The Indian Analyst

South Indian Inscriptions



Volume - III




Part - I

Inscription at Ukkal





Part - II

Kulottunga-Chola I

Vikrama Chola

Virarajendra I

Kulottunga-Chola III

Part - III

Aditya I

Parantaka I


Parantaka II



Aditya II Karikala

Part - IV

copper-plate Tirukkalar


Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27





Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India


IV.- Inscriptions at Manimangalam

No. 30 north wall of the mandapa

No. 27 to 28 Rajgopala-Perumal temple

No. 29 outside of the east wall of the inner prakara

No. 31 to 33 south, west wall of the mandapa

No. 34 to 35 outside of the east wall of the inner prakara

No. 36 to 39 south, east wall of the mandapa in the perumal temple

No. 40 to 41 east wall of the Dharmesvara temple

No. 30.- On the north wall of the mandapa in the Rajagopala-Perumal temple

This inscription is dated in the 5th year of the reign of Rajakesarivarman, alias Virarajendradeva (I.), and on a week-day (1. 37) which will probably admit of astronomical calculation if a second, similarly dated record of the same reign should be discovered.  It opens with a long and interesting historical passage, the first portion of which agrees on the whole with the introduction of the Karuvur inscription of the same king (No. 20 above).  But the statement that the king conferred certain titles on some relatives of his (No. 20, 11. 1 to 3) is omitted here.  For the reconstruction of the text of the fresh portion of the introduction no materials are available besides the incomplete introduction of the Takkolam inscription and some stray fragments of the Gangaikonda-Solapuram inscription.

Virarajendra I. is said to have defeated the Keralas at Ulagai, which seems to have been a place on the western coast, and to have tied in his stables the elephants of the Chalukyas and Pandyas (1. 16 f.).  In a battle on the bank of an unspecified river he cut off the heads of a number of chiefs, some of who are mentioned by name, but cannot be identified (1. 17 ff.).  As the Ganga and Nulamba chiefs figure among them, they probably feudatories of the Western Chalukya king.  Virarajendra I.  was going to exhibit the heads of his victims at Gangaikonda-Solapuram, when his old enemy, the Chalukya king (Ahavamalla-Somesvara I.), prepared to take revenge for his former defeat a Kudal (or Kudalsangamam)[1] and dispatched an autograph letter, in which he challenged the Chola king to meet him once more at Kudal (1. 20 ff.).  Virarajendra I.  proceeded to Kandai (or Karandai ?) which seems to have been a place near Kudal, on the appointed day.  Though he waited there for a full month, his enemy did not put in his appearance, but took to flight (1. 24 f.).  The Chola king occupied and burnt Ratta-padi and planted an inscribed pillar of victory on the Tungabhadra river (1. 25 f.).


Then follows a passage which states that Virarajendra I appointed “the liar who came on a subsequent day” to be Chalukya king or heir-apparent, and that, in derision, he placed round the neck of the candidate a board on which was written that the bearer had escaped execution by an elephant and had run always in public (1. 26 ff.).  The Manimangalam inscription does not name the person who was the object of this mockery.  But an inscription of the 7th year of Virarajendra I. at Tirukkalukkunram (No. 175 of 1894) says that the king “tied (round the neck) of the Salukki Vikramaditya, who had taken refuge at his feet, a necklace (kanthika), (which) illumined the eight directions, and was pleased to conquer and to bestow (on him) the seven and a half lakshas of Ratta-padi.”  Thus it appears that the Chalukya king or heir-apparent appointed by Virarajendra I. was Vikramaditya VI., the son of his enemy Ahavamalla-Somesvara I., and that Vikramaditya’s coronation was not a mere sham act, as which it is represented in the subjoined inscription.  As it is now an established fact that, after the wars between Somesvara I. and Virarajendra I., the latter entered into friendly relations with Vikramaditya VI., it cannot be doubted any more that the Chola king whole daughter, according to the Vikramankadevacharita, became the wife of Vikramaditya VI., is identical with Virarajendra I.[2]

The king next undertook an expedition into Vengai-nadu, i.e., the country of Vengi, which he had already conquered on a former occasion[3] (1. 28).  His army defeated the enemy “on the great river close to Visaiyavadai,” i.e. at Bezvada on the Krishna, proceeded to the Godavari, and passed Kalinga and Chakra-kotta (1. 29 f.).  The king bestowed the country of Vengai on Vijayaditya (1. 30 f.).  Formerly I identified this prince with the Eastern Chalukya viceroy Vijayaditya VII.[4]  But Mr. Venkayya aptly suggests that he may be the same as Vishnuvardhana-Vijayaditya, a younger brother of Vikramaditya VI., who bore the title ‘lord of the province of Vengi.’[5]

On his return to Gangaikonda-Solapuram the king assumed the surname Rajadhirajaraja and exhibited the booty which he had brought from the country of Vengai (1. 31 ff.).

In lines 36 ff. the inscription records that 4,450 kuli of land near the village were granted to the temple by the Senapati Jayankonda-Chola-Brahmadhiraja, whose mother had made the grant described in the preceding inscription of Rajendra (No. 29).  The land had been purchased from the villagers by Manjippayanar,[6] alias Jayasimhakulantaka-Brahmamarayar, the father of the Senapati.

[The first 15 lines agree with 11. 1 – 10 of No. 20 above.]

(Line 16.) When at Ulagai[7] the Keralas were uprooted along with the infants of their family, ran away and plunged into the western ocean, (the Chola king) dispatched (his) elephants for a rare bath (in the ocean).  (He) tied in the stables the Irattas (i.e., the Chalukyas) whose elephants were numberless,[8] along with the elephants of the Kanniyas,[9] which (he) had seized.  (He) took the tribute which they paid, along with female elephants (which had) trappings, and returned.

(L. 17.) Having occupied (an island) surrounded by water, (he) cut off in a hot battle, which had been appointed near the river, the great heads of the following Dandanayakas :- Malliyanan of great valour, Manjippayan, Piramadevan (i.e., Brahmadeva), whose elephants dripped with rut, Asokaiyan,[10] (who wore) a fresh garland, Sattiyanan of brilliant valour, Pattiyanan, (the minister for) peace and war, Vimayan, (who wore) a fragrant, excellent garland (and who resembled) a rutting elephant, and Vangaran of great wisdom, (and the heads) of the Ganga (king), (who carried) a dreadful lance, of the Nulamba (king),[11] of the king of the Kadavas,[12] and of the Vaidumba king,[13] the rut of whose elephants was diminishing (through fear).

(L. 20.) Before (the Chola king) had nailed up (the heads of these princes in) the great city (called after) the great river Ganga,[14] the Salukki,[15] who came from the race of the Moon, reproached himself, saying : - “It is much better to dic than to live in disgrace,” became troubled in mind, and declared that the same Kudal, where, previously, (his) son and himself turned their backs and were routed, (should be the next) battle-field.

(L. 21.) In order that all might know (it), (he) wrote as preamble of a letter, which was hard to be dispatched, the words : - “He who does not come to the appointed Kudal through fear, shall be no king, (but) a liar (who incurs) great disgrace in war,” (and) gave (this letter) along with the order for dispatch (?) to the liars of Iratta-padi,[16] who ordered Ganga[k]ettan (to deliver it).

(L. 23.) He came, prostrated himself at the two feet (of the Chola king), the declared (the contents of) the letter.  The mind, the face and the two royal shoulders (of the king) became doubly brilliant with surpassing beauty and joy.

(L. 24.) (He) started and entered that battle-field.  Not having seen the king of the Vallabhas (i.e., the Chalukyas) arrive at Kandai,[17] (he) waited one month after the appointed day.  Then the liar[18] ran away until his legs became sore, and hid himself in the western ocean, and each of the three : devanathan, Sitti and Kesi, turned their backs.

(L. 25.) (The Chola king) subdued (in) war the seven and a half lakshas of the famous[19] Iratta-padi, and kindled crackling fires.  In order that the four quarters might praise (him), (he) planted (on) the bank of the Tungabhadra a pillar (bearing)  a description of (his) victory, while the male tiger, (the crest of the race) of the Sun, sported joyfully.[20]

(L. 26.) (The king) appointed the liar,[21] who came on a subsequent day, as Vallabha (i.e., Chalukya king), and tied (round his neck) a beautiful necklace (kanthika).[22]  (He) wrote unmistakably on a board how (the Chalukya) had escaped the trunk of an elephant (which had) a cord (round its neck), and had run away with the knowledge (of all the people) of this earth.[23]  Then, on the auspicious day on which (the latter) attained to the dignity of Salukki, (the Chola king) tied on (his) breast (that board) and a quiver (of arrows), which was closed (and hence useless).

(L. 28.) Having moved (his camp), he declared: - “(We) shall not return without regaining the good country Vengai, which (we had formerly) subdued.  You,[24] (who are) strong, come and defend (it) if (you) are able!”  That army which was chosen (for this expedition) drove into the jungle that big army, which resisted (its enemies) on the great river close to Visaiyavadai (and) which had for its chiefs Jananathan,[25] the Dandanayaka Rajamayan, whose mast elephants trumpeted in herds, and Mupparasan.

(L. 29.) His elephants drank the water of the Godavari.  (He) Kalingam and, beyond (it), dispatched (for) battle (his) invincible army as far as the further end of Sakara-kottam (Chakra-kotta).[26]

(L. 30.) (He) re-conquered the good country of Vengai and bestowed (it) on Vijayadityan, whose broad hand (held) weapons of war, (and) who had taken refuge at his lotus-feet.[27]

(L. 31.) Having been pleased to return speedily, (the Chola king) entered Gangapuri[28] with the goddess of victory, who had shown hostility in the interval,[29] and there made (himself) the lord of the earth, (with the title) Rajadhirajarajan,[30] in accordance with the observances of his (family).

(L. 32.) While (all) the kings on earth worshipped (his) feet and praised (him), (he) was seated on a throne of bright jewels and exhibited in order the heap of the great treasures which (he) had seized in the good country of Vengai.  (He) unlocked the rings and chains (of prisoners) and altered (his previously made) vow, according to which they ought to have lived (in confinement).  (He) wielded a scepter which ruled (as far as) the limits of (the mountain) surrounded by snow (i.e., the Himalaya) the of Setu (i.e., Ramesvaram), and illumined the earth.

(L. 34.) In the fifth year (of the reign) of (this) Rajakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Virarajendradeva, who illustrated (by his conduct) the laws of Manu, which are hard to follow and was  seated on the royal (throne), (which he) had acquired by right of warlike deeds, while the matchless banner of heroism, along with the banner of liberality, was raised on high (as if) to say : - “Let (all) supplicants come !”

(L. 36.) We, the great assembly of Manimangalam, alias Rajasulamani-chaturvedimangalam, in Maganur-nadu, (a subdivision) of Sengattu-kottam, (a district) of Jayankonda-Sola-mandalam, having given alms (?) and being assembled, without a vacancy in the assembly, in the large mandapa (of) the Brahmasthana[31] in our village, on the day of Uttara (Phalguni), which corresponded to a Monday and to the fourteenth tithi of the second fortnight of the month of Kanya in this year, (gave to the temple) the following land, which we had formerly given on payment, free of taxes, to Manjippayanar, alias Jayasimhakulantaka-Brahmamarayar, the father of the Senapati  Jayankonda-Sola-Brahmadhirajar, the owner of a living (jivita) in this village, and which he was enjoying as his property.

(L. 40.) An areca garden of two hundred and fifty kuli, which he had purchased, to the east of the large channel which flows from the large sluice of this village, (and) to the north of the Bharata channel, and four thousand and two hundred kuli to the east of the bank of the large tank, to the north of the channel (which flows from) the sluice of Panaiyandanjeri, to the south of the garden of Koran[ji Rudra-Kra]mavittan, and to the west of a large road, excluding other Devadanas,- altogether four thousand four hundred and fifty kuli by the rod (kol) of this village were given to (the temple of) Srimad-Dvarapati, (alias) Sri-Kamakkodi-Vinnagar-Alvar in this village, for the expenses of the worship, by the Senapti Jayankonda-Sola-Brahmadhirajar, the son of that Manjippayanar.

(L. 44.) We, the great assembly, are bound to pay the taxes and to give these four thousand four hundred and fifty kuli of land to this Alvar  for as long as the moon and the sun exist.

(L. 45.) Having been present in the assembly and having heard the order of Bhavanandi-Sahasran of Pirandur, Tindakula-Madhava-Kramavittan of Aranaippuram, and Madhava-Kramavittan of Ivuni, who had districted the blocks and inspected the blocks,[32] I, Vadugan Pakkaran (i.e.,  Bhaskara), the accountant of the village, wrote (the above).  This (is) my writing.

[1]  For a description of this battle see p. 37 above.

[2]  See my Annual Report for 1891-92, p. 5, and above, Vol. II. p. 231 f.

[3]  See page 37 above.

[4]  Above, Vol. II. p. 232.

[5]  Dr. Fleet’s Kanarese Dynasties, second edition, p. 454, and above, p. 52 and note 8.

[6]  A Dandanayaka named Manjippayan had been decapitated by Virarajendra I. ; see text line 18 of this inscription.

[7]  Instead of this, the Takkolam inscription reads Udagai, which seems to have been a city of the Pandyas ; see above, Vol. II. p. 250, note 3.

[8]  Perhaps the author means ‘the numberless elephants of the Irattas,’ and not ‘the Irattas whose elephants were numberless.’

[9]  This seems to be a designation of the Pandyas, in whose dominions Kanni, i.e., Cape Comorin, was situated.

[10]  A Mandalin Asokaiyan is stated to have lost his life in the battle of Koppam ; see p. 63 above.

[11]  I.e., the Pallava chief of Nulambapadi ; compare above, p. 59, note 1.

[12]  I.e., the Pallava chief of Senji (Gingee) ; see Ind. Ant. Vol. XXII. P. 143.

[13]  Compare above, Vol. II. p. 379, note 9.

[14]  I.e. in Gangaikonda-Solapuram.

[15]  I.e., the Western Chalukya king Ahavamalla-Somesvara I., who was already referred to in the description of the battle of Kudalsangamam ; see the translation on p. 37 above.

[16] I.e., the ministers of the Chalukya king.

[17]  As ra and the secondary form of a are expressed by the same character, the name of this place may have as well been Karandai.

[18]  Viz. Ahavamalla, who had earned this epithet by not keeping the appointment at Kudal, which he had proposed himself.

[19]  Literally, ‘which is hard to praise.’

[20]  The tiger was probably figured on the jayastambha, as on a pillar, which contains an inscription of Rajendra-Chola, on the top of Mahendragiri ; see my Annual Report for 1895-96, p. 7.

[21] An inscription of the 7th year at Tirukkalukkunram (see p. 65 above) shows that this ‘liar’ was Vikramaditya (VI.)

[22]  On kanthika as a symbol of the dignity of heir apparent see Ep. Ind. Vol. IV. P. 227, note 10.

[23]  It seems that Vikramaditya VI. Had been condemned to be trampled to death by a mast elephant which was led by ropes, but that he escaped and was pardoned.

[24]  This is addressed to the king who held Vengi at the time.

[25]  On a previous occasion Virarajendra I. had decapitated the younger brother of Jananatha of Dhara ; see p. 37 above.

[26]  See above, Vol. II. p. 234, note 9.

[27]  This passage was already quoted ibid.  p. 232, note 3.

[28]  See above, p. 68, note 11.

[29]  This is an admission of the fact that the Cholas had experienced reverses.

[30]  The Gangaikonda-Solapuram inscription reads [Ra]jadhirajan-Rajara[ja].

[31]  See above, p. 63 and note 1.

[32]  See above, p. 64 and note 3.

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