The Indian Analyst

South Indian Inscriptions



Volume - III




Part - I

Inscription at Ukkal





Part - II

Kulottunga-Chola I

Vikrama Chola

Virarajendra I

Kulottunga-Chola III

Part - III

Aditya I

Parantaka I


Parantaka II



Aditya II Karikala

Part - IV

copper-plate Tirukkalar


Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27





Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India


V.- Inscriptions at Tiruvallam

No. 55 to 57 Bilvanathesvara shrine, south wall of the maha mandapa

No. 42 - On a boulder near Tiruvallam & No. 43 - Bilvanathesvara temple

No. 44 to 47 Bilvanathesvara shrine

No. 48 to 51 west, north, south wall of the shrine

No. 52 to 54 wall shrine, & maha mandapa & nakulesvara shrine

No. 58 to 60 verandah round the Bilvan, maha mandapa, north of the tank

No. 61 to 63 north wall of the maha mandapa & west wall of the kitchen

No. 55.- On the west wall of the Bilvanathesvara shrine

This inscription is dated in the 3rd year of the reign of the Chola king Rajendra (1. 4) and refers to the conquest of Ratta-padi (1. 1), the setting-up of a pillar of victory at Kollapuram (1. 2), and the defeat of Ahavamalla at Koppam (1. 3).[1]  It records that the temple authorities received 25 kalanju of gold from an inhabitant of Aimbuni,[2] under the condition that the interest should be applied for the feeding of a learned Brahmana and other purposes.  The end of the inscription is lost.

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! While the army of (his) elder brother[3] - the king (who held) the sceptre (and) was embraced by the goddess of fortune – was at (his) back, (he) conquered the seven and a half lakshas of Iratta-padi.  When the first elephant (of the enemy) went at his elephant, (his) elder brother stopped (it).  (He) set up a pillar of victory at Kollapuram and did not meet with opposition in battle, (but his) drums were sounding through  the eight directions.  Having heard this (report), Ahavamalla proceeded to Koppam on the bank of the great river and fought against (him), (but) became afraid, incurred disgrace and ran away.  (The king) seized his elephants and horses, (his) women and treasures, together with the camels, and performed the anointment of victory.  In the 3rd year (of the reign) of (this) king Parakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Rajendradeva, who was graciously seated on the throne of heroes.


(L. 4.) We, Kausiha-Nagama-Bhattan, a Siva-Brahmana in charge of the shrine (sthana) of the temple of Tiruvallam-udaiyar at Tiruvallam, a brahmadeya in Karaivali, (a subdivision) of Perumbanappadi, (a division) of Tyagabharana-valanadu, (a district) of Jayankonda-Sola-mandalam, Gangadhara-Bhattan, Akka[la]-Bhattan, Sivakkolundu-Bhattan,[4] [Si]kka[li]-Bhattan, Rudra-Bhattan, Vikkiramadittan, [Ti]rumapperan and the other (persons) in charge of the store-room of the temple,[5] have received twenty-five kalanju of gold from Kattukkuri Madhava-Kramavittan, (one) among the commissioners[6] who rule Aim[buni] in Karaivali, (a division) of the same nadu.

(L. 6.) These 25 (kalanju) of gold (we) have received under the following conditions : - The interest on (20 kalanju) of this gold being (one) padakku of paddy per day, (measured) by the marakkal (called after) Arumolidevan,[7] viz., three ulakku and two sevidu of paddy per day from every kalanju, we shall give this paddy to a Brahmana who has become a Dikshita (and) who knows (?) the Veda and the sacred Agama, and shall cause (the god) to be worshipped by him.  The interest on three kalanju of gold being half a kalanju of gold per year, we shall have to give every second year (one) kalanju of gold to him who performs the worship in the temple.  The interest on two kalanju of gold [being] two sevidu and a half of ghee per day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

No. 56.- On the south wall of the Mahamandapa in the Bilvanathesvara temple

This inscription is incomplete.  Of the five lines which are preserved I am publishing only the two first ones.  It is dated in the 2nd year of the reign of Rajakesarivarman, alias Rajamahendradeva, and records that a military officer purchased 800 kuli (1.4) of land from the inhabitants of Tiruvallam and granted them to the temple.

On page 32 above it has been stated that the Kalingattu-Parani and Vikkirama-Solan-Ula mention two Chola kings who have not yet been identified.  The first of them reigned between Rajendra and Virarajendra I., and the second between Virarajendra I. and Kulottunga-Chola I.  In the introductory remarks to No. 57 it will be shown that the second king is identical with Parakesarivarman, alias  Adhirajendradeva.  Hence the only king who remains to be identified is the successor of Rajendra and predecessor of Virarajendra I.  he may be identified provisionally with Rajakesarivarman, alias Rajamahendradeva, to whose 2nd year the subjoined inscription belongs.  In favour of this identification it may be mentioned that the subjoined inscription praises him for guiding the goddess of the earth on the path of Manu, while the Kalingattu-Parani (vii. 28) speaks of “the Chola who dispensed justice three or four times better than the ancient Manu,”[8] and that an inscription of the 9th year of Rajendra mentions among the boundaries of a village “the road of Rajamahendra.”[9]  Perhaps Rajamahendra was the co-regent of Rajendra.

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 2nd year (of the reign) of king Rajakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Rajamahendradeva, who, while the goddess of fortune was resplendent, wedded the great goddess of the earth, in order that (she) might abide joyfully under the shade of a single parasol, and who caused (her) to walk (in) the path of Manu, in order that (she) might abide (in) the way of righteousness.  The hand-writing, (referring to) a deed of sale of land, of us, the assembly of Tiruvallam in Karaivali, (a subdivision) of Perumbanappadi, (a district) of Jayankonda-Sola-mandalam.  We have received sixty-four kasu, (which were) good (i.e., of full weight) (and) current at the time, from Samkaran Kandaradittanar, alias the Senapati Rajaraja-Soliyavaraiyar, the lord of Inga[nur] in Inganadu, (a district) of Arumolideva-valanadu.  At the rate of seven manadi of pure gold, weighted by the true standard of the city,[10] for each kasu, (this amount) is equal to twenty-two kalanju and eight manadi of gold.  Having received these twenty-two kalanju and eight manjadi of gold from Chandesvaradeva, the first servant of (the god) Mahadeva (of the temple) of Tiruvallam in our city, we sold (the following) land.

(L. 2.) (The field called) Kodachcheruvu below the large tank of Rajendra-Chola.  The eastern boundary of (this field is) & c.

No. 57.- On the north wall of the Mahamandapa in the Bilvanathesvara temple

This inscription is dated on the 200th day of the 3rd year of the reign of Parakesarivarman, alias A[dhi]rajendradeva (1. 4 f.).  Two royal officers met at Kanchipuram (1. 7) and called for the accounts of the villages which belonged to the Tiruvallam temple.  One of the two decided that the revenue from the villages of Kukkanur[11] in Tuy-nadu (1. 12) and Mandiram[12] in the same nadu (1. 13) should be assigned to the temple for expenses not previously provided for.  A larger committee then assembled and made allotments from this revenue for various heads of the temple expenditure.

In line 11 it is stated that, before the time of this inscription, the income of the temple had been regulated in the 8th year of the reign of “the emperor Virarajendradeva.”  Consequently Adhirajendra must have reigned later than Virarajendra I.  among the kings who are mentioned in the Vikkirama-Solan-Ula after Virarajendra I., the only one who has not yet been traced in inscriptions is the immediate successor of Virarajendra I. and predecessor of Kulottunga-Chola I.[13]  This king may be identified provisionally with Parakesarivarman, alias Adhirajendradeva.  If the account in the Vikramankadevacharita can be trusted, he would have been the son of Virarajendra I.  and the brother-in-law of Vikramaditya VI.[14]

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! While (the king’s) white parasol was raised, expanding like the moon, diffusing  sweet mercy on all the creatures that abide on the globe, and affording royal protection ; while (his) sceptre rightfully swayed all the quarters ; (and) while the matchless where (of his authority) rolled about, in order to remove and wipe always the force (?) of the sun, the progenitor of his race ; (he) took in marriage the goddess of the beautiful (lotus) flower (i.e.,  Lakshmi), whose austerities (thus) bore fruit, the goddess of the great earth, the (goddess of) fame, (who resembles) a parrot in beauty, and the matchless goddess of (victory in) war, and adorned (them) with crows of brilliant jewels as his rightful queens.

(L. 3.) While the princes of the vast earth worshipped his feet by turns, (he) decked himself, as with garlands, with valour and liberality and was pleased to be seated on the throne of heroes together with (his queen) Ulagamulududaiyar.

(L. 4.) On the two-hundredth day of the third year (of the reign) of (this) king Parakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-A[dhi]raje[nd]radeva, who (continually) increased (his) great fame by following (the laws of) Manju, - the magistrate (adhikarin) [Pu]ran [Adi]tta[deva]nar, alias Rajarajendra-Muvendavelar, of Pulan[gu]dai in Purakki[li]yur-nadu, (a subdivision) of Pandikulasani-valanadu, (a district) of Sola-mandalam, and the Senapati Rajarajan Paranriparakshasan, alias Virasola-Ilan[go] . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .  the headman of [Na]da[r]in Tiraimur-nadu, (a subdivision) of Uyyakkondar-valanadu, having met in the Gangaikonda-Solan, a mandapa on the east (of the temple) of Tirumayanam-udaiyar[15] at Kanchipuram in Eyil-nadu, (a subdivision) of  Eyir-kottam,[16] called for the accounts of the villages which are devadanas (of the temple) of Tiruvallam-udaiyar.

(L. 8.) The magistrate Rajarajendra-Muvendavelar ordered as follows : - “(The income) from the villages which are devadanas of this temple, (viz.,) ur-kalanju, kumarakachchanam,[17] the fishing-rent,[18] the rent of the goldsmiths,[19] and the other minor taxes and rents, the cloth on the loom,[20] velikkasu, the tax on collecting rents (tandal),[21] the sonship (?) of the right hand and left hand,[22] and the other internal revenue, which was being collected at the rate of twenty-five kasu per thousand kalam (of paddy), had been entered in the register and made over to this temple exclusively from the year which  was opposite to (i.e., which followed after)[23] the seventh year (of the reign) of the emperor Sri-Virarajendradeva.  Accordingly, Kukkanur, a devadana of this god in Tuy-nadu, (a subdivsion) of Perumbanappadi, (has to pay) thirty-eight and a quarter kasu or, at the rate of four kalam of paddy, (measured) by the rajakesari, per kasu, one hundred and fifty-three kalam of paddy ; and Mandiram in the same nadu (has to pay) twenty-six  and three quarter kasu or one hundred and seven kalam of paddy.  altogether sixty-five kasu or two hundred and sixty kalam of paddy were allotted to this temple for expenses not previously provided for, and should be given from the third year (of the king’s reign).”

(L. 17.) The Puravaritinaikkalattu-kuru[24] Vidi[yan] Tirumali[run]jolai, alias Kuvalayadivakara-Muvendavelan, of Ilaiyankudai in Panaiyur-nadu, (a subdivision) of Kshatriyasikhamani-valanadu, (a district) of Sola-mandalam ; the Puravaritinaikkalam  Kanda[ni]ranindan, alias Sembiyan-Pallavaraiyan, the headman of A[ya]ndamba[kkam] in [A]gudi-nadu,[25] (a subdivision) of Pular-kottam, (a district) of Jayankonda-Sola-mandalam ; Tiruchchirrambalam-udaiyan, alias  Nripasikhaani-Muvendavelan, (a native) of Taluvuposan[se]ri (near) rajakesarinallur (and) a resident of K[olu]r[26] in Paiyyur-kottam ; Kanavadi Pichchan, alias Villavan-Muvendavelan, the Mangalangilan of . . . . . . . . . . . . in Kunranadu, (a subdivision) of Urrukkattu-kottam ;[27] Era[n I] s [v]aran Girisekharan, alias Jayatunga-Muvendavelan, a Kulamulan[28]  of Poygaippakkam in Rajendra-Sola-valanadu; the Mugavetti[29]  Naganarayanan, alias Rajanarayana-Muvendavelan, the headman of Ilaiyuru (near) Mummudi-Sola-nallur (nad) a resident of Arani[30] in Paiyyur-kottam ; Narayanan Mudikonda-Sola-Pallavaraiyan, the headman of Semmaramba[kkam][31] in Mangadu-nadu,[32]  (a subdivision) of [Puliy]r-kottam ;[33] Pichchan Ambalakkuttan, alias Adirajendra-Tamiladaraiyan, the Adimangalangilan of [Ti]ttanai[da]nallur in Maganur-nadu,[34] (a subdivision) of Sengattu-kottam ; and Karumanikkan Soman, alias Solaraja-Muvendavelan, the lord of Kanchipuram in Eyil-nadu, (a subdivision) of Eyir-kottam, having met together, allotted (the above-mentioned revenue) as follows : -

(L. 27.) To Kalyanasundaradeva (one) kurni and four nali of rice for three daily offerings, viz., four nali of rice for each ; to the consort of this god, six nali or rice for three daily offerings, viz., two nali of rice for each ; to Karumanikkadeva, two nali of rice for each daily offering; and to the consort of this god, two nali or rice for each daily offering, altogether (one) padakku and six nali of rice or, at the rate of two to five,[35] 1 tuni, 1 padakku and 7 nali  of paddy ; for vegetables, three nali of paddy ; for (one) alakku and two sevidu and a half of ghee, six nali of paddy ; for (one) nali and (one) uri of curds, three nali of paddy ; for twelve areca-nuts without shells and sixty betwel-leaves, two nali and three ulakku of paddy, - altogether two tuni, five nali and three ulakku of paddy per day, or two hundred and sixty-one kalam  and three kuruni of paddy (per year).[36]

(L. 33.) (This is) the writing of the Mugavetti Rajanarayana-Muvendavelan.

[1]  See page 58 above.

[2]  See above, p. 92 and note 10.

[3]  Viz., Rajadhiraja ; see p. 39 above.

[4]  See above, Vol. II. p. 257, note 3.

[5]  See above, p. 104, note 5.

[6]  See above, Vol. II. p. 257, note 3.

[7]  See above, p. 8 and note 3.

[8]  Ind. Ant. Vol. XIX. P. 331.

[9]  See p. 41 above.

[10]  See Ep. Ind. Vol. V. p. 106, note 1.

[11]  See above, p. 25, note 2.

[12]  See No. 50 above.

[13]  See p. 32 above.

[14]  See above, Vol. II. p. 231 f.

[15]  This is the Tamil name of the Smasnesvara temple at Conjeeveram.

[16]  See above, Vol. II. p. 390.

[17]  Compare kumara-gadiyanaka Ep. Ind. Vol. IV. P. 99.

[18]  Compare above, Vol. I. p. 89, note 4.

[19]  See Ep. Ind. Vol. V. p. 53, note 6.

[20]  See ibid. note 7.

[21]  Compare tandalil-akkai, above, Vol. II. p. 115, text line 10 f.

[22]  Compare above, Vol. I. p. 110, note 2.

[23]  See above, p. 38, note 3.

[24]  This seems to be the designation of a class of revenue officers ; compare above, p. 44, note 10.

[25]  Agudi-nadu is mentioned in Mr. Crole’s Chingleput Manual, p. 438, as a division of Pular-kottam ; regarding this district as above, p. 76, note 15.

[26]  This village is No. 213 on the Madras Survey Map of the Ponneri taluka of the Chingleput district.  It is also mentioned as belonging to Paiyur-kottam in the British Museum plates of sadasivaraya ; Ep. Ind. Vol. IV. P. 9.

[27] See above, p. 91, note 7.

[28]  Compare Komulan on p. 16 above.

[29]  This is apparently the designation of some office.

[30]  No. 129 on the Madras Survey Map of the Ponneri taluka.

[31]  Now Sembarambakkam, No. 201 in the Madras Survey Map of the Saidapet taluka.

[32]  This division is called after Mangadu, No. 144 on the same map.

[33]  See above, p. 49, note 9.

[34]  See page 49 above.

[35]  I.e., five measures of paddy are required for two measures of rice ; compare above. Vol. II. p. 129.

[36]  If 2 tuni, 5 nali  and 3 ulakku are multiplied by 360, the result is 3 ¾  kuruni in excess of the yearly total given in the text.

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