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Sunday, February 25, 2007


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 

VI.- Inscriptions of Kulottunga-Chola I

No. 66 to 68 Inscriptions at Kolar, Somangalam & Conjeeveram

No. 64 to 65 Inscriptions at Tiruvorriyur & Tiruvalangadu

No. 69 to 70 Inscriptions at Tirukkalukkunram & Srirangam

No. 71 to 72 Inscriptions at Kilappaluvur & Tiruvidaimarudur

No. 73 to 74 Inscriptions at Cholapuram & Conjeeveram

No. 75 to 76 Inscriptions at Tirukkalukkunram & Jambukesvara temple

No. 77 to 78 Inscriptions at Kavantandalam & Perumber

No. 66.- Inscription at Kolar

This inscription (No. 131 of 1892) is engraved on the east wall of the Kolaramma temple at Kolar in the Mysore State.  In the Chola inscriptions of the temple the goddess is called Pidari,[1] and Kolar itself Kuvalalam.  As the traditional capital of the Ganga family it is mentioned under the names of Kuvalalapura,[2] Kolalapura and Kolahalapura.[3] According to the subjoined inscription (1. 5) it belonged to Kuvalala-nadu, a district of Vijayarajaendra-mandalam.

The historical introduction and the date of this inscription are identical with those of Nos. 64 and 65.  The inscription records that an officer named Virasikhamani-Muvendavelar inspected the temple and appointed a committee,[4] which seems to have made allotments to various shrines included in the temple.  The temple revenue had been originally paid by the temple villages in gold coins (madai), but was subsequently converted into supplies of paddy.  We learn that one madai  corresponded to two kasu (1. 11) and that one kasu purchased about 2 ¾ kalam of paddy (1. 11 f.).  In the Tiruvallam inscription of Adhirajendra one kasu corresponds to four kalam of paddy.[5]  The Tanjore inscriptions of Rajaraja I. and Rajendra-Choda I.[6] fix the interest per kasu at  3 kuruni of paddy or one eighth kasu, from which it follows that one kasu corresponded to 24 kuruni, i.e., 2 kalam.  This shows that the prices of grain must have varied considerably either according to the locality or at different times.

The preserved portion of the inscription consists of 28 lines.  At the end of each of the lines 1 to 7 a few syllables are lost ; at the end of line 8 much more is lost ; and from line 9 it is impossible to supply the missing portions of each line.  To give a general idea of the contents of the inscriptions, I am publishing the text as far as line 13, but am quoting also from the unpublished portion in the following list of shrines to which allotments were made : - Virabhadradeva (1. 12), Brahmani, Isvari (1. 13), Vaishnavi (1. 14), Indrani (1. 15), Ganapati (1. 16), Chamundesvari of the chief shrine (mulasthana) (1. 17), Kshetrapaladeva, Mahasasta[7] (1. 18), Suryadeva (1. 19), Yogini and Yogesvara (11. 24 and 27).  At the worship of the two last deities intoxicating drinks (madya-pana) were consumed.

(Line 4.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the second year (of the reign) of king Rajakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Rajendra-Soladeva, who etc.[8] – when the magistrate (adhikarin) Ambalavan Tiruppondaiyar, alias Virasikhamani-Muvendavelar, the lord of Pandiyambakkam[9] (and a native) of Pandiyambakkam in Perumbuliyur-nadu, (a subdivision) of Kaliyur-kottam,[10] (a district) of [Jayangonda-Sola]-mandalam, was examining the affairs of the temple in the mandapa enclosing the temple of Pidariyar at [Kuvalalam] in Kuvalala-nadu, (a district) of Vijayarajaendra-mandalam, (he) asked the Kannadaga-Pandita[11] who was the superintendent of the matha[12] of this god,[13]  and Panchacharya  (who wears) a silk garment (in honour) of the feet of the god[14] and the pujaris (kanmi) of the god : - “Have allotments been made to this god, [to the Panchacharya] (who wears) a silk garment (in honour) of the feet of the god, and to the various temple servants,[15] after the (payments in) gold coins (madai) accruing from the villages which are devadanas of this god were converted into (supplies of) paddy ?”

(L. 7.) The answer was : - “No allotments have been made until the second year (of the reign) of the lord [Sri-Rajendra-So]ladeva.”

(L. 8.) Thereon the magistrate Virasikhamani-Muvendavela[r] appointed (a committee consisting of) the above mentioned persons ; the Puravuvaritinaikalattu-Mugavetti . . . . . .. . . . .  ..  . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . [16] of Ilai[yuru] (near) Mummudi-Sola-nallur (and) a resident of Arani in Paiyyur-kottam ; (and) . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .  Velan Kanapuram, alias Nripasikhamani-Vilupparaiyan.

(L. 10.) . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . .   madai one hundred and eighty-seven and three twentieths.[17]  Pakkambal[li] (had to pay) madai two hundred and two, one twentieth and one eightieth.  [A]raiyur (had to pay) madai ten and a half, one twentieth and one fortieth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

(L. 11.) [Altogether], [ma]dai five hundred and seventeen, three twentieths and one eightieth, which correspond – at the rate of two kasu for one madai – to kasu one thousand and thirty-four, three twentieths and one fortieth, which correspond, - at the rate of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   by the Raju[kesari][18] (measure) for each kasu – to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  kalam and one tuni [of paddy], which correspond – with an increment[19] of one kalam, one tuni and four nali for each kalam – to two thousand eight hundred and forty-three kalam, two tuni and three kuruni of paddy by the marakkal (called after) Arumolidevan.[20]

(L. 12.) Out of this the following allotments were made : - To Virabhadradevar, [at each] of the three times of the day, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   four . . . . . . . . . . .   To Brahmaniyar, at each of the three times of the day, four nali of rice, two dishes of vegetables, two areca-nuts and four betel-leaves.  To Isvariyar, at each of the three times of the day, . . . . . . . . . . .   of rice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

No. 67. Inscription at Somangalam

This inscription (No. 182 of 1901) is engraved on three walls of Sanndararaja-Peruaml temple at Somangalam,[21] a village north of Manimangalam in the Chingleput district.  The ancient name of the temple was Chitrakuta (1. 3).  Like Manimangalam,[22] Somangalam belonged to Maganur-nadu, a subdivision of the district of Sengattu-kottam (1. 2 f.).

The inscription is dated in the 3rd year of Rajendra-Chola II. The introduction agrees with that of the inscriptions of his 2nd year (Nos. 64 to 66 above), but adds a reference to his queen, without mentioning her name.

Hail ! Prosperity ! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [23] In the 3rd year (of the reign) of king Rajakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Rajendra-Soladeva, who was pleased to take his seat on the throne of heroes together with (his queen), the mistress of the whole world, - we, the great assembly of Somangalam, alias Rajasikhamani-chaturvedimangalam, in Maganur-nadu, (a subdivision) of Sengattu-kottam, (a district) of Jayangonda-Sola-mandalam, drew up the following writing one stone, to last as long as the moon, in favour of the lord of the holy Chitrakuta (temple) in our village. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

No. 68.- Inscription in the Pandava-Perumal Temple

This inscription (No. 17 of 1893) is engraved on the north wall of the Pandava-Perumal temple at Conjeeveram.  The ancient name of the temple was Tiruppadagam (1. 3), and it is mentioned under the name of Padagam in the Nalayiraprabandham.

The date is the 5th year of the king, who is now styled Kulottunga-Choladeva (I.), while in the inscriptions of his 2nd, 3rd and 4th years (Nos. 64 to 67 and 77) he still bears the name Rajendra-Choladeva (II.).

The new inscription refers to his early victories at Sakkarakottam and Vayiragaram.[24]  It then states that he vanquished the king of Kuntala, i.e., the Western Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI., that he crowned himself as king of the country on the banks of the Kaveri, i.e., of the Chola country, and that he decapitated an unnamed Pandya king.  An inscription of the 6th year of his reign.[25] Adds nothing new to these statements.

The subjoined inscription records that a merchant of Kanchipuram provided the temple with a flower-garden and purchased from the villagers of Irirukkai some land for the benefit of the gardeners.  I cannot find Orirukkai on the map ; but it must be looked for near Uttiramelur[26] (1. 4) in the Madurantakam taluka of the Chingleput district.  As boundaries of the land granted, the inscription mentions also the river Alichchiyaru and apparently the village of Sattamangalam.  A village of this name[27] I find 8 miles east of Madurantakam.

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! Having made the wheel of his (authority) to go as far as the golden circle (i.e., Mount Meru) on the earth, which was surrounded by the moat of the sea, that was (again) surrounded by (his) fame, (the king) newly wedded, in the time (when he was still) heir-apparent (Ilango), the brilliant goddess of victory at Sakkarakottam by deeds of valour and seized a herd of strong elephants at Vayiragaram.  (He) unsheathed (his) sword, showed the strength of (his) arm, and spurred (his) war-steed, so that the king of Kondala (Kuntala), (whose spear had) a sharp point, lost his wealth.  Having established (his) fame, having put on the garland of (the victory over) the Northern region, and having stopped the prostitution of the goddess with the sweet and excellent lotus-flower (i.e., Lakshmi) of the Southern region, and the loneliness of the goddess of the good country whose garment is the Ponni (Kaveri), (he) put on by right (of inheritance) the pure royal crown of jewels, while the kings of the old earth bore this two feet (on their heads) as a large crown.

(L. 2.) The sweet river Ponni swelled, (and) the river (of the sins) of the Kali (age) dried up.  (his) sceptre swayed over every region ; the heavenly white light of (his) white parasol shone everywhere on the circle of the great earth ; (and his) tiger (-banner) fluttered unrivalled on the Meru (mountain).  (Before him) stood a row of elephants showering jewels, which were presented (as) tribute by the kings of remote islands of the deep sea.  The excellent head of the brilliant king of the South (i.e., the Pandya) lay being pecked by kites.  While his valour and liberality shone like (his) necklace of precious stones and (like) the flower-garland on (his) royal shoulders, (and) while (all his) enemies prostrated themselves on the ground, (he) was pleased to take his seat on the throne of heroes together with (his queen), the mistress of the whole world.

(L. 3.) In the fifth year (of the reign) of this king Rajakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Kulottunga-Soladeva, - we, the inhabitants of Orirukkai in Kaliyur-nadu (a subdivision) of Kaliyur-kottam,[28] (a district) of Jayangonda-Sola-mandalam, made and gave the following writing on stone : - Kumara-Peruvaniyan[29] Devan Erinjodi, alias Arulaladasan,[30] a merchant (residing) in the great street of Arumolideva[31] at Kanchipuram, a city of Eyil-nadu, (a subdivision) of Eyirkottam,[32] had made for the god who is pleased to reside in the Tiruppadagam (temple) a flower-garden, called the flower-garden of Arulaladasan (and situated) on the outside of the temple.  In order to provide for the cost (mudal) of the clothing of those who work (in this garden) and of (their) families, we sold the following land in our village free from taxes.

(L. 4.) The eastern boundary (is) to the west of the road of the inhabitants of Uttiramelur ; the southern boundary (is) to the north of the Alichchiyaru (river) ; the western boundary (is) to the cast of the land which we have sold to (the temple of) Tiruve[h]kavalvan[33] and of the field of sattamangalam-Udaiyan Kadagan ; and the northern boundary (is) to the south of the small field of Sattamangalam-Udaiyan Kadichchan.  Having sold the two thousand kuli, (measured) by the rod of sixteen spans,[34] enclosed in these four boundaries, not excluding the cultivated land, (we) received from him[35] as purchase-money for this land eleven kalanju of gold, weighed by the true standard of the city (kudinar-kal) (and) equal (in fineness) to the Madurantakan-madai.[36]  Having received (this amount) in full and having made (the land) a tax-free devadana, we shall not be able to claim on his land velikkasu,[37] water-cess (nir-vilai), petty taxes,[38] sorumattu[39]  and any other (tax).

(L. 5.) We have to measure into the treasury of the temple the paddy which comes from the land harvested to Anaikkarukku, (a portion of ?) this land.  It shall be lawful to irrigate the land lying to the east (of the land sold), from the channels included in this land.

(L. 6.) Having thus agreed, we, the inhabitants of Orirukkai, made and gave (this) writing on stone to continue as long as the moon and the sun.  At the bidding of these, I, Sattamangalam-Udaiyan Velan Kayilayati[an], a cultivator of this village, wrote (this).  This is my writing.  (This is placed under) the protection of the Sri-Vaishnavas.


[1] Compare above, p. 9 and note 6.  Pidari is evidently a corruption of Bhattarika, a name of Durga.

[2]  Above, Vol. II. p. 380.

[3]  See Ep. Ind. Vol. IV. P. 200, note 1.

[4]  One of the members of this committee is also referred to in the Tiruvallam inscription of Adhirajendra ; see below, p. 139, note 2.

[5]  See page 117 above.

[6]  Above, Vol. II. No. 9, paragraphs 5 and 6, and No. 26, paragraphs 4 and 5.

[7]  See above, p. 9 and note 5.

[8]  The historical introduction of this inscription is the same as in No. 64.

[9]  No. 215 on the Madras Survey Map  of the Arcot taluka.

[10]  The same district is mentioned above, Vol. I. Nos. 84, 85, 147 and 148, and Vol. III. p. 2.  One of its subdivisions, Virpedu-nadu (Vol. I. p. 117 and Corrigenda on p. 184 ; Ep. Ind. Vol. VI. P. 228), is named after the modern Vippedu, No. 59 on the Madras Survey Map of the Conjeeveram taluka.  Another of its subdivisions, Pagur-nadu (above, Vol. III. p. 2), is probably named after Pavur, No. 247 on the Madras Survey Map of the Arcot taluka.  Uttaramerur formed a separate subdivision of it; see above, p. 3 and note 6.

[11]  As Kolar is situated in the Kanarese country, the head of the matha was naturally a Karnataka Brahmana.

[12] Madathipathiyam is the same as Mathapatya in Dr. Kittel’s Kannada-English Dictionary, p. 1232.

[13]  In reality the deity of the temple was not a god, but the goddess Pidari.

[14]  The same term occurs in two Tanjore inscriptions (above, Vol. II. No. 21, paragraph 2, and No. 68, paragraph 2) and in an inscription at Pallavaram (ibid.  p. 111, note 3).  Regarding padamula see Ep. Ind. Vol. IV. P. 254, note 4.

[15]  For nivanthakarar see above, Vol. II. p. 278, note 2.

[16]  The missing name is preserved in No. 57 above, text line 23 f.

[17]  This amount must have been due to the temple from some village, the name of which is lost at the end of line 9.

[18]  One this measure see above, Vol. II. p. 42.

[19]  Regarding vasi, ‘an increment,’ see above, Vol. II. p. 149 and note 1.

[20]  See above, p. 8 and note 3.

[21]  No. 311 on the Madras Survey Map of the Conjeeveram taluka.

[22]  See above, p. 49 and notes 6 and 7.

[23]  The historical introduction of this inscription is the same as in No. 64.

[24]  See page 132 above.

[25]  On the south wall of the Smasanesvaa shrine in the Ekamranatha temple at Conjeeveram (No. 1 of  1893).  This inscription is much obliterated and is therefore left unpublished.

[26]  This is another form of Uttaranmerur on page 3 above, note 6.

[27]  No. 491 on the Madras Survey Map of the Madurantakam taluka.

[28]  See above, p. 138, note 8.

[29]  This title target="_self" means ‘the great merchant of the heir-apparent.’  Compare Seraman-loka-pperun-jetti, Ep. Ind. Vol. IV. P. 292 and note 6.

[30]  This name is derived from Arulala-Perumal, the name of the great Vishnu temple in Little Kanchi.  Compare Ep. Ind. Vol. III. pp. 71 and 118, Vol. IV. P. 145, and Vol. V. p. 72.

[31]  See  above, p. 8, note 3.

[32]  See above, Vol. II. p. 390.

[33]  According to the Nalayiraprabandham, Vehka was one of the Vishnu temples in Kanchi.  Besides, Vehka or Vegavati is the name of a river which passes Conjeeveram and joins the Palaru near Villivalam ; see above Vol. II. p. 345 and note 9.

[34]  See above, p. 106 and note 3, and p. 109.

[35]  Viz. from Arulaladasan (1. 3).

[36]  On kudi-nar-kal and Madurantakan-madai see Ep. Ind. Vol. V. p. 106, notes 1 and 3.

[37]  The same term occurs in No. 57 above, text line 9.

[38]  Sill irai is the same as sil-vari, on which see above, p. 122, note 6.

[39]  With this obscure term compare eracl choru, above, No. 24, text line 7, and No. 27, text line 8.

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