Inscriptions at Tiruvallam
55 to 57 Bilvanathesvara shrine, south wall of the maha mandapa
42 - On a boulder near Tiruvallam & No. 43 - Bilvanathesvara
44 to 47 Bilvanathesvara shrine
48 to 51 west, north, south wall of the shrine
52 to 54 wall shrine, & maha mandapa & nakulesvara shrine
58 to 60 verandah round the Bilvan, maha mandapa, north of the tank
61 to 63 north wall of the maha mandapa & west wall of the
55.- On the west wall of the Bilvanathesvara shrine
inscription is dated in the 3rd year of the reign of the
Chola king Rajendra (1. 4) and refers to the conquest of Ratta-padi
(1. 1), the setting-up of a pillar of victory at Kollapuram (1. 2),
and the defeat of Ahavamalla at Koppam (1. 3).
It records that the temple authorities received 25 kalanju
of gold from an inhabitant of Aimbuni,
under the condition that the interest should be applied for the
feeding of a learned Brahmana and other purposes.
The end of the inscription is lost.
1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! While the army of (his) elder brother - the king (who held)
the sceptre (and) was embraced by the goddess of fortune â
was at (his) back, (he) conquered the seven and a half
lakshas of Iratta-padi.
When the first elephant (of the enemy) went at his
elephant, (his) elder brother stopped (it).
(He) set up a pillar of victory at Kollapuram and did
not meet with opposition in battle, (but his) drums were sounding
through the eight
heard this (report), Ahavamalla proceeded to Koppam on the
bank of the great river and fought against (him), (but)
became afraid, incurred disgrace and ran away.
(The king) seized his elephants and horses, (his)
women and treasures, together with the camels, and performed the
anointment of victory. In
the 3rd year (of the reign) of (this) king
Parakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Rajendradeva, who was
graciously seated on the throne of heroes.
4.) We, Kausiha-Nagama-Bhattan, a Siva-Brahmana in charge of
the shrine (sthana) of the temple of Tiruvallam-udaiyar at
Tiruvallam, a brahmadeya in Karaivali, (a subdivision)
of Perumbanappadi, (a division) of Tyagabharana-valanadu, (a
district) of Jayankonda-Sola-mandalam, Gangadhara-Bhattan,
[Si]kka[li]-Bhattan, Rudra-Bhattan, Vikkiramadittan, [Ti]rumapperan
and the other (persons) in charge of the store-room of the
have received twenty-five kalanju of gold from Kattukkuri
Madhava-Kramavittan, (one) among the commissioners
who rule Aim[buni] in Karaivali, (a division) of the same nadu.
6.) These 25 (kalanju) of gold (we) have received
under the following conditions : - The interest on (20 kalanju)
of this gold being (one) padakku of paddy per day, (measured)
by the marakkal (called after) Arumolidevan,
viz., three ulakku and two sevidu of paddy per
day from every kalanju, we shall give this paddy to a
Brahmana who has become a Dikshita (and) who knows (?)
the Veda and the sacred Agama, and shall cause (the
god) to be worshipped by him. The
interest on three kalanju of gold being half a kalanju
of gold per year, we shall have to give every second year (one) kalanju
of gold to him who performs the worship in the temple.
The interest on two kalanju of gold [being] two sevidu
and a half of ghee per day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .
56.- On the south wall of the Mahamandapa in the Bilvanathesvara
inscription is incomplete. Of the five lines which are preserved I am publishing only
the two first ones. It
is dated in the 2nd year of the reign of Rajakesarivarman,
alias Rajamahendradeva, and records that a military officer
purchased 800 kuli (1.4) of land from the inhabitants of
Tiruvallam and granted them to the temple.
page 32 above it has been stated that the Kalingattu-Parani
and Vikkirama-Solan-Ula mention two Chola kings who have not
yet been identified. The
first of them reigned between Rajendra and Virarajendra I., and the
second between Virarajendra I. and Kulottunga-Chola I.
In the introductory remarks to No. 57 it will be shown that
the second king is identical with Parakesarivarman, alias
the only king who remains to be identified is the successor of
Rajendra and predecessor of Virarajendra I.
he may be identified provisionally with Rajakesarivarman, alias
Rajamahendradeva, to whose 2nd year the subjoined
inscription belongs. In
favour of this identification it may be mentioned that the subjoined
inscription praises him for guiding the goddess of the earth on the
path of Manu, while the Kalingattu-Parani (vii. 28) speaks of
âthe Chola who dispensed justice three or four times better than
the ancient Manu,â
and that an inscription of the 9th year of Rajendra
mentions among the boundaries of a village âthe road of
Perhaps Rajamahendra was the co-regent of Rajendra.
1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 2nd year (of the reign)
of king Rajakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Rajamahendradeva,
who, while the goddess of fortune was resplendent, wedded the great
goddess of the earth, in order that (she) might abide
joyfully under the shade of a single parasol, and who caused (her)
to walk (in) the path of Manu, in order that (she)
might abide (in) the way of righteousness.
The hand-writing, (referring to) a deed of sale of
land, of us, the assembly of Tiruvallam in Karaivali, (a
subdivision) of Perumbanappadi, (a district) of
have received sixty-four kasu, (which were) good (i.e.,
of full weight) (and) current at the time, from Samkaran
Kandaradittanar, alias the Senapati
Rajaraja-Soliyavaraiyar, the lord of Inga[nur] in Inganadu, (a
district) of Arumolideva-valanadu.
At the rate of seven manadi of pure gold, weighted by
the true standard of the city,
for each kasu, (this amount) is equal to twenty-two kalanju
and eight manadi of gold.
Having received these twenty-two kalanju and eight manjadi
of gold from Chandesvaradeva, the first servant of (the god)
Mahadeva (of the temple) of Tiruvallam in our city, we
sold (the following) land.
2.) (The field called) Kodachcheruvu below the large
tank of Rajendra-Chola. The
eastern boundary of (this field is) & c.
57.- On the north wall of the Mahamandapa in the Bilvanathesvara
inscription is dated on the 200th day of the 3rd
year of the reign of Parakesarivarman, alias
A[dhi]rajendradeva (1. 4 f.). Two
royal officers met at Kanchipuram (1. 7) and called for the accounts
of the villages which belonged to the Tiruvallam temple.
One of the two decided that the revenue from the villages of
in Tuy-nadu (1. 12) and Mandiram
in the same nadu (1. 13) should be assigned to the temple for
expenses not previously provided for.
A larger committee then assembled and made allotments from
this revenue for various heads of the temple expenditure.
line 11 it is stated that, before the time of this inscription, the
income of the temple had been regulated in the 8th year
of the reign of âthe emperor Virarajendradeva.â Consequently Adhirajendra must have reigned later than
Virarajendra I. among
the kings who are mentioned in the Vikkirama-Solan-Ula after
Virarajendra I., the only one who has not yet been traced in
inscriptions is the immediate successor of Virarajendra I. and
predecessor of Kulottunga-Chola I.
This king may be identified provisionally with
Parakesarivarman, alias Adhirajendradeva. If the account in the Vikramankadevacharita can be
trusted, he would have been the son of Virarajendra I.
and the brother-in-law of Vikramaditya VI.
1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! While (the kingâs) white parasol
was raised, expanding like the moon, diffusing
sweet mercy on all the creatures that abide on the globe, and
affording royal protection ; while (his) sceptre rightfully
swayed all the quarters ; (and) while the matchless where (of
his authority) rolled about, in order to remove and wipe
always the force (?) of the sun, the progenitor of his race ; (he)
took in marriage the goddess of the beautiful (lotus) flower
whose austerities (thus) bore fruit, the goddess of the great
earth, the (goddess of) fame, (who resembles) a
parrot in beauty, and the matchless goddess of (victory in)
war, and adorned (them) with crows of brilliant jewels as his
3.) While the princes of the vast earth worshipped his feet by
turns, (he) decked himself, as with garlands, with valour and
liberality and was pleased to be seated on the throne of heroes
together with (his queen) Ulagamulududaiyar.
4.) On the two-hundredth day of the third year (of the reign)
of (this) king Parakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-A[dhi]raje[nd]radeva,
who (continually) increased (his) great fame by
following (the laws of) Manju, - the magistrate (adhikarin)
[Pu]ran [Adi]tta[deva]nar, alias Rajarajendra-Muvendavelar,
of Pulan[gu]dai in Purakki[li]yur-nadu, (a subdivision) of
Pandikulasani-valanadu, (a district) of Sola-mandalam, and
the Senapati Rajarajan Paranriparakshasan, alias
Virasola-Ilan[go] . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .
the headman of [Na]da[r]in Tiraimur-nadu, (a subdivision)
of Uyyakkondar-valanadu, having met in the Gangaikonda-Solan,
a mandapa on the east (of the temple) of
at Kanchipuram in Eyil-nadu, (a subdivision) of
called for the accounts of the villages which are devadanas (of
the temple) of Tiruvallam-udaiyar.
8.) The magistrate Rajarajendra-Muvendavelar ordered as follows : -
â(The income) from the villages which are devadanas
of this temple, (viz.,) ur-kalanju, kumarakachchanam,
the rent of the goldsmiths,
and the other minor taxes and rents, the cloth on the loom,
velikkasu, the tax on collecting rents (tandal),
the sonship (?) of the right hand and left hand,
and the other internal revenue, which was being collected at the
rate of twenty-five kasu per thousand kalam (of
paddy), had been entered in the register and made over to this
temple exclusively from the year which
was opposite to (i.e., which followed after)
the seventh year (of the reign) of the emperor Sri-Virarajendradeva.
Accordingly, Kukkanur, a devadana of this god in
Tuy-nadu, (a subdivsion) of Perumbanappadi, (has to pay)
thirty-eight and a quarter kasu or, at the rate of four kalam
of paddy, (measured) by the rajakesari, per kasu,
one hundred and fifty-three kalam of paddy ; and Mandiram in
the same nadu (has to pay) twenty-six
and three quarter kasu or one hundred and seven kalam
of paddy. altogether
sixty-five kasu or two hundred and sixty kalam of
paddy were allotted to this temple for expenses not previously
provided for, and should be given from the third year (of the
17.) The Puravaritinaikkalattu-kuru
Vidi[yan] Tirumali[run]jolai, alias
Kuvalayadivakara-Muvendavelan, of Ilaiyankudai in Panaiyur-nadu, (a
subdivision) of Kshatriyasikhamani-valanadu, (a district)
of Sola-mandalam ; the Puravaritinaikkalam Kanda[ni]ranindan,
alias Sembiyan-Pallavaraiyan, the headman of A[ya]ndamba[kkam]
(a subdivision) of Pular-kottam, (a district) of
Jayankonda-Sola-mandalam ; Tiruchchirrambalam-udaiyan, alias
Nripasikhaani-Muvendavelan, (a native) of
Taluvuposan[se]ri (near) rajakesarinallur (and) a
resident of K[olu]r
in Paiyyur-kottam ; Kanavadi Pichchan, alias
Villavan-Muvendavelan, the Mangalangilan of . . . . . . . . .
. . . in Kunranadu, (a subdivision) of Urrukkattu-kottam ;
Era[n I] s [v]aran Girisekharan, alias Jayatunga-Muvendavelan,
of Poygaippakkam in Rajendra-Sola-valanadu; the Mugavetti
Naganarayanan, alias Rajanarayana-Muvendavelan, the
headman of Ilaiyuru (near) Mummudi-Sola-nallur (nad) a
resident of Arani
in Paiyyur-kottam ; Narayanan Mudikonda-Sola-Pallavaraiyan, the
headman of Semmaramba[kkam] in Mangadu-nadu,
(a subdivision) of [Puliy]r-kottam ;
Pichchan Ambalakkuttan, alias Adirajendra-Tamiladaraiyan, the
Adimangalangilan of [Ti]ttanai[da]nallur in Maganur-nadu,
(a subdivision) of Sengattu-kottam ; and Karumanikkan Soman, alias
Solaraja-Muvendavelan, the lord of Kanchipuram in Eyil-nadu, (a
subdivision) of Eyir-kottam, having met together, allotted (the
above-mentioned revenue) as follows : -
27.) To Kalyanasundaradeva (one) kurni and four nali
of rice for three daily offerings, viz., four nali of
rice for each ; to the consort of this god, six nali or rice
for three daily offerings, viz., two nali of rice for
each ; to Karumanikkadeva, two nali of rice for each daily
offering; and to the consort of this god, two nali or rice
for each daily offering, altogether (one) padakku and
six nali of rice or, at the rate of two to five,
1 tuni, 1 padakku and 7 nali of paddy ; for vegetables, three nali of paddy ; for (one)
alakku and two sevidu and a half of ghee, six nali
of paddy ; for (one) nali and (one) uri
of curds, three nali of paddy ; for twelve areca-nuts without
shells and sixty betwel-leaves, two nali and three ulakku
of paddy, - altogether two tuni, five nali and three ulakku
of paddy per day, or two hundred and sixty-one kalam and three kuruni of paddy (per year).
33.) (This is) the writing of the Mugavetti