48 to 51 west, north, south wall of the shrine
42 - On a boulder near Tiruvallam & No. 43 - Bilvanathesvara
44 to 47 Bilvanathesvara shrine
52 to 54 wall shrine, & maha mandapa & nakulesvara shrine
55 to 57 Bilvanathesvara shrine, south wall of the maha mandapa
58 to 60 verandah round the Bilvan, maha mandapa, north of the tank
61 to 63 north wall of the maha mandapa & west wall of the
48.- On the west wall of the Bilvanathesvara shrine
stated in the introductory remarks to No. 47, the subjoined
inscription was copied from an earlier stone inscription when the
central shrine of the temple was pulled down.
It records the gift of a lamp by the same queen as No. 47,
who was the consort of the Bana king Vanavidyadhara and the daughter
of Pratipati-Araiyar (i.e., the Western Ganga king
Prithivipati I.), the son of Sivamaharaja.
From the subjoined inscription we learn that her actual name
1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! We, the assembly of Tikkali-Vallam, have
received forty kalanju of pure gold from Kundavv[ai]yar, alias
Vanamahadevi, - the daughter of Pratipati-Araiyar, the son of [K]o[n]gu[n]I[va]rman,
the very righteous Maharaja, the supreme lord of Nipunilapura,
alias Srinathan, the glorious Sivamaharaja-Perumanadigal, (and
the queen of) Vanavidyadha[ra]raja, alias Vanaraya, born
from the family of Mahabali, who had been made door-keeper by the
lord of gods and demons, Paramesvara (Siva), who is
worshipped in all the three worlds.
3.) (In return), we, the assembly, shall have to burn, as
long as the moon and the sun exist, one perpetual lamp before (the
god) Tiruttikkali-Perumanadigal, supplying daily (one) uri
of fresh ghee and a quarter of camphor.
4.) We, the assembly, have agreed that, whenever (they) fail
in this charity, all the Mahesvaras (among us) shall
pay into court a fine of five kalanju of gold per day.
Though fined thus, we shall have to burn this sacred lamp
without fail. Those
among us, who say that this (charity) is not (existing)
shall incur (all) the sins committed between the Ganga and
5.) âThis charity (is placed under) the protection of all Mahesvaras.
The feet of those who protect this charity, (shall be)
on my head.â
6.) As the land granted for these two lamps had become torn up by
we, the assembly, assigned only an oil lamp for burning.
49.- On the south wall of the Bilvanathesvara shrine
inscription belongs to the 7th year of the reign of
Rajaraja-Kesarivarman, i.e., of the Chola king Rajaraja I.
It contains a date which admits of astronomical calculation,
and which has been repeatedly discussed since its discovery in 1890.
Professor Kielhorn has shown that it corresponds to the 26th
September A.D. 991.
inscription records a visit to the temple by a certain
Madurantakan-Kandaradittanar, who caused one thousand jars of water
to be poured over the god. When
he had finished his worship, he observed that the offerings in the
temple had been reduced to a minimum and that the temple lamps were
only feebly burning. He
called for the authorities of the temple and of the village and
asked them for a detailed statement of the temple revenue and
unfortunately the inscription is built in.
But from the preserved portion it is evident that
Madurantakan-Kandaradittanar, i.e., Gandaraditya, the son of Madhurantaka, must have been a person
of high standing and influence.
He cannot be identical with the Chola king Gandaradityavarman,
because the latter had died before the reign of Arimjaya, the
grandfather of Rajaraja I.
Perhaps he was an (otherwise unknown) son of
Madhurantaka, the son of Gandaradityavarman and immediate
predecessor of Rajaraja I.
1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 7th year (of the reign)
of king Rajaraja-Kesarivarman, - on the day of an eclipse of the
moon at the equinox which corresponded to (the day of) Revati
and to the full-moon tithi of the month of Aippasi in
this very year, - Madurantakan-Kandaradittanar came in order to have
one thousand jars of water poured over (the god)
Tiruttikkali-Alvar at Tikkali-Vallam in Miyaru-nadu, (a
subdivision) of Paduvur-kottam, and worshipped the holy feet (of
3.) While (he) stood (in the temple), (he observed)
that the offerings presented to the Alvar were reduced to two nali
of rice, that the offerings of Vegetables, the offerings of ghee and
the offerings of curds had ceased, and that the perpetual lamps were
7.) (He) called for the Siva-Brahmanas of this sacred
temple and the members of the assembly of Tikkali-Vallam and asked :
- âState the revenue and expenditure of this temple, in accordance
with the royal order and the royal letter.â
11.) The [Siva-]Brahmanas and the members of the
assembly of Tikkali-Vallam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
50.- On the west wall of the Bilvanathesvara shrine
inscription is dated in the same year of the reign of Rajaraja I. as
No. 49. It records that
a Brahmana set up an image of the goddess and granted a lamp to the
temple. He also
purchased 1,700 kuli of land from the inhabitants of the
village of Mandiram in Tunadu and made it over to the temple
authorities, who had to feed the lamp and to supply offerings from
the produce of the land.
to which Mandiram belonged, was the name of the country round
Mandiram had the surname Jayameru-Srikaranamangalam (11. 2
and 15 f.), which seems to be derived from Jayameru, one of the
surnames of the Bana king Vikramaditya I.
1.) Hail 1 Prosperity ! In the seventh year (of the reign) of
king Rajaraja-Kesarivarman. (The
writing of) us, the assembly of Mandiram, alias
Jayameru-Srikaranamangalam, in Tunadu.
2.) Vikramadittan, alias Kirtimartanda-Brahmadhirajar, a Siva-Brahmana
of Naratunga-chaturvedimangalam in Karai-nadu,
(a subdivision) of Paduvur-kottam, set up (an image of)
Uma-Bhattaraki and gave one perpetual lamp of Kutta-Perumanadigal,
the god (Alvar) of Tiruttikkali.
6.) For (maintaining this lamp) and for (supplying) offerings
once a day, (he) gave the following land : -
7.) (The eastern boundary is) to the west of a channel which
flows close to the bank from the sluice below the Karungali tank
in our village. The
southern boundary (is) to the north of a channel which flows
to the west from the sluice (and) irrigates the Kusavanpatti..
The western boundary (is) to the east of the land of
those who sold (the land to the donor).
The northern boundary (is) to the south of the land of
the same persons.
11.) Having received from Kirtimartanda-Brahmadhirajar the whole
purchase-money and tax-money due for the land enclosed within these
four boundaries, which, not excluding the cultivated land,
(measures) one thousand and seven hundred kuli, and
having remitted all kinds of taxes, - we, the assembly of the
above-mentioned Mandiram, alias Jayameru-Srikaranamangalam,
sold (this land) free of taxes.
16.) While enjoying this land, we, the Siva-Brahmanas in
charge of the store-room of the temple,
shall have to supply this perpetual lamp and the offerings as long
as the moon and the sun exist.
51.- On the north wall of the Bilvanthesvara shrine
inscription is dated in the 16th year of the reign of the
Cholaking Rajaraja I. (1. 2) and records that the citizens of
Vanapuram (11. 2 and 6), i.e., Tiruvallam,
sold 700 kuli of land to Samkaradeva, the son of Tiruvaiyan (II. 5
and 6), who granted it to the temple of Tiruvaiya-Isvara (1. 6). This temple was situated on the south of the Bilvanathesvara
temple and was evidently named after Tiruvaiyan, the father of the
donor. Tiruvaiyan seems
to have claimed descent from the Western Ganga kings.
For, to his name are prefixed the name and the epithets of
Sivamaharaja (1. 4 f.), as we have found them in Nos. 47 and 48.
As these epithets are spelt with almost exactly the same
mistakes as in No. 48, I believe that the donor copied them from
that very inscription, which he found engraved on the temple.
1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 16th year (of the reign)
of king Rajaraja-Rajakesarivarman, who, (in his) tender
youth, during which, - (in) the belief that, as well as the
goddess of fortune, the goddess of the great earth had become his
wife, - (he) was pleased to destroy the ships (at)
Kandalur-Salai and conquered by (his) army, which was
victorious in great battles, Vengai-nadu, Ganga-padi, Tadi-vali,
Nulambapadi, Kudamalai-nadu, Kollam and Kalingam, - deprived the
Seliyas, whose luster had been growing, of (their) splendour,
- we, the citizens of Vanapuram, (a city in its own subdivision
of Karaivali, (a division) of Paduvur-kottam, sold and gave
by a deed of sale
the following land in the environs
of our city of Samkaradeva, (the son of) [K]o[n]guni[va]rman,
the very righteous Maharaja, the supreme lord of Nipunilapura,
Srinatha, the glorious Sivamaharaja-Tiruvaiyan : - The upper field
of Polikkavadi and two pieces above this.
The eastern boundary of this (land is) to the west of
the lower field of Polikkavadi and of (the field called) Araikkalmukkal,
(the produce of) which is used for the offerings of (the
god) Tirutikkali-Peruman. The
southern boundary (is) to the north of pieces of the Araikkalmukkal
(field) and of pieces (of the field) of the blacksmith
western boundary (is) to the east of the Sribali-path
in the west. The
northern boundary (is) to the south of the Mukkal field
enjoyed by (the temple of) Mahadeva in this city, and of the field
below the pond. The
land enclosed within these four boundaries is estimated at seven
hundred kuli by
the rod of sixteen spans.
5.) Having received from him the whole of the purchase-money and
tax-money due for this land, we sold (it) free of taxes and
gave a deed of sale. We,
the above-mentioned citizens of Vanapuram, sold and gave by a deed
of sale that land to Samkaradeva, the son of Tiruvaiyan, for
(providing) the expenses of the worship to (the temple of)
Tiruvaiya-Isvara on the south of the temple of Tiruttikkali-Peruman