The Indian Analyst

South Indian Inscriptions



Volume - III




Part - I

Inscription at Ukkal





Part - II

Kulottunga-Chola I

Vikrama Chola

Virarajendra I

Kulottunga-Chola III

Part - III

Aditya I

Parantaka I


Parantaka II



Aditya II Karikala

Part - IV

copper-plate Tirukkalar


Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27





Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India


V.- Inscriptions at Tiruvallam

No. 48 to 51 west, north, south wall of the shrine

No. 42 - On a boulder near Tiruvallam & No. 43 - Bilvanathesvara temple

No. 44 to 47 Bilvanathesvara shrine

No. 52 to 54 wall shrine, & maha mandapa & nakulesvara shrine

No. 55 to 57 Bilvanathesvara shrine, south wall of the maha mandapa

No. 58 to 60 verandah round the Bilvan, maha mandapa, north of the tank

No. 61 to 63 north wall of the maha mandapa & west wall of the kitchen

No. 48.- On the west wall of the Bilvanathesvara shrine

As stated in the introductory remarks to No. 47, the subjoined inscription was copied from an earlier stone inscription when the central shrine of the temple was pulled down.  It records the gift of a lamp by the same queen as No. 47, who was the consort of the Bana king Vanavidyadhara and the daughter of Pratipati-Araiyar (i.e., the Western Ganga king Prithivipati I.), the son of Sivamaharaja.  From the subjoined inscription we learn that her actual name was Kundavvai.[1]

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! We, the assembly of Tikkali-Vallam, have received forty kalanju of pure gold from Kundavv[ai]yar, alias Vanamahadevi, - the daughter of Pratipati-Araiyar, the son of [K]o[n]gu[n]I[va]rman, the very righteous Maharaja, the supreme lord of Nipunilapura,[2] alias Srinathan, the glorious Sivamaharaja-Perumanadigal, (and the queen of) Vanavidyadha[ra]raja, alias Vanaraya, born from the family of Mahabali, who had been made door-keeper by the lord of gods and demons, Paramesvara (Siva), who is worshipped in all the three worlds.

(L. 3.) (In return), we, the assembly, shall have to burn, as long as the moon and the sun exist, one perpetual lamp before (the god) Tiruttikkali-Perumanadigal, supplying daily (one) uri of fresh ghee and a quarter of camphor.

(L. 4.) We, the assembly, have agreed that, whenever (they) fail in this charity, all the Mahesvaras (among us) shall pay into court a fine of five kalanju of gold per day.  Though fined thus, we shall have to burn this sacred lamp without fail.  Those among us, who say that this (charity) is not (existing) shall incur (all) the sins committed between the Ganga and Kumari.


(L. 5.) “This charity (is placed under) the protection of all Mahesvaras.  The feet of those who protect this charity, (shall be) on my head.”

We, the assembly, gave (the following) land in the environs[3] of the village, which (the queen) had granted, free of taxes, for this camphor lamp and the perpetual lamp[4] : - (one) nilam[5] and 400 kuli (called) Parkuttai, 720 kuli below the old tank (Palaveri), and 2 nilam (called) Nonidukolli.

(L. 6.) As the land granted for these two lamps had become torn up by the weather,[6] we, the assembly, assigned only an oil lamp for burning.

No. 49.- On the south wall of the Bilvanathesvara shrine

This inscription belongs to the 7th year of the reign of Rajaraja-Kesarivarman, i.e., of the Chola king Rajaraja I.  It contains a date which admits of astronomical calculation, and which has been repeatedly discussed since its discovery in 1890.[7]  Professor Kielhorn has shown that it corresponds to the 26th September A.D. 991.[8]

The inscription records a visit to the temple by a certain Madurantakan-Kandaradittanar, who caused one thousand jars of water to be poured over the god.  When he had finished his worship, he observed that the offerings in the temple had been reduced to a minimum and that the temple lamps were only feebly burning.  He called for the authorities of the temple and of the village and asked them for a detailed statement of the temple revenue and expenditure.

Here unfortunately the inscription is built in.  But from the preserved portion it is evident that Madurantakan-Kandaradittanar, i.e.,  Gandaraditya, the son of Madhurantaka, must have been a person of high standing and influence.  He cannot be identical with the Chola king Gandaradityavarman, because the latter had died before the reign of Arimjaya, the grandfather of Rajaraja I.[9]  Perhaps he was an (otherwise unknown) son of Madhurantaka, the son of Gandaradityavarman and immediate predecessor of Rajaraja I.[10]

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 7th year (of the reign) of king Rajaraja-Kesarivarman, - on the day of an eclipse of the moon at the equinox which corresponded to (the day of) Revati and to the full-moon tithi of the month of Aippasi in this very year, - Madurantakan-Kandaradittanar came in order to have one thousand jars of water poured over (the god) Tiruttikkali-Alvar at Tikkali-Vallam in Miyaru-nadu, (a subdivision) of Paduvur-kottam, and worshipped the holy feet (of the god).

(L. 3.) While (he) stood (in the temple), (he observed) that the offerings presented to the Alvar were reduced to two nali of rice, that the offerings of Vegetables, the offerings of ghee and the offerings of curds had ceased, and that the perpetual lamps were neglected.

(L. 7.) (He) called for the Siva-Brahmanas of this sacred temple and the members of the assembly of Tikkali-Vallam and asked : - “State the revenue and expenditure of this temple, in accordance with the royal order and the royal letter.”

(L. 11.) The [Siva-]Brahmanas and the members of the assembly of Tikkali-Vallam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

No. 50.- On the west wall of the Bilvanathesvara shrine

This inscription is dated in the same year of the reign of Rajaraja I. as No. 49.  It records that a Brahmana set up an image of the goddess and granted a lamp to the temple.  He also purchased 1,700 kuli of land from the inhabitants of the village of Mandiram in Tunadu and made it over to the temple authorities, who had to feed the lamp and to supply offerings from the produce of the land.

Tunadu, to which Mandiram belonged, was the name of the country round Melpadi.[11]  Mandiram had the surname Jayameru-Srikaranamangalam (11. 2 and 15 f.), which seems to be derived from Jayameru, one of the surnames of the Bana king Vikramaditya I.[12]

(Line 1.) Hail 1 Prosperity ! In the seventh year (of the reign) of king Rajaraja-Kesarivarman.  (The writing of) us, the assembly of Mandiram, alias Jayameru-Srikaranamangalam, in Tunadu.

(L. 2.) Vikramadittan, alias Kirtimartanda-Brahmadhirajar, a Siva-Brahmana of Naratunga-chaturvedimangalam in Karai-nadu,[13] (a subdivision) of Paduvur-kottam, set up (an image of) Uma-Bhattaraki and gave one perpetual lamp of Kutta-Perumanadigal,[14] the god (Alvar) of Tiruttikkali.

(L. 6.) For (maintaining this lamp) and for (supplying) offerings once a day, (he) gave the following land : -

(L. 7.) (The eastern boundary is) to the west of a channel which flows close to the bank from the sluice below the Karungali tank in our village.  The southern boundary (is) to the north of a channel which flows to the west from the sluice (and) irrigates the Kusavanpatti..[15]  The western boundary (is) to the east of the land of those who sold (the land to the donor).  The northern boundary (is) to the south of the land of the same persons.

(L. 11.) Having received from Kirtimartanda-Brahmadhirajar the whole purchase-money and tax-money due for the land enclosed within these four boundaries, which, not excluding the cultivated land,[16] (measures) one thousand and seven hundred kuli, and having remitted all kinds of taxes, - we, the assembly of the above-mentioned Mandiram, alias Jayameru-Srikaranamangalam, sold (this land) free of taxes.

(L. 16.) While enjoying this land, we, the Siva-Brahmanas  in charge of the store-room of the temple,[17] shall have to supply this perpetual lamp and the offerings as long as the moon and the sun exist.

No. 51.- On the north wall of the Bilvanthesvara shrine

This inscription is dated in the 16th year of the reign of the Cholaking Rajaraja I. (1. 2) and records that the citizens of Vanapuram (11. 2 and 6), i.e., Tiruvallam,[18] sold 700 kuli of land to Samkaradeva, the son of Tiruvaiyan (II. 5 and 6), who granted it to the temple of Tiruvaiya-Isvara (1. 6).  This temple was situated on the south of the Bilvanathesvara temple and was evidently named after Tiruvaiyan, the father of the donor.  Tiruvaiyan seems to have claimed descent from the Western Ganga kings.  For, to his name are prefixed the name and the epithets of Sivamaharaja (1. 4 f.), as we have found them in Nos. 47 and 48.  As these epithets are spelt with almost exactly the same mistakes as in No. 48, I believe that the donor copied them from that very inscription, which he found engraved on the temple.

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 16th year (of the reign) of king Rajaraja-Rajakesarivarman, who, (in his) tender youth, during which, - (in) the belief that, as well as the goddess of fortune, the goddess of the great earth had become his wife, - (he) was pleased to destroy the ships (at) Kandalur-Salai and conquered by (his) army, which was victorious in great battles, Vengai-nadu, Ganga-padi, Tadi-vali, Nulambapadi, Kudamalai-nadu, Kollam and Kalingam, - deprived the Seliyas, whose luster had been growing, of (their) splendour, - we, the citizens of Vanapuram, (a city in its own subdivision[19] of Karaivali, (a division) of Paduvur-kottam, sold and gave by a deed of sale[20] the following land in the environs[21] of our city of Samkaradeva, (the son of) [K]o[n]guni[va]rman, the very righteous Maharaja, the supreme lord of Nipunilapura,[22] Srinatha, the glorious Sivamaharaja-Tiruvaiyan : - The upper field of Polikkavadi and two pieces above this.  The eastern boundary of this (land is) to the west of the lower field of Polikkavadi and of (the field called) Araikkalmukkal,[23] (the produce of) which is used for the offerings of (the god) Tirutikkali-Peruman.  The southern boundary (is) to the north of pieces of the Araikkalmukkal (field) and of pieces (of the field) of the blacksmith (Karuman).  It western boundary (is) to the east of the Sribali-path[24] in the west.  The northern boundary (is) to the south of the Mukkal field enjoyed by (the temple of) Mahadeva in this city, and of the field below the pond.  The land enclosed within these four boundaries is estimated at seven hundred kuli  by the rod of sixteen spans.[25]

(L. 5.) Having received from him the whole of the purchase-money and tax-money due for this land, we sold (it) free of taxes and gave a deed of sale.  We, the above-mentioned citizens of Vanapuram, sold and gave by a deed of sale that land to Samkaradeva, the son of Tiruvaiyan, for (providing) the expenses of the worship to (the temple of) Tiruvaiya-Isvara on the south of the temple of Tiruttikkali-Peruman at Tiruvallam.

[1] On three Chola queens of the same name see Ep. Ind. Vol. V. p. 105, note 5.

[2]  This is a mistake of the copyist for Kuvalalapura ; see p. 99 above.

[3]  See above, p. 97, note 5.

[4]  In line 3 of the text only one lamp is spoken of, to which both ghee and camphor had to be supplied.

[5]  See above, p. 97, note 6.

[6]  Literally, ‘dug up by god.’

[7]  Above, Vol. I. p. 169 ; Ind Ant. Vol. XIX, p. 70 ff. and Vol. XXIII. P. 297.

[8]  Ep. Ind. Vol. IV. P. 66 f.

[9]  See line 50 of the large Leyden grant.

[10]  See above, Vol. I. p. 112, and Ep. Ind. Vol. IV. P. 331.

[11]  See p. 22 above.

[12]  See p. 99 above.

[13]  See p. 95 above.

[14]  I.e., ‘the dancing god’ (Nataraja)

[15]  I.e., ‘the potter’s patti’ ; on patti see above, Vol. II. p. 359, note 12.

[16]  See above, p. 26, note 2.

[17]  See above, p. 94 and note 5.

[18]  See p. 91 above.

[19]  See above, p. 3, note 7.

[20]  Vlai-sravanai is the same as vilaiy-dannam in No. 10, text line 2, and No. 33, text line 19.

[21]  See above, p. 101, note 5.

[22]  This is a mistake for Kuvalalapura ; see p. 99 above.

[23]  I.e., ‘three quarters of one eighth (of a measure of land).’

[24]  I.e., ‘the land (the produce of) which is used for the offerings of the god.’

[25]  Compare p. 17 above.

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