Inscriptions at Manimangalam
30 north wall of the mandapa
27 to 28 Rajgopala-Perumal temple
29 outside of the east wall of the inner prakara
31 to 33 south, west wall of the mandapa
34 to 35 outside of the east wall of the inner prakara
36 to 39 south, east wall of the mandapa in the perumal temple
40 to 41 east wall of the Dharmesvara temple
30.- On the north wall of the mandapa in the Rajagopala-Perumal
inscription is dated in the 5th year of the reign of
Rajakesarivarman, alias Virarajendradeva (I.), and on a
week-day (1. 37) which will probably admit of astronomical
calculation if a second, similarly dated record of the same reign
should be discovered. It
opens with a long and interesting historical passage, the first
portion of which agrees on the whole with the introduction of the
Karuvur inscription of the same king (No. 20 above).
But the statement that the king conferred certain titles on
some relatives of his (No. 20, 11. 1 to 3) is omitted here.
For the reconstruction of the text of the fresh portion of
the introduction no materials are available besides the incomplete
introduction of the Takkolam inscription and some stray fragments of
the Gangaikonda-Solapuram inscription.
I. is said to have defeated the Keralas at Ulagai, which seems to
have been a place on the western coast, and to have tied in his
stables the elephants of the Chalukyas and Pandyas (1. 16 f.).
In a battle on the bank of an unspecified river he cut off
the heads of a number of chiefs, some of who are mentioned by name,
but cannot be identified (1. 17 ff.).
As the Ganga and Nulamba chiefs figure among them, they
probably feudatories of the Western Chalukya king.
Virarajendra I. was
going to exhibit the heads of his victims at Gangaikonda-Solapuram,
when his old enemy, the Chalukya king (Ahavamalla-Somesvara I.),
prepared to take revenge for his former defeat a Kudal (or
and dispatched an autograph letter, in which he challenged the Chola
king to meet him once more at Kudal (1. 20 ff.).
Virarajendra I. proceeded
to Kandai (or Karandai ?) which seems to have been a place near
Kudal, on the appointed day. Though
he waited there for a full month, his enemy did not put in his
appearance, but took to flight (1. 24 f.).
The Chola king occupied and burnt Ratta-padi and planted an
inscribed pillar of victory on the Tungabhadra river (1. 25 f.).
follows a passage which states that Virarajendra I appointed “the
liar who came on a subsequent day” to be Chalukya king or
heir-apparent, and that, in derision, he placed round the neck of
the candidate a board on which was written that the bearer had
escaped execution by an elephant and had run always in public (1. 26
ff.). The Manimangalam inscription does not name the person who was
the object of this mockery. But
an inscription of the 7th year of Virarajendra I. at
Tirukkalukkunram (No. 175 of 1894) says that the king “tied (round
the neck) of the Salukki Vikramaditya, who had taken refuge at his
feet, a necklace (kanthika), (which) illumined the eight directions,
and was pleased to conquer and to bestow (on him) the seven and a
half lakshas of Ratta-padi.”
Thus it appears that the Chalukya king or heir-apparent
appointed by Virarajendra I. was Vikramaditya VI., the son of his
enemy Ahavamalla-Somesvara I., and that Vikramaditya’s coronation
was not a mere sham act, as which it is represented in the subjoined
inscription. As it is
now an established fact that, after the wars between Somesvara I.
and Virarajendra I., the latter entered into friendly relations with
Vikramaditya VI., it cannot be doubted any more that the Chola king
whole daughter, according to the Vikramankadevacharita,
became the wife of Vikramaditya VI., is identical with Virarajendra
king next undertook an expedition into Vengai-nadu, i.e., the
country of Vengi, which he had already conquered on a former
(1. 28). His army
defeated the enemy “on the great river close to Visaiyavadai,” i.e.
at Bezvada on the Krishna, proceeded to the Godavari, and passed
Kalinga and Chakra-kotta (1. 29 f.).
The king bestowed the country of Vengai on Vijayaditya (1. 30
f.). Formerly I
identified this prince with the Eastern Chalukya viceroy Vijayaditya
But Mr. Venkayya aptly suggests that he may be the same as
Vishnuvardhana-Vijayaditya, a younger brother of Vikramaditya VI.,
who bore the title ‘lord of the province of Vengi.’
his return to Gangaikonda-Solapuram the king assumed the surname
Rajadhirajaraja and exhibited the booty which he had brought from
the country of Vengai (1. 31 ff.).
lines 36 ff. the inscription records that 4,450 kuli of land
near the village were granted to the temple by the Senapati
Jayankonda-Chola-Brahmadhiraja, whose mother had made the grant
described in the preceding inscription of Rajendra (No. 29). The land had been purchased from the villagers by
alias Jayasimhakulantaka-Brahmamarayar, the father of the Senapati.
first 15 lines agree with 11. 1 – 10 of No. 20 above.]
16.) When at Ulagai
the Keralas were uprooted along with the infants of their family,
ran away and plunged into the western ocean, (the Chola king)
dispatched (his) elephants for a rare bath (in the ocean). (He) tied in the stables the Irattas (i.e., the
Chalukyas) whose elephants were numberless,
along with the elephants of the Kanniyas,
which (he) had seized. (He)
took the tribute which they paid, along with female elephants (which
had) trappings, and returned.
17.) Having occupied (an island) surrounded by water, (he)
cut off in a hot battle, which had been appointed near the river,
the great heads of the following Dandanayakas :- Malliyanan
of great valour, Manjippayan, Piramadevan (i.e., Brahmadeva),
whose elephants dripped with rut, Asokaiyan,
(who wore) a fresh garland, Sattiyanan of brilliant valour,
Pattiyanan, (the minister for) peace and war, Vimayan, (who wore)
a fragrant, excellent garland (and who resembled) a rutting
elephant, and Vangaran of great wisdom, (and the heads) of
the Ganga (king), (who carried) a dreadful
lance, of the Nulamba (king),
of the king of the Kadavas,
and of the Vaidumba king,
the rut of whose elephants was diminishing (through fear).
20.) Before (the Chola king) had nailed up (the heads
of these princes in) the great city (called after) the great
river Ganga, the Salukki, who came from the race of
the Moon, reproached himself, saying : - “It is much better to dic
than to live in disgrace,” became troubled in mind, and declared
that the same Kudal, where, previously, (his) son and himself
turned their backs and were routed, (should be the next)
21.) In order that all might know (it), (he) wrote as
preamble of a letter, which was hard to be dispatched, the words : -
“He who does not come to the appointed Kudal through fear, shall
be no king, (but) a liar (who incurs) great disgrace
in war,” (and) gave (this letter) along with the
order for dispatch (?) to the liars of Iratta-padi,
who ordered Ganga[k]ettan (to deliver it).
23.) He came, prostrated himself at the two feet (of the Chola king),
the declared (the contents of) the letter.
The mind, the face and the two royal shoulders (of the
king) became doubly brilliant with surpassing beauty and joy.
24.) (He) started and entered that battle-field.
Not having seen the king of the Vallabhas (i.e., the
Chalukyas) arrive at Kandai,
(he) waited one month after the appointed day. Then the liar
ran away until his legs became sore, and hid himself in the western
ocean, and each of the three : devanathan, Sitti and Kesi, turned
25.) (The Chola king) subdued (in) war the seven and a
half lakshas of the famous
Iratta-padi, and kindled crackling fires.
In order that the four quarters might praise (him), (he)
planted (on) the bank of the Tungabhadra a pillar (bearing)
a description of (his) victory, while the male tiger,
(the crest of the race) of the Sun, sported joyfully.
26.) (The king) appointed the liar,
who came on a subsequent day, as Vallabha (i.e., Chalukya
king), and tied (round his neck) a beautiful necklace (kanthika).
(He) wrote unmistakably on a board how (the Chalukya)
had escaped the trunk of an elephant (which had) a cord (round
its neck), and had run away with the knowledge (of all the
people) of this earth.
Then, on the auspicious day on which (the latter)
attained to the dignity of Salukki, (the Chola king)
tied on (his) breast (that board) and a quiver (of
arrows), which was closed (and hence useless).
28.) Having moved (his camp), he declared: - “(We)
shall not return without regaining the good country Vengai, which (we
had formerly) subdued. You,
(who are) strong, come and defend (it) if (you) are
able!” That army
which was chosen (for this expedition) drove into the jungle that
big army, which resisted (its enemies) on the great river
close to Visaiyavadai (and) which had for its chiefs Jananathan,
the Dandanayaka Rajamayan, whose mast elephants
trumpeted in herds, and Mupparasan.
29.) His elephants drank the water of the Godavari.
(He) Kalingam and, beyond (it), dispatched (for)
battle (his) invincible army as far as the further end of
30.) (He) re-conquered the good country of Vengai and
bestowed (it) on Vijayadityan, whose broad hand (held)
weapons of war, (and) who had taken refuge at his lotus-feet.
31.) Having been pleased to return speedily, (the Chola king)
with the goddess of victory, who had shown hostility in the
and there made (himself) the lord of the earth, (with the
in accordance with the observances of his (family).
32.) While (all) the kings on earth worshipped (his)
feet and praised (him), (he) was seated on a throne of
bright jewels and exhibited in order the heap of the great treasures
which (he) had seized in the good country of Vengai.
(He) unlocked the rings and chains (of prisoners)
and altered (his previously made) vow, according to
which they ought to have lived (in confinement).
(He) wielded a scepter which ruled (as far as)
the limits of (the mountain) surrounded by snow (i.e., the
Himalaya) the of Setu (i.e., Ramesvaram), and illumined the
34.) In the fifth year (of the reign) of (this)
Rajakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Virarajendradeva, who
illustrated (by his conduct) the laws of Manu, which are hard
to follow and was seated
on the royal (throne), (which he) had acquired by
right of warlike deeds, while the matchless banner of heroism, along
with the banner of liberality, was raised on high (as if) to
say : - “Let (all) supplicants come !”
36.) We, the great assembly of Manimangalam, alias
Rajasulamani-chaturvedimangalam, in Maganur-nadu, (a subdivision)
of Sengattu-kottam, (a district) of Jayankonda-Sola-mandalam,
having given alms (?) and being assembled, without a vacancy in the
assembly, in the large mandapa (of) the Brahmasthana
in our village, on the day of Uttara (Phalguni), which
corresponded to a Monday and to the fourteenth tithi of the
second fortnight of the month of Kanya in this year, (gave
to the temple) the following land, which we had formerly given
on payment, free of taxes, to Manjippayanar, alias
Jayasimhakulantaka-Brahmamarayar, the father of the Senapati
Jayankonda-Sola-Brahmadhirajar, the owner of a living (jivita)
in this village, and which he was enjoying as his property.
40.) An areca garden of two hundred and fifty kuli, which he
had purchased, to the east of the large channel which flows from the
large sluice of this village, (and) to the north of the Bharata
channel, and four thousand and two hundred kuli to the east
of the bank of the large tank, to the north of the channel (which
flows from) the sluice of Panaiyandanjeri, to the south of the
garden of Koran[ji Rudra-Kra]mavittan, and to the west of a large
road, excluding other Devadanas,- altogether four thousand
four hundred and fifty kuli by the rod (kol) of this
village were given to (the temple of) Srimad-Dvarapati, (alias)
Sri-Kamakkodi-Vinnagar-Alvar in this village, for the expenses of
the worship, by the Senapti Jayankonda-Sola-Brahmadhirajar,
the son of that Manjippayanar.
44.) We, the great assembly, are bound to pay the taxes and to give
these four thousand four hundred and fifty kuli of land to
this Alvar for
as long as the moon and the sun exist.
45.) Having been present in the assembly and having heard the order
of Bhavanandi-Sahasran of Pirandur, Tindakula-Madhava-Kramavittan of
Aranaippuram, and Madhava-Kramavittan of Ivuni, who had districted
the blocks and inspected the blocks, I, Vadugan Pakkaran (i.e.,
accountant of the village, wrote (the above).
This (is) my writing.