The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Volume - III

Contents

Preface

Introduction

Part - I

Inscription at Ukkal

Melpadi

Karuvur

Manimangalam

Tiruvallam

Part - II

Kulottunga-Chola I

Vikrama Chola

Virarajendra I

Kulottunga-Chola III

Part - III

Aditya I

Parantaka I

Gandaraditya

Parantaka II

Uttama-Chola

Parthivendravarman

Aditya II Karikala

Part - IV

copper-plate Tirukkalar

Tiruchchengodu

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

IV.- Inscriptions at Manimangalam

No. 27 to 28 Rajgopala-Perumal temple

No. 29 outside of the east wall of the inner prakara

No. 30 north wall of the mandapa

No. 31 to 33 south, west wall of the mandapa

No. 34 to 35 outside of the east wall of the inner prakara

No. 36 to 39 south, east wall of the mandapa in the perumal temple

No. 40 to 41 east wall of the Dharmesvara temple

No. 27.- On the south wall of the shrine in the Rajagopala-Perumal temple

This inscription is dated in the 6th year of the reign of the Chola king Rajakesarivarman[1] (1. 2).  It opens with two Sanskrit verses, which state that a person whose name is not given made a grant to the Vishnu temple at Ratnagrahara or Ratnagrama, i.e., Manimangalam.  From the following Tamil passage it appears that the donor had purchased the land from the inhabitants of Manimangalam.  The grant consisted of 4,000 kuli of land, of which 2,000 were situated on the west of Manimangalam and south of Kulattur, the modern Kolattur.[2]  The remaining 2,000 kuli were situated on the south of Manimangalam and east of Amanpakkam – the modern Ammanambakkam.[3]

In this archaic inscription the virama is marked above several letters by a dot (pulli), just as in the modern Tamil print.  The Grantha na of pranasa  (1. 1) is expressed by a compound letter which differs from the Tamil na.[4] 

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity !

(Verse 1.) Resplendent is (the village) whose famous name is Ratnagrahara (and which is) an embodiment of the union of the two goddesses of learning and prosperity, able to remove distress, of lovely fame (and) an ocean of all gems – noble qualities.

(V. 2.) (He)[5] founded, for as long as the moon and the stars endure, a perpetual enjoyment (bhoga) of the god who resides in (the temple of) Srimad-Dvara in the agrahara of Ratnagrama.

(Line 2.) In the 6th year (of the reign) of king Rajakesarivarman, we, the great assembly of Manimangalam, alias Lokamahadevi-chaturvedimangalam, (in the district) of Sengattu-kottam, sold (the following) land to (the temple of) Srimad-Dvarapurideva in our village.

(L. 3.) Two thousand kuli, enclosed within the following four boundaries : - (The eastern boundary is) to the west of the boundary of Maganur, a hamlet on the west (of our village) ; (the southern boundary is) to the north of the bank of the Periyaputteri (tank) ; the western boundary (is) to the east of the Kalichchangal  (channel) ;[6] and the northern boundary (is) to the south of the boundary of Kulattur.

(L. 4.) Two thousand kuli,  below the Putteri  (tank) at (?) Perur, a hamlet on the south (of our village), enclosed within the following four boundaries : - The eastern boundary (is) to the west of Kudumbidupadagam ; the southern boundary (is) to the north of the Mannikkal  (channel) ; the western boundary (is) to the east of the boundary of Amanapa[kka]m ; and the northern boundary (is) to the east of the boundary of Amanpa[kka]m; and the northern boundary (is) to the east of the boundary of Amanapa[kka]m ; and the northern boundary (is) to the south of the bank of the tank.

(L. 7.) Altogether four thousand Kuli were given, for as long as the moon and the sun exist (and) free of taxes, by us, the great assembly.

(L. 8.) On this land we shall not be entitled to claim any taxes, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . forced labour (vetti), vedi  and kanam.[7]

(L. 9.) We, the great assembly, agree that each of those who claim (them) shall pay a fine[8] of twenty-five kalanju of gold.

(L. 10.) (This charity is placed under) the protection of the Sri-Vaishnavas.

No. 28.- On the north and west walls of the shrine in the Rajagopala-Perumal Temple

This inscription is dated in the 29th year of Rajakesarivarman, alias Rajadhirajadeva, surnamed Jayankonda-Chola (1. 7).[9]  It opens with a panegyrical account of the king’s deeds. The text of this passage has been settled by comparison with the corresponding introductions of three other inscriptions, viz.,

1. Tk.- an inscription of the 29th year in the Svetaranyesvara temple at Tiruvenkadu in the Tanjore district (No. 114 of 1896).

2. Tr. = an inscription of the 31st year in the Adhipurisvara temple at Tiruvorriyur near Madras (No. 107 of 1892).

3. Tai. = an inscription of the 32nd year in the Panchanadesvara temple at Tiruvaiyaru near Tanjore (No. 221 of 1894)

Among the achievements of Rajadhiraja the subjoined inscription mentions that the “destroyed the palace of the Chalukya king in the city of Kampili” (1. 6).  As I have said before,[10] this statement enables us to identify Rajadhiraja with the king who, according to the Kalingattu-Parani (viii. 26), “planted a pillar of victory at Kampili,” and to place his reign immediately after that of Rajendra-Chola I. and before that of Parakesarivarman, alias Rajendradeva.  Rajendra-Chola I. ascended the throne in A.D. 1001-2 and reigned until at least A.D. 1032.[11]  An inscription at Mindigal proves that Rajadhiraja’s anointment to the throne took place in A.D. 1018.[12]  This would be about the 17th year of the reign of his predecessor Rajendra-Chola I.  Consequently, Rajadhiraja appears to have been the co-regent of the latter and cannot have exercised independent royal functions before the death of the other.  It is in perfect accordance with this conclusion that his inscriptions which have been discovered so far are all dated in the later years of his reign, viz., between the 26th and 32nd years.

The introduction of the subjoined inscription states that Rajadhiraja appointed seven of his relatives to be governors over the Chera, Chalukya, Pandya and Ganga countries, the island of Ceylon, the Pallava country, and Kanyakubja (1. 1).  This statement is evidently exaggerated, at least as far as it refers to the Chalukya dominions and Kanyakubja.[13]  Next are mentioned three Pandya kings (1. 1f.).  The first of them, Manabharana, was decapitated ; the second, Vira-Kerala, was trampled down by an elephant ; and the third, Sudnara-Pandya, was expelled to Mullaiyur.  Further, Rajadhiraja killed an unnamed king of Venadu, i.e., Travancore, and three princes of Iramagudam (?).  Having routed the Chera king, he followed the example of his ancestor Rajaraja I. in destroying the ships at Kandalur-Salai[14] (1. 2f.)

Then followed a victorious war against Ahavamalla, Vikki, Vijayaditya and Sangamayan, which was led by a general named Kevudan, and in the course of which two of Ahavamallas’s officers, named Gandappayan and Gangadhara, were killed and the city of Kollippakkai[15] was set on fire (1. 3 f.).  Kollippakkai or, in Kanarese, Kollipake was included in the territory of the Western Chalukyas,[16] and Ahavamalla, Vikki and Vijayaditya are identical with the Western Chalukya king Ahavamalla-Somesvara I. (A.D. 1044 and 1068) and two of his sons, Vikramaditya VI. (A.D. 1055 – 56 and 1076 to 1126) and Vishnuvardhana-Vijayaditya (A.D. 1064 to 1074).[17]

The next of Rajadhiraja’s expeditions cost their crowns to four kings of Ceylon, viz., Vikramabahu, Vikrama-Pandya, Vira-Salamegan, and Srivallabha Madanaraja (1. 4 f.).  The second of these is said to have ruled over the southern Tamil country before taking possession of Ceylon, the third to have originally ruled over Kanyakubja, and the fourth to have taken refuge with a certain Krishna.  Worst of all fared Vira-Salamegan.  The Chola king seized his elder sister and his daughter (or wife)[18] and cut off the nose of his mother, and the Ceylon king himself fell in battle.  An independent and somewhat different account of these struggles is given in the 56th chapter of the Mahavamsa[19]  which mentions successively the reigns of Vikramabahu, who is supposed to have reigned from A.D. 1037 to 1049, Vikrama-Pandu (A.D. 1052 to 1053), Jagatipala (A.D. 1053 to 1057), and Parakrama-Pandu (A.D. 1057 to 1059).  Of Jagatipala it is said that he came from the city of Ayodhya, that the Cholas slew him in battle, and that they carried his queen and his daughter to the Chola country.  As the two first names Vikramabahu and Vikrama-Pandya, are the same in Rajadhiraja’s inscriptions and in the Mahavamsa, we may identify Jagatipala with Vira-Salamegan, who came from Kanyakubja, who was killed by the Cholas, and whose elder sister and daughter were carried away by them.  It remains uncertain water whether he was a native of Kanyakubja (Kanauj) or Ayodhya, as stated respectively in Rajadhiraja’s inscriptions and in the Mahavamsa.  The fourth king, Srivallabha[20] Madanaraja, is perhaps the same as the Parakrama-Pandu of the Mahavamsa, who is said to have been killed by the Cholas.

On a second raid to the north Rajadhiraja defeated four chiefs, whose names are given but whom I cannot identify, and destroyed the palace of the Chalukya king at Kampili (1. 5 f.), a place in the Hosapete taluka of the Bellary district, which is also mentioned in a Western Chalukya inscription.[21]

As I have stated before (p. 39 above), Rajadhiraja was the elder brother of his successor Parakesarivarman, alias Rajendradeva, and met with his death in the battle of Koppam.  Hence I suspect that it is Rajadhiraja who is meant in a Western Chalukya inscription of A.D. 1071 at Annigere in the Dharwar district, which states that “the wicked Chola, who had abandoned the religious observances of his family, penetrated into the Belvola country and burned the Jaina temples which Ganga-Permadi, the lord of the Ganga-mandala, while governing the Belvola province, had built in the Annigere-nadu,” and that “the Chola eventually yielded his head to Somesvara I. in battle, and thus, losing his life, broke the succession of his family.”[22]  “The record adds that the temples were subsequently restored by the Mandalike Lakshmadeva.”[23]

According to Professor Kielhorn’s calculation,[24] the date of this inscription (1. 7 f.) corresponds to Wednesday, the 3rd December A.D. 1046.  On this day the villagers made over to the temple 2,200 kuli  of land and received in exchange 100 kasu from the temple treasury.

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! While the goddess of the earth was beaming under his fringed white parasol, which resembled the moon in beauty, (the king) wedded the goddess of fortune, wielded the scepter, and destroyed the dark Kali (age).

(He) bestowed crowns of brilliant jewels, adorned with gold, on his father’s younger brother, (his) glorious elder brother, his distinguished younger brothers,[25] and his royal sons who knew the (right) path, (along with the titles) ‘Vanavan[26] of great beauty,’ ‘Vallavan,’[27] ‘Minavan,’[28] ‘Gangan,’ ‘the king of the people of Lanka,’ ‘Pallavan (who wears) golden ankle-rings,’ (and) ‘the protector of the people of Kannakuchchi (Kanyakubja),’ and granted to these (relatives) of great renown the dominions of those (hostile kings).[29]

Among the three allied kings of the South (i.e., Pandyas), - (he) cut off on a battle-field the beautiful head of Manabharanan, (which was adorned with) large jewels (and)  which was inseparable from the golden crown ;[30] seized in a battle Vira-Keralan whose ankle-rings were wide,[31] and was pleased to get him trampled down by his furious elephant Attivarana ;[32] and drove to the ancient Mullaiyur Sundara-Pandiyan of endless great fame, who lost in a hot battle the royal white parasol, the bunches (of hairs) of the white yak and the throne, and who ran away, - his crown dropping down, (his) hair being disheveled, and (his) feet getting tired.

(L. 2.) (He) sent the undaunted king of Venadu to the country of heaven and destroyed in anger the three (princess) of the famous Iramgudam.

While the strong Villavan (i.e., Chera) was attacked by pains in the bowels, fled from his country and hid himself in the jungle, (the Chola king) destroyed (his) ships (at) Kandalur-Salai on the never decreasing ocean as (easily as he) would have put on a beautiful fresh flower of the vanji (tree).

(L. 3.) When even Ahavamallan became afraid ; when Gandappayan and Gangadharan, (who belonged) to his army, fell along with (their) elephants (whose temples) swarmed with bees, (in a battle) with the irresistible army of Kevudan ; (and) when the (two) warriors of great courage – Vikki and Vijayadityan, Sangamayan of great strength, and others retreated like cowards, - (the Chola king) seized (them) along with gold of great spleandour and with horses, elephants and steeds, achieved victory in his garment, and caused the centre of Kollippakkai, (a city) of the enemies, to be consumed by fire.

(L. 4.) With a single unequalled army (he) took the crown of Vikramabahu, the king of the people of Lanka on the tempestuous ocean ; the crown-of large jewels, (belonging to) the lord of Lanka, Vikrama-Pandiyan, who, having lost the whole of the southern Tamil country which had previously belonged to him, had entered Ilam (surrounded by) the seven oceans ; the beautiful golden crown of the king of Simhala, Vira-Salamegan, who, believing that Ilam (surrounded by) ocean was superior to the beautiful Kannakuchchi (Kanyakubja) which belonged to him, had entered (the island) with his relatives and (those of) his countrymen who were willing (to go with him), and had put on the brilliant crown ; who, having been defeated on the battle-field and having lost his black elephant, had fled ignominiously ; and who, when (the Chola king) seized his elder sister along with (his) daughter[33] and cut off the nose of (his) mother, had returned in order to remove the disgrace (caused) thereby, and, having fought hard with the sword, had perished in a hot battle ; and the extremely brilliant crown of large jewels, (belonging to) the king of Ilam, Srivallavan (Srivallabha)Madanarajan, who had come to Kannaran (Krishna) and taken up (his) abode (with him).

(L. 5.) Having led for the second time a warlike army into the northern region, (the Chola king) defeated in battle Gandar-Dinakaran,[34] Naranan (Narayana), Kanavadi (Ganapati), Madisudanan (Madusudana), (who wore) a garland of flowers (surrounded by) bees, and many other kings, and caused to be destroyed the palace of the Salukkiyar[35] in the city of Kampili, whose gardens diffuse fragrance.

(L. 6.) The tribute paid without remissions by the Villavar (Chera), Minavar (Pandya), Velakular,[36] Salukkiyar (Chalukya), Vallavar,[37] Kausalar (Kosala), Vanganar,[38]  Konganar (Konkana), Sindurar,[39] Aiyanar, Singalar (Simhala), Pangalar,[40] Andirar (Andhra) and other kings, and the riches collected (as) the sixth share (of the produce) of the earth (he) had measured out, and gladly gave away, to those (versed in) the four Vedas (i.e., to the Brahmanas).  In order to be famed in the whole world, (he) followed the path of Manu and performed the horse-sacrifice.

(L. 7.) In the 29th year (of the reign) of this king Rajakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Rajadhirajadeva, who was seated on the royal (throne and who had obtained) very great fame (under the name) Jayankonda-Solan, - we, the great assembly of Manimangalam, alias Rajasulamani-chaturvedimangalam, in Maganur-nadu, (a subdivision) of Sengattu-kottam, (a district) of Jayankonda-Sola-mandalam, being assembled, without a vacancy in the assembly,[41] in the Brahmasthana[42] in our village on the day of Sravana, which corresponded to a Wednesday and to the second tithi of the first fortnight of the month of Dhanus, ordered (as follows).

(L. 8.) Having received on interest one hundred kasu from the treasury (of the temple) of Srimad-Dvarapati, alias Sri-Kamakkodi-Vinnagar-Alvar in this village, (we) gave, against the interest accruing from these one hundred kasu, for (providing) the offerings and the expenses of the worship of this god, the following land as temple land, with the enjoyment of revenue and taxes,[43] (and) having exempted (it) from taxes.  Three hundred kuli of cultivated land to the north of (the road called) Perunalvadi (and) to the east of the channel above the ‘Bignonia field’ (Padiri-kalani) ; two hundred kuli of cultivated land to the west of the channel in the middle of the ‘Bignonia field ;’ one hundred and eighty kuli of cultivated land to the south of the Perunalvadi (road) (and) to the east of the Manaiy-arudi channel of the temple garden at the Alaimedu (hill) ; two hundred kuli of cultivated land to theeast of this channel ; three hundred kuli of cultivated land to the east of the road to (the tank called) Sundileri ;[44] and two hundred kuli, equal to two tadi, to the north of the Pavaiturai challel (and) to the east of the two hundred and fifty kuli of land (of the temple) of Tiruvaiyottidevar ;[45] altogether we gave, having engraved (this) on stone, two thousand and two hundred kuli[46] of land (to) the god, with the enjoyment of revenue and taxes, to last as long as the moon and the sun, for (providing) the offerings and the expenses of the worship, having exempted (it) from taxes.


[1]  See above, p. 2, note 4.

[2]  The remaining 2,000 kuli were situated on the south of Manimangalam and east of Amanpakkam – the modern Ammanambakkam.

[3]  No. 330 on the same map.

[4]  Compare above, Vol. II. p. 200, note 1.

[5]  The name of the donor is not stated.

[6]  From this channel is probably derived the name of the modern village of Karisangal (No. 319 on the Madras Survey Map of the Conjeeveram taluka), south of Manimangalam.

[7]  Compare above, No. 12, text line 8.

[8]  The verb manru, which occurs also in Vol. I. Nos. 82 and 83, evidently means ‘to pay a fine;’ compare above, p. 38, note 5.

[9]  On this title target="_self" see above, Vol. II. p. 312 f.

[10]  Above, p. 32, and Ind. Ant. Vol. XXII. P. 142, note 5.

[11]  Ep. Ind. Vol. P. 266.

[12]  Ibid. p. 216.

[13]  Rajadhiraja’s claim to the conquest of Kanyakubja seems to rest on the fact that he killed a king of Ceylon, who was a native of Kanyakubja ; see p. 56 below.

[14]  Compare above, Vol. II. . 241, note 1.

[15]  The same place had been taken by Rajendra-Chola I. ; see above, Vol. I. p. 96, and Vol. II.  p. 108.

[16]  See Dr. Fleet’s Kanarese Dynasties, second edition, p. 437.

[17]  Ibid, p. 428, Table.

[18]  See below, p. 56, note 6.

[19]  Wijesinha’s Translation, p. 91 f.

[20]  Two princes of the name Sirivallabha, who belong to a later period, are mentioned in chapters lix. Ff. of the Mahavamsa.

[21]  See Dr. Fleet’s Kanarese Dynasties, second edition, p. 454.

[22]  Ibid. p. 441.

[23]  Ibid note 5, and p. 443.

[24]  Ep. Ind. Vol. IV. P. 217, No. 14.

[25]  Literally, ‘young princess.’

[26]  I.e. ‘the Chera king.’

[27]  This is a title target="_self" of the Chalukya kings.

[28]  I.e. ‘the Pandya king’

[29]  I.e. of the Chera, Chalukya, & c.

[30]  This seems to mean that the head, which had been cut off, was paraded with the crown on it.

[31] War + alaviya seems to mean ‘of long measure.’

[32]  I.e. ‘the elephant among elephants,’ or ‘warding off elephants.’ Compare Arivarana, the name of the elephant of the Pallava king Paramesvaravarman I. ; above, Vol. I. p. 154.

[33]  Or ‘wife.’ Kadali means both.

[34]  I.e., ‘the sun among heroes.’  As dinakara and aditya are synonymous, Gandar-Dinakaran is the same as Gandaraditya.  This was the name of a Silahara feudatory of Vikramaditya VI. And Somesvara III. ; see Dr. Fleet’s Kanarese Dynasties, second edition, pp. 452, 456 and 547 f.  But he cannot be meant here, as he flourished about 75 years after the present inscription.

[35]  I.e. the Chalukya king.

[36]  I.e. ‘he of the elephant family.’ Perhaps the Gangas

[37]  This is another name of the Chalukyas ; see above, p. 55, note 20.  Hence a better reading would be Pallavar.

[38]  The king of Vanga (Bengal) is probably meant. 

[39]  This seems to refer to the king of Sindhu (Sindh).

[40]  Probably the same as Pangala (Bengal) and hence synonymous with Vanga ; see note 5.

[41]  I.e. ‘all members being present.’

[42]  The same term occurs in an inscription at Ukkal, p. 22 above.

[43]  This appears to be the meaning of irai-karatt-uttu.

[44]  This name is derived from sundil, mimosa pudica.

[45]  This name means ‘the god of the holy Ayodhya’ and apparently refers to a temple of Rama.

[46]  By adding up the preceding amounts, only 2,180 kuli are arrived at ; perhaps 20 kuli were added for rounding.

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