The Indian Analyst

South Indian Inscriptions



Volume - III




Part - I

Inscription at Ukkal





Part - II

Kulottunga-Chola I

Vikrama Chola

Virarajendra I

Kulottunga-Chola III

Part - III

Aditya I

Parantaka I


Parantaka II



Aditya II Karikala

Part - IV

copper-plate Tirukkalar


Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27





Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India


V.- Inscriptions at Tiruvallam

No. 42 - On a boulder near Tiruvallam & No. 43 - Bilvanathesvara temple

No. 44 to 47 Bilvanathesvara shrine

No. 48 to 51 west, north, south wall of the shrine

No. 52 to 54 wall shrine, & maha mandapa & nakulesvara shrine

No. 55 to 57 Bilvanathesvara shrine, south wall of the maha mandapa

No. 58 to 60 verandah round the Bilvan, maha mandapa, north of the tank

No. 61 to 63 north wall of the maha mandapa & west wall of the kitchen

No. 42.- On a Boulder near Tiruvallam 

This inscription is engraved on the slightly sloping surface of a large boulder in the bed of the Niva river, one mile north-east of Tiruvallam.  The alphabet is Tamil and Grantha of an archaic type.  It resembles the alphabet of the inscriptions of the Western Ganga king Kampavarman (Nos. 5 and 8 above) and lies between the two Kil-Muttugur inscriptions of Vijaya-Narasimhavarman[1] as the upper limit and the two Ambur inscriptions of Vijaya-Nripatunga-Vikramavarman[2]  as the lower one.  As in other archaic Tamil inscriptions,[3] the virama is expressed by a vertical dash over the letter in a number of cases, though not throughout.  In the word Manradi (1. 8) the syllable ra is expressed by two separate symbols.[4]  The letter n has generally its archaic form, but in two cases its central loop is fully developed.  The language of the inscription is Tamil ; but line 1 contains some invocations in Sanskrit prose, and line 15 f. a Sanskrit verse.

The record is dated in the 62nd year of the reign of Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman (1. 2 f.).  Three other inscriptions of the same king are noticed in Vol. I. (Nos. 108, 124 and 125).  As I have shown before,[5] he is probably identical with Nandivarman, the father of Vijaya-Nripatungavarman and the son-in-law of the Rashtrakuta king Amoghavarsha I.  If this identification is correct, the inscription would have to be placed before the end of the 9th century A.D.


Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman appears to have been the sovereign of Mahavalivanaraya (1. 11) or Mavalivanaraya (1. 5), who was a descendant of the family of Mahabali (1. 5) and ruled the twelve thousand (villages) of Vadugavali (1. 6), i.e., ‘the Telugu road.’   This province is mentioned in the Mudyanur plates of the Bana king Malladeva as ‘the twelve thousand villages in Andhra-mandala,’[6] and in the Udayendiram plates of the Bana king Vikramaditya II. as ‘the land to the west of the Andhra road.’[7]  The attributes which are prefixed to the name of Mahavalivanaraya in the subjoined inscription (1. 3 ff.) are also found in an undated inscription of Mahavalibanarasa at Gulganpode.[8]  As I have stated before,[9] Mahabalibanaraja seems to have been the hereditary designation of the Bana chiefs.  Hence it is impossible to say which individual chief is meant in the present inscription.

The inscription records that a goldsmith granted some land to a temple at Vanapuram (II. 6 and 14), and that Mahavalivanaraya confirmed this grant (1. 10 f.). vanapuram, ‘the town of the Banas,’ seems to have been the residence of the Bana chief and have been situated closed to Tiruvallam.

(Line 1.) Om.  Obeisance to Siva! Hail! Prosperity!

(L. 2.) In the sixty-second year (of the reign) of king Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman, while the glorious Mavalivanaraya, - born from the family of Mahabali, who had been made door-keeper by the lord of gods and demons, Paramesvara (Siva), who is worshipped in all the three worlds,- was ruling the Vadu[gava]li twelve-thousand, - I, [A]ridhiran, the son of Ma[da]n, a goldsmith (and resident) of a house in the east of [A]linganapa[kka]m in (the district of) Urrukkattu-kottam,[10] caused to be renewed the Vada-[si]gara-koyil[11] at Vanapuram and gave to it the patti[12]  (called) Alinjirka [lam], (which I had) bought from Manradi, the son of Ilangilavar.

(L. 10.) Mahavalivanaraya circumambulated the hamlet (pidagai) towards the right and granted (the land) enjoyed by the god, which (Aridhiran) had given.

(L. 11.) “The feet of him who protects this (charity), (shall be) on my head.[13]  He who destroys this (charity), shall incur the sin of one who kills the great men who are permanent (members)[14] of the assembly.[15] If the destroyer of this (charity) does not fear this sin, we, (the inhabitants) of Vanapuram, shall pay a fine of one thousand kanam to the palace of the king who is then ruling.

(L. 15.) “Land has been granted by many kings, commencing with Sagara.  Whosoever (is) the earth at any time, his (is) then the reward (of gifts of land).”

No. 43.- On the north wall of the Mahamandapa in the Bilvanathesvara temple

This inscription and No. 44 are written continuously, the first two words of No. 44 occupying the end of line 46 of No. 43.  The two first lines of No. 43 state that both inscriptions are copies of earlier stone inscriptions, and that these copies were made when the mandapa of the temple was pulled down and rebuilt.  Consequently the alphabet of Nos. 43 and 44 exhibits more recent forms than No. 42, though the date of No. 43 is anterior to No. 42.

No. 43 belongs to the 17th year of the reign of the same king as No. 42, -Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman (1. 3 f.).  It records that three villagers were granted to the temple at the request of the Bana king Vikramaditya (1. 12 ff.).  Two chiefs of this name are mentioned in the Udayendiram plates of Vikramaditya II.[16]  The grant recorded in these plates must be prior to the time of Prithivipati II., because the Chola king Parantaka I. transferred to the latter the Bana kingdom, which he had wrested from two Bana chiefs.[17]  The accession of Prithivipati III. has to be placed before the 9th year of Parantaka I., i.e., before about A.D. 909.[18]  Consequently, as pointed out by Dr. Fleet,[19] Krishnaraja, the friend of the Bana king Vikramaditya II.,[20] seems to have been the Rashtrakuta king Krishna II.  (A.D. 888 and 911-12) ; and the Bana king Vikramaditya, who is mentioned in the subjoined inscription as a contemporary of Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman in the 17th year of this king, may be identified with Vikramaditya I., the grandfather of that Vikramaditya II. who issued the Udayendiram grant.

One of the three villages granted was Aimbuni (1. 6), apparently the modern Ammundi[21] near Tiruvallam.  The three villages were clubbed together into one village, which received the new name Videlvidugu-Vikkiramaditta-chaturvedimangalam (1. 9 ff. and 1. 20 ff.).  The executor of the grant was Kaduptti – Tamila-Perarayan (1. 15).  The same title was borne by the executor of the Bahur plates of Vijaya-Nripatugavarman.  In the transcript of these plates, which is in my hands,[22] which is evidently a mistake of the copyist for Videlvidugu Kadupati-Tamila-Perarayan.  This title and the surname of the village granted by the present inscription[23] suggest that Videlvidugu, i.e., ‘the crashing thunderbolt,’ may have been a surname of Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman and of his son Vijaya-Nripatungavarman.

Of great interest is the mention of persons who had to sing the Tiruppadiyam i.e., the Devaram, in the temple (1. 32 f.).  Hitherto the earliest known mention of the Devaram was in an inscription of Rajaraja I.[24]  The subjoined inscription proves that it was considered a holy book already in the 9th century A.D.

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! (The following is) a copy of a stone inscription which existed before the mandapa of the temple had been pulled down and re-erected.

(L. 3.) In the 17th year (of the reign) of king Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman.  (L. 4.) Mavalivanaraya, alias Vikkiramadittavanaraya, (had made) the request  that to (the temple of) Paramesvara (Siva) at Tikkali-Vallam in Miyaru-nadu, (a subdivision) of Paduvur-kottam, (should be given three villages) in the same nadu, (viz.,) Amim[bu]ni, Vilattur and Amarunrimangalam, a devadana of this god, (and that they should be clubbed together into) one village, named Videlvidugu-Vikkiramaditta-chaturvedimangalam.

(l. 14.) In conformity with (this request), and Kadupatti-Tamila-Pera[ra]yan being the executor,[25] (the three villages) were into one village.

(L. 16.) The members of the assembly of this Videlvidugu-Vikkiramaditta-chaturvedimangalam shall have to pay two thousand kadi of paddy and twenty kalanju of gold, which were being paid before by this Amarunrimangalam to this (temple of) Paramesvara at Tikkali-Vallam.

(L. 23.) Of this paddy, six hundred kadi of paddy (are allotted) for offerings ; five hundred kadi of paddy to the Siva-Brahmanas who desire to be fed, beginning with those in charge of the store-room of the temple ;[26] five hundred kadi of paddy to those who beat (drums before) oblations ; four hundred kadi of paddy to those who pick (flowers for) temple garlands, and to those who perform various (other) services, including the singers of the Tiruppadiyam ; and twenty kalanju of gold for the perpetual lamps, for anointing the idol, for bark,[27] and for repairing breaks and cracks, etc.,

(L. 40.) (The members of the assembly) shall have to pay this paddy and this gold to this god as long as the moon and the sun exist.

(L. 43.) In this manner we[28] have given (the village) for (providing) the necessaries.

(L. 45.) This charity (is placed under) the protection of all Mahesvaras.

[1]  Ep. Ind. Vol. IV. P. 177 f. and p. 360.

[2]  Ibid. p. 182 f.

[3]  See above, p. 4, note 2, and p. 50.

[4]  Compare above, p. 45, note 3.

[5]  Ep. Ind., Vol. IV. P. 181 f.

[6]  Ind. Ant. Vol. XV. P. 175, text line 21 f.

[7]  Ep. Ind. Vol. III. p. 76, text line 21.

[8]  Ind. Ant. Vol. X. p. 39, No. I.

[9]  Ep. Ind. Vol. V. p. 50.

[10]  See above, Vol. II. p. 345 and note 4.

[11]  I.e., ‘the temple with the tower in the north.’

[12]  On this term see above, Vol. II. p. 359, note 12.

[13]  See above, p. 39, note 4.

[14]  Literally, ‘who do not rise.’

[15]  The two Tamil words iruvar and kadigai correspond to mahajana and ghatige in the Chalukya inscription ; Ep. Ind. Vol. III. p. 360.

[16]  Ep. Ind. Vol. III. p. 75.

[17]  Above, Vol. II. pp. 379 and 381.

[18]  Ep. Ind. Vol. IV. P. 222.

[19]  I am quoting from a manuscript article on the Banas, which he has kindly placed at my disposal.

[20]  Ep. Ind. Vol. III. p. 75.

[21]  No. 2 on the Madras Survey Map of the Gudiyatam taluka.  A different village of the same name (properly Anpundi, No. 101 on the map of the Vellore taluka) is mentioned in Vol. I. pp. 87 f. and 135 f.

[22]  See Ep. Ind. Vol. IV. P. 180.

[23]  The second member of the triple compound Videlvidugu-Vikkiramaditta-chaturvedimangalam is the name of the Bana chief at whose request the grant was made.

[24]  See above, Vol. II. p. 252.

[25]  On anaiti see Ep. Ind. Vol. V. p. 52, note 10.

[26]  See above, p. 20, note 5.

[27]  See above, Vol. II. p. 130, note 2.

[28]  Viz., the king.

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