[18] in Ambattur-nadu,[19] (a subdivision) of Pular-kottam,[20] alias Rajendra-Sola-valanadu.

(L. 20.) Land in [Pulva]yppappa[n-Kulattur], a hamlet on the west of this village.   (The northern boundary is) to the south of the pond of I[daiyankadu]; (the southern boundary is) to the north of the boundary of Maganur ;[21] the eastern boundary (is) to the west of Kalarun[ga]li ; and the western boundary (is) to the east of the pond.

(L. 22.) We, the great assembly, sold (1) the field of one-quarter (veli), enclosed within these four boundaries, (which measures) from old times 1,500 – one thousand and five hundred (kuli), including the large field of Nambi-nangai, and (2) half (a veli) of land (called) Naduvu-[ti]ruttichchey, to (the temple of) Vanduvarapati-Tiruvaykkulatt-Alvar in this village, in order that (the god) might receive offerings after having bathed on the day on which (he) is carried out for the Tiruvurosani  (festival), (which takes place) every month on (the day of) Rohini, the nakshatra of the birth (of the god) of our village.

(L. 25.) This was written under order by Manimangalam-udaiyan Ilakkuvanan (i.e., Lakshmana) Ramadevan.


[1]  Ep. Ind.  Vol. IV. P. 263.

[2]  I.e., ‘the mistress of the world ;’ compare above, Vol. II. p. 391, note 8.

[3]  This subdivision owes its name to Ambattur, a village and Railway station west of Madras and 6 miles north of Saidapet.

[4]  See below, p. 76 and note 15.

[5]  The same field is mentioned in No. 28, 1. f f.

[6]  The same field is mentioned in No. 28, 1. 8 f.

[7]  The same term occurs repeatedly in an inscription at Tirumalai (Vol. I. No. 72).  It seems to denote a group of fields.

[8]  Compare above, No. 29, text line 22.

[9]  By adding up the preceding amounts we arrive at 1,060 kuli, i.e., 10 more than stated in the text.

[10]  On puram see above, p. 6, note 9.

[11]  Professor Kielhorn states that ‘the twelfth tithi’ is a mistake for ‘the second tithi’ and that, consequently, the whole date of this inscription is identical with that of No. 31.

[12]  See above, p. 73, note 6.

[13]  Compare above, No. 28, text line.

[14]  See  ibid.  text line 9 f. and No. 31, text line 10.

[15]  See above, No. 28, text line 8 f.

[16]  The historical introduction of this inscription, as far as it is preserved, agrees with the introduction of the Tanjavur inscription of Vikrama-Chola ; above, Vol. II. No. 68.

[17]  The same term occurs in No. 10 above, text line 2.

[18]  The donor of an inscription of Kulottunga I.  (above, No. 31, text line 9 f.) bore the same title target="_self"s and may

[19]  See above, p. 73, note 2.

[20]  This district is named after Pulal or Polal, a village near Madras on the road to Nellore (No. 38 on the Madras Survey Map of the Saidapet taluka).  Compare Ep. Ind.  Vol. IV. P. 8, note 2.

[21]  See above, No. 27, text line 3.

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