66 to 68 Inscriptions at Kolar, Somangalam & Conjeeveram
64 to 65 Inscriptions at Tiruvorriyur & Tiruvalangadu
69 to 70 Inscriptions at Tirukkalukkunram & Srirangam
71 to 72 Inscriptions at Kilappaluvur & Tiruvidaimarudur
73 to 74 Inscriptions at Cholapuram & Conjeeveram
75 to 76 Inscriptions at Tirukkalukkunram & Jambukesvara temple
77 to 78 Inscriptions at Kavantandalam & Perumber
66.- Inscription at Kolar
inscription (No. 131 of 1892) is engraved on the east wall of the
Kolaramma temple at Kolar in the Mysore State.
In the Chola inscriptions of the temple the goddess is called
and Kolar itself Kuvalalam. As
the traditional capital of the Ganga family it is mentioned under
the names of Kuvalalapura, Kolalapura and
Kolahalapura. According to the subjoined
inscription (1. 5) it belonged to Kuvalala-nadu, a district of
historical introduction and the date of this inscription are
identical with those of Nos. 64 and 65.
The inscription records that an officer named
Virasikhamani-Muvendavelar inspected the temple and appointed a
which seems to have made allotments to various shrines included in
the temple. The temple
revenue had been originally paid by the temple villages in gold
coins (madai), but was subsequently converted into supplies of
paddy. We learn that
one madai corresponded
to two kasu (1. 11) and that one kasu purchased about
2 ¾ kalam of paddy (1. 11 f.). In the Tiruvallam inscription of Adhirajendra one kasu
corresponds to four kalam of paddy.
The Tanjore inscriptions of Rajaraja I. and Rajendra-Choda I. fix the interest per kasu
at 3 kuruni of
paddy or one eighth kasu, from which it follows that one kasu
corresponded to 24 kuruni, i.e., 2 kalam.
This shows that the prices of grain must have varied
considerably either according to the locality or at different times.
preserved portion of the inscription consists of 28 lines.
At the end of each of the lines 1 to 7 a few syllables are
lost ; at the end of line 8 much more is lost ; and from line 9 it
is impossible to supply the missing portions of each line.
To give a general idea of the contents of the inscriptions, I
am publishing the text as far as line 13, but am quoting also from
the unpublished portion in the following list of shrines to which
allotments were made : - Virabhadradeva (1. 12), Brahmani, Isvari
(1. 13), Vaishnavi (1. 14), Indrani (1. 15), Ganapati (1. 16),
Chamundesvari of the chief shrine (mulasthana) (1. 17),
(1. 18), Suryadeva (1. 19), Yogini and Yogesvara (11. 24 and 27).
At the worship of the two last deities intoxicating drinks (madya-pana)
4.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the second year (of the reign) of
king Rajakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Rajendra-Soladeva,
– when the magistrate (adhikarin) Ambalavan Tiruppondaiyar,
alias Virasikhamani-Muvendavelar, the lord of Pandiyambakkam
(and a native) of Pandiyambakkam in Perumbuliyur-nadu, (a
subdivision) of Kaliyur-kottam,
(a district) of [Jayangonda-Sola]-mandalam, was examining the
affairs of the temple in the mandapa enclosing the temple of
Pidariyar at [Kuvalalam] in Kuvalala-nadu, (a district) of
Vijayarajaendra-mandalam, (he) asked the Kannadaga-Pandita
who was the superintendent of the matha
of this god,
and Panchacharya (who
wears) a silk garment (in honour) of the feet of the god
and the pujaris (kanmi) of the god : - “Have
allotments been made to this god, [to the Panchacharya] (who
wears) a silk garment (in honour) of the feet of the god,
and to the various temple servants,
after the (payments in) gold coins (madai) accruing
from the villages which are devadanas of this god were
converted into (supplies of) paddy ?”
7.) The answer was : - “No allotments have been made until the
second year (of the reign) of the lord [Sri-Rajendra-So]ladeva.”
8.) Thereon the magistrate Virasikhamani-Muvendavela[r] appointed (a
committee consisting of) the above mentioned persons ; the Puravuvaritinaikalattu-Mugavetti
. . . . . .. . . . . ..
. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .
of Ilai[yuru] (near) Mummudi-Sola-nallur (and) a
resident of Arani in Paiyyur-kottam ; (and) . . .. . . . . .
. . . . . . Velan
Kanapuram, alias Nripasikhamani-Vilupparaiyan.
10.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
madai one hundred and eighty-seven and three
Pakkambal[li] (had to pay) madai two hundred
and two, one twentieth and one eightieth. [A]raiyur (had to pay) madai ten and a half, one
twentieth and one fortieth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.) [Altogether], [ma]dai five hundred and seventeen,
three twentieths and one eightieth, which correspond – at the rate
of two kasu for one madai – to kasu one
thousand and thirty-four, three twentieths and one fortieth, which
correspond, - at the rate of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . by the Raju[kesari]
(measure) for each kasu – to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . kalam
and one tuni [of paddy], which correspond – with an
of one kalam, one tuni and four nali for each kalam
– to two thousand eight hundred and forty-three kalam, two tuni
and three kuruni of paddy by the marakkal (called
12.) Out of this the following allotments were made : - To
Virabhadradevar, [at each] of the three times of the day, . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
four . . . . . . . . . . .
To Brahmaniyar, at each of the three times of the day, four nali
of rice, two dishes of vegetables, two areca-nuts and four
betel-leaves. To Isvariyar, at each of the three times of the day, . . . .
. . . . . . . of
rice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
67. Inscription at Somangalam
inscription (No. 182 of 1901) is engraved on three walls of
Sanndararaja-Peruaml temple at Somangalam,
a village north of Manimangalam in the Chingleput district.
The ancient name of the temple was Chitrakuta (1. 3).
Somangalam belonged to Maganur-nadu, a subdivision of the district
of Sengattu-kottam (1. 2 f.).
inscription is dated in the 3rd year of Rajendra-Chola
II. The introduction agrees with that of the inscriptions of his 2nd
year (Nos. 64 to 66 above), but adds a reference to his queen,
without mentioning her name.
! Prosperity ! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In the 3rd
year (of the reign) of king Rajakesarivarman, alias
the lord Sri-Rajendra-Soladeva, who was pleased to take his seat on
the throne of heroes together with (his queen), the mistress
of the whole world, - we, the great assembly of Somangalam, alias
Rajasikhamani-chaturvedimangalam, in Maganur-nadu, (a subdivision)
of Sengattu-kottam, (a district) of Jayangonda-Sola-mandalam,
drew up the following writing one stone, to last as long as the
moon, in favour of the lord of the holy Chitrakuta (temple)
in our village. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
68.- Inscription in the Pandava-Perumal Temple
inscription (No. 17 of 1893) is engraved on the north wall of the
Pandava-Perumal temple at Conjeeveram. The ancient name of the temple was Tiruppadagam (1. 3), and
it is mentioned under the name of Padagam in the Nalayiraprabandham.
date is the 5th year of the king, who is now styled
Kulottunga-Choladeva (I.), while in the inscriptions of his 2nd,
3rd and 4th years (Nos. 64 to 67 and 77) he
still bears the name Rajendra-Choladeva (II.).
new inscription refers to his early victories at Sakkarakottam and
It then states that he vanquished the king of Kuntala, i.e.,
the Western Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI., that he crowned himself
as king of the country on the banks of the Kaveri, i.e., of
the Chola country, and that he decapitated an unnamed Pandya king.
An inscription of the 6th year of his reign. Adds nothing new to these
subjoined inscription records that a merchant of Kanchipuram
provided the temple with a flower-garden and purchased from the
villagers of Irirukkai some land for the benefit of the gardeners.
I cannot find Orirukkai on the map ; but it must be looked
for near Uttiramelur
(1. 4) in the Madurantakam taluka of the Chingleput district.
As boundaries of the land granted, the inscription mentions
also the river Alichchiyaru and apparently the village of
village of this name
I find 8 miles east of Madurantakam.
1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! Having made the wheel of his (authority)
to go as far as the golden circle (i.e., Mount Meru) on the
earth, which was surrounded by the moat of the sea, that was (again)
surrounded by (his) fame, (the king) newly wedded, in
the time (when he was still) heir-apparent (Ilango),
the brilliant goddess of victory at Sakkarakottam by deeds of valour
and seized a herd of strong elephants at Vayiragaram.
(He) unsheathed (his) sword, showed the
strength of (his) arm, and spurred (his) war-steed, so
that the king of Kondala (Kuntala), (whose spear had) a sharp
point, lost his wealth. Having
established (his) fame, having put on the garland of (the
victory over) the Northern region, and having stopped the
prostitution of the goddess with the sweet and excellent
lotus-flower (i.e., Lakshmi) of the Southern region, and the
loneliness of the goddess of the good country whose garment is the
Ponni (Kaveri), (he) put on by right (of inheritance)
the pure royal crown of jewels, while the kings of the old earth
bore this two feet (on their heads) as a large crown.
2.) The sweet river Ponni swelled, (and) the river (of the
sins) of the Kali (age) dried up.
(his) sceptre swayed over every region ; the heavenly
white light of (his) white parasol shone everywhere on the
circle of the great earth ; (and his) tiger (-banner)
fluttered unrivalled on the Meru (mountain). (Before him) stood a row of elephants showering
jewels, which were presented (as) tribute by the kings of
remote islands of the deep sea.
The excellent head of the brilliant king of the South (i.e.,
the Pandya) lay being pecked by kites.
While his valour and liberality shone like (his)
necklace of precious stones and (like) the flower-garland on
(his) royal shoulders, (and) while (all his)
enemies prostrated themselves on the ground, (he) was pleased
to take his seat on the throne of heroes together with (his queen),
the mistress of the whole world.
3.) In the fifth year (of the reign) of this king
Rajakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Kulottunga-Soladeva, -
we, the inhabitants of Orirukkai in Kaliyur-nadu (a subdivision)
of Kaliyur-kottam, (a district) of
Jayangonda-Sola-mandalam, made and gave the following writing on
stone : - Kumara-Peruvaniyan
Devan Erinjodi, alias Arulaladasan,
a merchant (residing) in the great street of Arumolideva
at Kanchipuram, a city of Eyil-nadu, (a subdivision) of
had made for the god who is pleased to reside in the Tiruppadagam (temple)
a flower-garden, called the flower-garden of Arulaladasan (and
situated) on the outside of the temple.
In order to provide for the cost (mudal) of the
clothing of those who work (in this garden) and of (their)
families, we sold the following land in our village free from taxes.
4.) The eastern boundary (is) to the west of the road of the
inhabitants of Uttiramelur ; the southern boundary (is) to
the north of the Alichchiyaru (river) ; the western boundary
(is) to the cast of the land which we have sold to (the
temple of) Tiruve[h]kavalvan
and of the field of sattamangalam-Udaiyan Kadagan ; and the northern
boundary (is) to the south of the small field of
Having sold the two thousand kuli, (measured)
by the rod of sixteen spans,
enclosed in these four boundaries, not excluding the cultivated
land, (we) received from him
as purchase-money for this land eleven kalanju of gold,
weighed by the true standard of the city (kudinar-kal) (and)
equal (in fineness) to the Madurantakan-madai.
Having received (this amount) in full and having made
(the land) a tax-free devadana, we shall not be able
to claim on his land velikkasu,
water-cess (nir-vilai), petty taxes,
and any other (tax).
5.) We have to measure into the treasury of the temple the paddy
which comes from the land harvested to Anaikkarukku, (a
portion of ?) this land. It
shall be lawful to irrigate the land lying to the east (of the
land sold), from the channels included in this land.
6.) Having thus agreed, we, the inhabitants of Orirukkai, made and
gave (this) writing on stone to continue as long as the moon
and the sun. At the
bidding of these, I, Sattamangalam-Udaiyan Velan Kayilayati[an], a
cultivator of this village, wrote (this).
This is my writing. (This
is placed under) the protection of the Sri-Vaishnavas.