42 - On a boulder near Tiruvallam & No. 43 - Bilvanathesvara
44 to 47 Bilvanathesvara shrine
48 to 51 west, north, south wall of the shrine
52 to 54 wall shrine, & maha mandapa & nakulesvara shrine
55 to 57 Bilvanathesvara shrine, south wall of the maha mandapa
58 to 60 verandah round the Bilvan, maha mandapa, north of the tank
61 to 63 north wall of the maha mandapa & west wall of the
42.- On a Boulder near Tiruvallam
inscription is engraved on the slightly sloping surface of a large
boulder in the bed of the Niva river, one mile north-east of
alphabet is Tamil and Grantha of an archaic type.
It resembles the alphabet of the inscriptions of the Western
Ganga king Kampavarman (Nos. 5 and 8 above) and lies between the two
Kil-Muttugur inscriptions of Vijaya-Narasimhavarman
as the upper limit and the two Ambur inscriptions of
as the lower one. As in other archaic Tamil inscriptions,
the virama is expressed by a vertical dash over the letter in
a number of cases, though not throughout.
In the word Manradi (1. 8) the syllable ra is
expressed by two separate symbols.
The letter n has generally its archaic form, but in
two cases its central loop is fully developed.
The language of the inscription is Tamil ; but line 1
contains some invocations in Sanskrit prose, and line 15 f. a
record is dated in the 62nd year of the reign of
Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman (1. 2 f.).
Three other inscriptions of the same king are noticed in Vol.
I. (Nos. 108, 124 and 125). As
I have shown before,
he is probably identical with Nandivarman, the father of
Vijaya-Nripatungavarman and the son-in-law of the Rashtrakuta king
Amoghavarsha I. If this
identification is correct, the inscription would have to be placed
before the end of the 9th century A.D.
appears to have been the sovereign of Mahavalivanaraya (1. 11) or
Mavalivanaraya (1. 5), who was a descendant of the family of
Mahabali (1. 5) and ruled the twelve thousand (villages) of
Vadugavali (1. 6), i.e., âthe Telugu road.â This province is mentioned in the Mudyanur plates of
the Bana king Malladeva as âthe twelve thousand villages in
and in the Udayendiram plates of the Bana king Vikramaditya II. as
âthe land to the west of the Andhra road.â
The attributes which are prefixed to the name of
Mahavalivanaraya in the subjoined inscription (1. 3 ff.) are also
found in an undated inscription of Mahavalibanarasa at Gulganpode.
As I have stated before,
Mahabalibanaraja seems to have been the hereditary designation of
the Bana chiefs. Hence
it is impossible to say which individual chief is meant in the
inscription records that a goldsmith granted some land to a temple
at Vanapuram (II. 6 and 14), and that Mahavalivanaraya confirmed
this grant (1. 10 f.). vanapuram, âthe town of the Banas,â seems
to have been the residence of the Bana chief and have been situated
closed to Tiruvallam.
1.) Om. Obeisance
to Siva! Hail! Prosperity!
2.) In the sixty-second year (of the reign) of king
Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman, while the glorious Mavalivanaraya, - born
from the family of Mahabali, who had been made door-keeper by the
lord of gods and demons, Paramesvara (Siva), who is
worshipped in all the three worlds,- was ruling the Vadu[gava]li
twelve-thousand, - I, [A]ridhiran, the son of Ma[da]n, a goldsmith (and
resident) of a house in the east of [A]linganapa[kka]m in (the
district of) Urrukkattu-kottam,
caused to be renewed the Vada-[si]gara-koyil
at Vanapuram and gave to it the patti
(called) Alinjirka [lam], (which I
had) bought from Manradi, the son of Ilangilavar.
10.) Mahavalivanaraya circumambulated the hamlet (pidagai)
towards the right and granted (the land) enjoyed by the god,
which (Aridhiran) had given.
11.) âThe feet of him who protects this (charity), (shall be) on
He who destroys this (charity), shall incur the sin of one
who kills the great men who are permanent (members)
of the assembly. If the destroyer of this
(charity) does not fear this sin, we, (the inhabitants) of Vanapuram,
shall pay a fine of one thousand kanam to the palace of the
king who is then ruling.
15.) âLand has been granted by many kings, commencing with Sagara.
Whosoever (is) the earth at any time, his (is) then the
reward (of gifts of land).â
43.- On the north wall of the Mahamandapa in the Bilvanathesvara
inscription and No. 44 are written continuously, the first two words
of No. 44 occupying the end of line 46 of No. 43.
The two first lines of No. 43 state that both inscriptions
are copies of earlier stone inscriptions, and that these copies were
made when the mandapa of the temple was pulled down and
the alphabet of Nos. 43 and 44 exhibits more recent forms than No.
42, though the date of No. 43 is anterior to No. 42.
43 belongs to the 17th year of the reign of the same king
as No. 42, -Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman (1. 3 f.).
It records that three villagers were granted to the temple at
the request of the Bana king Vikramaditya (1. 12 ff.).
Two chiefs of this name are mentioned in the Udayendiram
plates of Vikramaditya II.
The grant recorded in these plates must be prior to the time
of Prithivipati II., because the Chola king Parantaka I. transferred
to the latter the Bana kingdom, which he had wrested from two Bana
The accession of Prithivipati III. has to be placed before
the 9th year of Parantaka I., i.e., before about
Consequently, as pointed out by Dr. Fleet,
Krishnaraja, the friend of the Bana king Vikramaditya II.,
seems to have been the Rashtrakuta king Krishna II. (A.D. 888 and 911-12) ; and the Bana king Vikramaditya, who
is mentioned in the subjoined inscription as a contemporary of
Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman in the 17th year of this king,
may be identified with Vikramaditya I., the grandfather of that
Vikramaditya II. who issued the Udayendiram grant.
of the three villages granted was Aimbuni (1. 6), apparently the
near Tiruvallam. The
three villages were clubbed together into one village, which
received the new name Videlvidugu-Vikkiramaditta-chaturvedimangalam
(1. 9 ff. and 1. 20 ff.). The
executor of the grant was Kaduptti â Tamila-Perarayan (1. 15).
The same title was borne by the executor of the Bahur plates
of Vijaya-Nripatugavarman. In
the transcript of these plates, which is in my hands,
which is evidently a mistake of the copyist for Videlvidugu
title and the surname of the village granted by the present
suggest that Videlvidugu, i.e., âthe crashing
thunderbolt,â may have been a surname of Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman
and of his son Vijaya-Nripatungavarman.
great interest is the mention of persons who had to sing the Tiruppadiyam
i.e., the Devaram, in the temple (1. 32 f.).
Hitherto the earliest known mention of the Devaram was
in an inscription of Rajaraja I.
The subjoined inscription proves that it was considered a
holy book already in the 9th century A.D.
1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! (The following is) a copy of a stone
inscription which existed before the mandapa of the temple
had been pulled down and re-erected.
3.) In the 17th year (of the reign) of king
4.) Mavalivanaraya, alias Vikkiramadittavanaraya, (had
made) the request that
to (the temple of) Paramesvara (Siva) at
Tikkali-Vallam in Miyaru-nadu, (a subdivision) of
Paduvur-kottam, (should be given three villages) in
the same nadu, (viz.,) Amim[bu]ni, Vilattur and
Amarunrimangalam, a devadana of this god, (and that they
should be clubbed together into) one village, named
14.) In conformity with (this request), and
Kadupatti-Tamila-Pera[ra]yan being the executor,
(the three villages) were into one village.
16.) The members of the assembly of this
Videlvidugu-Vikkiramaditta-chaturvedimangalam shall have to pay two
thousand kadi of paddy and twenty kalanju of gold,
which were being paid before by this Amarunrimangalam to this (temple
of) Paramesvara at Tikkali-Vallam.
23.) Of this paddy, six hundred kadi of paddy (are
allotted) for offerings ; five hundred kadi of paddy to
the Siva-Brahmanas who desire to be fed, beginning with those
in charge of the store-room of the temple ; five hundred kadi
of paddy to those who beat (drums before) oblations ; four
hundred kadi of paddy to those who pick (flowers for)
temple garlands, and to those who perform various (other)
services, including the singers of the Tiruppadiyam ; and
twenty kalanju of gold for the perpetual lamps, for anointing
the idol, for bark,
and for repairing breaks and cracks, etc.,
40.) (The members of the assembly) shall have to pay this
paddy and this gold to this god as long as the moon and the sun
43.) In this manner we
have given (the village) for (providing) the
45.) This charity (is placed under) the protection of all Mahesvaras.