Inscriptions at Manimangalam
27 to 28 Rajgopala-Perumal temple
29 outside of the east wall of the inner prakara
30 north wall of the mandapa
31 to 33 south, west wall of the mandapa
34 to 35 outside of the east wall of the inner prakara
36 to 39 south, east wall of the mandapa in the perumal temple
40 to 41 east wall of the Dharmesvara temple
27.- On the south wall of the shrine in the Rajagopala-Perumal
inscription is dated in the 6th year of the reign of the
Chola king Rajakesarivarman
(1. 2). It opens with
two Sanskrit verses, which state that a person whose name is not
given made a grant to the Vishnu temple at Ratnagrahara or
Ratnagrama, i.e., Manimangalam.
From the following Tamil passage it appears that the donor
had purchased the land from the inhabitants of Manimangalam.
The grant consisted of 4,000 kuli of land, of which
2,000 were situated on the west of Manimangalam and south of
Kulattur, the modern Kolattur.
The remaining 2,000 kuli were situated on the south of
Manimangalam and east of Amanpakkam – the modern Ammanambakkam.
this archaic inscription the virama is marked above several
letters by a dot (pulli), just as in the modern Tamil print.
The Grantha na of pranasa
(1. 1) is expressed by a compound letter which differs from
the Tamil na.
1.) Hail ! Prosperity !
1.) Resplendent is (the village) whose famous name is
Ratnagrahara (and which is) an embodiment of the union of the
two goddesses of learning and prosperity, able to remove distress,
of lovely fame (and) an ocean of all gems – noble
founded, for as long as the moon and the stars endure, a perpetual
enjoyment (bhoga) of the god who resides in (the temple of)
Srimad-Dvara in the agrahara of Ratnagrama.
2.) In the 6th year (of the reign) of king
Rajakesarivarman, we, the great assembly of Manimangalam, alias
Lokamahadevi-chaturvedimangalam, (in the district) of
Sengattu-kottam, sold (the following) land to (the temple
of) Srimad-Dvarapurideva in our village.
3.) Two thousand kuli, enclosed within the following four
boundaries : - (The eastern boundary is) to the west of the
boundary of Maganur, a hamlet on the west (of our village) ;
(the southern boundary is) to the north of the bank of the Periyaputteri
(tank) ; the western boundary (is) to the east of the Kalichchangal
and the northern boundary (is) to the south of the boundary
4.) Two thousand kuli, below the Putteri (tank) at (?) Perur, a hamlet on the south (of our village),
enclosed within the following four boundaries : - The eastern
boundary (is) to the west of Kudumbidupadagam ; the southern
boundary (is) to the north of the Mannikkal
(channel) ; the western boundary (is) to the
east of the boundary of Amanapa[kka]m ; and the northern boundary (is)
to the east of the boundary of Amanpa[kka]m; and the northern
boundary (is) to the east of the boundary of Amanapa[kka]m ;
and the northern boundary (is) to the south of the bank of
7.) Altogether four thousand Kuli were given, for as long as
the moon and the sun exist (and) free of taxes, by us, the
8.) On this land we shall not be entitled to claim any taxes, . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . forced labour (vetti), vedi
9.) We, the great assembly, agree that each of those who claim (them)
shall pay a fine
of twenty-five kalanju of gold.
10.) (This charity is placed under) the protection of the Sri-Vaishnavas.
28.- On the north and west walls of the shrine in the
inscription is dated in the 29th year of Rajakesarivarman,
alias Rajadhirajadeva, surnamed Jayankonda-Chola (1. 7).
It opens with a panegyrical account of the king’s deeds.
The text of this passage has been settled by comparison with the
corresponding introductions of three other inscriptions, viz.,
Tk.- an inscription of the 29th year in the
Svetaranyesvara temple at Tiruvenkadu in the Tanjore district (No.
114 of 1896).
Tr. = an inscription of the 31st year in the
Adhipurisvara temple at Tiruvorriyur near Madras (No. 107 of 1892).
Tai. = an inscription of the 32nd year in the
Panchanadesvara temple at Tiruvaiyaru near Tanjore (No. 221 of 1894)
the achievements of Rajadhiraja the subjoined inscription mentions
that the “destroyed the palace of the Chalukya king in the city of
Kampili” (1. 6). As I
have said before,
this statement enables us to identify Rajadhiraja with the king who,
according to the Kalingattu-Parani (viii. 26), “planted a
pillar of victory at Kampili,” and to place his reign immediately
after that of Rajendra-Chola I. and before that of Parakesarivarman,
alias Rajendradeva. Rajendra-Chola
I. ascended the throne in A.D. 1001-2 and reigned until at least
An inscription at Mindigal proves that Rajadhiraja’s
anointment to the throne took place in A.D. 1018.
This would be about the 17th year of the reign of
his predecessor Rajendra-Chola I. Consequently, Rajadhiraja appears to have been the co-regent
of the latter and cannot have exercised independent royal functions
before the death of the other.
It is in perfect accordance with this conclusion that his
inscriptions which have been discovered so far are all dated in the
later years of his reign, viz., between the 26th
and 32nd years.
introduction of the subjoined inscription states that Rajadhiraja
appointed seven of his relatives to be governors over the Chera,
Chalukya, Pandya and Ganga countries, the island of Ceylon, the
Pallava country, and Kanyakubja (1. 1).
This statement is evidently exaggerated, at least as far as
it refers to the Chalukya dominions and Kanyakubja.
Next are mentioned three Pandya kings (1. 1f.).
The first of them, Manabharana, was decapitated ; the second,
Vira-Kerala, was trampled down by an elephant ; and the third,
Sudnara-Pandya, was expelled to Mullaiyur.
Further, Rajadhiraja killed an unnamed king of Venadu, i.e.,
Travancore, and three princes of Iramagudam (?).
Having routed the Chera king, he followed the example of his
ancestor Rajaraja I. in destroying the ships at Kandalur-Salai
followed a victorious war against Ahavamalla, Vikki, Vijayaditya and
Sangamayan, which was led by a general named Kevudan, and in the
course of which two of Ahavamallas’s officers, named Gandappayan
and Gangadhara, were killed and the city of Kollippakkai
was set on fire (1. 3 f.). Kollippakkai
or, in Kanarese, Kollipake was included in the territory of the
Western Chalukyas, and Ahavamalla, Vikki and
Vijayaditya are identical with the Western Chalukya king
Ahavamalla-Somesvara I. (A.D. 1044 and 1068) and two of his sons,
Vikramaditya VI. (A.D. 1055 – 56 and 1076 to 1126) and
Vishnuvardhana-Vijayaditya (A.D. 1064 to 1074).
next of Rajadhiraja’s expeditions cost their crowns to four kings
of Ceylon, viz., Vikramabahu, Vikrama-Pandya, Vira-Salamegan,
and Srivallabha Madanaraja (1. 4 f.).
The second of these is said to have ruled over the southern
Tamil country before taking possession of Ceylon, the third to have
originally ruled over Kanyakubja, and the fourth to have taken
refuge with a certain Krishna.
Worst of all fared Vira-Salamegan.
The Chola king seized his elder sister and his daughter (or
and cut off the nose of his mother, and the Ceylon king himself fell
in battle. An
independent and somewhat different account of these struggles is
given in the 56th chapter of the Mahavamsa
which mentions successively the reigns of Vikramabahu, who is
supposed to have reigned from A.D. 1037 to 1049, Vikrama-Pandu (A.D.
1052 to 1053), Jagatipala (A.D. 1053 to 1057), and Parakrama-Pandu
(A.D. 1057 to 1059). Of
Jagatipala it is said that he came from the city of Ayodhya, that
the Cholas slew him in battle, and that they carried his queen and
his daughter to the Chola country.
As the two first names Vikramabahu and Vikrama-Pandya, are
the same in Rajadhiraja’s inscriptions and in the Mahavamsa,
we may identify Jagatipala with Vira-Salamegan, who came from
Kanyakubja, who was killed by the Cholas, and whose elder sister and
daughter were carried away by them.
It remains uncertain water whether he was a native of
Kanyakubja (Kanauj) or Ayodhya, as stated respectively in
Rajadhiraja’s inscriptions and in the Mahavamsa.
The fourth king, Srivallabha
Madanaraja, is perhaps the same as the Parakrama-Pandu of the Mahavamsa,
who is said to have been killed by the Cholas.
a second raid to the north Rajadhiraja defeated four chiefs, whose
names are given but whom I cannot identify, and destroyed the palace
of the Chalukya king at Kampili (1. 5 f.), a place in the Hosapete
taluka of the Bellary district, which is also mentioned in a Western
I have stated before (p. 39 above), Rajadhiraja was the elder
brother of his successor Parakesarivarman, alias Rajendradeva,
and met with his death in the battle of Koppam.
Hence I suspect that it is Rajadhiraja who is meant in a
Western Chalukya inscription of A.D. 1071 at Annigere in the Dharwar
district, which states that “the wicked Chola, who had abandoned
the religious observances of his family, penetrated into the Belvola
country and burned the Jaina temples which Ganga-Permadi, the lord
of the Ganga-mandala, while governing the Belvola province, had
built in the Annigere-nadu,” and that “the Chola eventually
yielded his head to Somesvara I. in battle, and thus, losing his
life, broke the succession of his family.”
“The record adds that the temples were subsequently
restored by the Mandalike Lakshmadeva.”
to Professor Kielhorn’s calculation,
the date of this inscription (1. 7 f.) corresponds to Wednesday, the
3rd December A.D. 1046.
On this day the villagers made over to the temple 2,200
kuli of land and received in exchange 100 kasu from the
1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! While the goddess of the earth was beaming
under his fringed white parasol, which resembled the moon in beauty,
(the king) wedded the goddess of fortune, wielded the
scepter, and destroyed the dark Kali (age).
bestowed crowns of brilliant jewels, adorned with gold, on his
father’s younger brother, (his) glorious elder brother, his
distinguished younger brothers,
and his royal sons who knew the (right) path, (along with
the titles) ‘Vanavan of great beauty,’
‘Minavan,’ ‘Gangan,’ ‘the king
of the people of Lanka,’ ‘Pallavan (who wears) golden
ankle-rings,’ (and) ‘the protector of the people of
Kannakuchchi (Kanyakubja),’ and granted to these (relatives)
of great renown the dominions of those (hostile kings).
the three allied kings of the South (i.e., Pandyas), - (he)
cut off on a battle-field the beautiful head of Manabharanan, (which
was adorned with) large jewels (and)
which was inseparable from the golden crown ;
seized in a battle Vira-Keralan whose ankle-rings were wide,
and was pleased to get him trampled down by his furious elephant Attivarana
and drove to the ancient Mullaiyur Sundara-Pandiyan of endless great
fame, who lost in a hot battle the royal white parasol, the bunches
(of hairs) of the white yak and the throne, and who ran away,
- his crown dropping down, (his) hair being disheveled, and (his)
feet getting tired.
2.) (He) sent the undaunted king of Venadu to the country of
heaven and destroyed in anger the three (princess) of the
the strong Villavan (i.e., Chera) was attacked by pains in
the bowels, fled from his country and hid himself in the jungle,
(the Chola king) destroyed (his) ships (at)
Kandalur-Salai on the never decreasing ocean as (easily as he)
would have put on a beautiful fresh flower of the vanji (tree).
3.) When even Ahavamallan became afraid ; when Gandappayan and
Gangadharan, (who belonged) to his army, fell along with (their)
elephants (whose temples) swarmed with bees, (in a battle)
with the irresistible army of Kevudan ; (and) when the (two)
warriors of great courage – Vikki and Vijayadityan, Sangamayan of
great strength, and others retreated like cowards, - (the Chola
king) seized (them) along with gold of great spleandour
and with horses, elephants and steeds, achieved victory in his
garment, and caused the centre of Kollippakkai, (a city) of
the enemies, to be consumed by fire.
4.) With a single unequalled army (he) took the crown of
Vikramabahu, the king of the people of Lanka on the tempestuous
ocean ; the crown-of large jewels, (belonging to) the lord of
Lanka, Vikrama-Pandiyan, who, having lost the whole of the southern
Tamil country which had previously belonged to him, had entered Ilam
(surrounded by) the seven oceans ; the beautiful golden crown
of the king of Simhala, Vira-Salamegan, who, believing that Ilam (surrounded
by) ocean was superior to the beautiful Kannakuchchi (Kanyakubja)
which belonged to him, had entered (the island) with his
relatives and (those of) his countrymen who were willing (to
go with him), and had put on the brilliant crown ; who,
having been defeated on the battle-field and having lost his black
elephant, had fled ignominiously ; and who, when (the Chola king)
seized his elder sister along with (his) daughter
and cut off the nose of (his) mother, had returned in order
to remove the disgrace (caused) thereby, and, having fought
hard with the sword, had perished in a hot battle ; and the
extremely brilliant crown of large jewels, (belonging to) the
king of Ilam, Srivallavan (Srivallabha)Madanarajan, who had
come to Kannaran (Krishna) and taken up (his) abode (with
5.) Having led for the second time a warlike army into the northern
region, (the Chola king) defeated in battle Gandar-Dinakaran,
Naranan (Narayana), Kanavadi (Ganapati), Madisudanan (Madusudana),
(who wore) a garland of flowers (surrounded by) bees,
and many other kings, and caused to be destroyed the palace of the
in the city of Kampili, whose gardens diffuse fragrance.
6.) The tribute paid without remissions by the Villavar (Chera),
Minavar (Pandya), Velakular,
Salukkiyar (Chalukya), Vallavar,
Kausalar (Kosala), Vanganar,
Konganar (Konkana), Sindurar,
Aiyanar, Singalar (Simhala), Pangalar,
Andirar (Andhra) and other kings, and the riches collected (as)
the sixth share (of the produce) of the earth (he) had
measured out, and gladly gave away, to those (versed in) the
four Vedas (i.e., to the Brahmanas).
In order to be famed in the whole world, (he) followed
the path of Manu and performed the horse-sacrifice.
7.) In the 29th year (of the reign) of this king
Rajakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Rajadhirajadeva, who was
seated on the royal (throne and who had obtained) very great
fame (under the name) Jayankonda-Solan, - we, the great
assembly of Manimangalam, alias
Rajasulamani-chaturvedimangalam, in Maganur-nadu, (a subdivision)
of Sengattu-kottam, (a district) of
Jayankonda-Sola-mandalam, being assembled, without a vacancy in the
in the Brahmasthana
in our village on the day of Sravana, which corresponded to a
Wednesday and to the second tithi of the first fortnight of
the month of Dhanus, ordered (as follows).
8.) Having received on interest one hundred kasu from the
treasury (of the temple) of Srimad-Dvarapati, alias
Sri-Kamakkodi-Vinnagar-Alvar in this village, (we) gave,
against the interest accruing from these one hundred kasu,
for (providing) the offerings and the expenses of the worship
of this god, the following land as temple land, with the enjoyment
of revenue and taxes,
(and) having exempted (it) from taxes. Three hundred kuli of cultivated land to the north of
(the road called) Perunalvadi (and) to
the east of the channel above the ‘Bignonia field’ (Padiri-kalani)
; two hundred kuli of cultivated land to the west of the
channel in the middle of the ‘Bignonia field ;’ one hundred and
eighty kuli of cultivated land to the south of the Perunalvadi
(road) (and) to the east of the Manaiy-arudi
channel of the temple garden at the Alaimedu (hill) ;
two hundred kuli of cultivated land to theeast of this
channel ; three hundred kuli of cultivated land to the east
of the road to (the tank called) Sundileri ;
and two hundred kuli, equal to two tadi, to the north
of the Pavaiturai challel (and) to the east of the two
hundred and fifty kuli of land (of the temple) of
altogether we gave, having engraved (this) on stone, two
thousand and two hundred kuli
of land (to) the god, with the enjoyment of revenue and
taxes, to last as long as the moon and the sun, for (providing)
the offerings and the expenses of the worship, having exempted (it)