The Indian Analyst

South Indian Inscriptions



Volume - III




Part - I

Inscription at Ukkal





Part - II

Kulottunga-Chola I

Vikrama Chola

Virarajendra I

Kulottunga-Chola III

Part - III

Aditya I

Parantaka I


Parantaka II



Aditya II Karikala

Part - IV

copper-plate Tirukkalar


Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

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Early Gupta Inscriptions

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Two Pandya copper-plate grants from Sinnamanur

No. 206 Two Pandya copper-plate grants from Sinnamanur

No. 207 Tirukkalar Plate of Rajendra Chola I

No. 209 Tirukkalar Plate of Kulottungs-Chola I

No. 211 Tirukkalar Plate of Kulottunga-Chola III & Rajakesarivarman

Click here to continue Copper-plates from Sinnamanur, Tirukkalar...

...Of king Jatila, the second in the genealogical list (D) given above, nothing is stated in the plates in the Sanskrit portion, the Tamil portion omitting his name altogether.  On the hypothesis, however, of Arikesari Parankusa being identical with Termaran of the Velvikudi grant, Jatila will have to be identified with (No. 7) Parantaka Nedujadaiyan, thedonor of the Velvikudi grant —  it being inexplicable, however, why this king of whom we hear so much in the Velvikudi and in the Madras Museum plates, should have been mentioned without any remarks in the Sanskrit portion and omitted altogether in the Tamil portion.  The other kings who follow are later names in the Pandya genealogy and their achievements are detailed in the genealogical table (D) given above.

The successor of Jatila was Rajasimha (II)[1] of whom nothing is stated.  After him came Varaguna or Varaguna-Maharaja of great prowess who was separated by two generations or roughly 50 years from Termaran (No. 6 of A) the contemporary of Pallavamalla Nandivarman already mentioned.  Consequently, he should have flourished about he beginning of the 9th century A.D. Though very scanty information is supplied about this king by the bigger Sinnamanur plates, still he is familiar to students of epigraphy and we know of very many references in inscriptions to Varaguna or Varaguna-Maharaja[2], sometimes also called Maranjadaiyan.  We learn, e.g., that Varaguna, for the first time, carried his conquests northward into the Chola country against Idavai[3] on which occasion also he should perhaps have destroyed the fortified walls of Vembil (Vembarrur).  Varaguna thence pushed further north into the Tondai-nadu making there a grant from his camp at Araisur, a village on the banks of the Pennar to the temple of Erichcha-Udaiyar at Ambasamudram in the Tinnevelly district.  Again, a inscription at Kalugumalai[4], also in the Tinnevelly district, supports the above statement by referring to an expedition of the king (herein called only Maranjadaiyan) against Arividurkkottai and casually mentions the village Pundanamali (i.e., Poonamalli) in Tondai-nadu.  The Tiruvisalur inscription dated in the 4th year of the reign of Varaguna-Maharaja might also belong to this same king[5].  The Aivarmalai inscription which supplies the initial date Saka 784 or A.D. 862 to Varaguna must refer to the later Varagunavarman who was the grandson of Varaguna I.  An inscription from Tiruvellarai which is dated in his 13th year, and where the king is called Maranjadaiyan supplies astronomical details for the verification of the date.  The actual calculation, worked out by Mr. Sewell at page 253 of Ep. Ind., Vol. XI, fits in with the 13th year of this Varagunavarman II, viz., Monday the 22nd November, A.D. 874.  This is the second sure date in the Pandya

chronology, the first being A.D. 769-70 (or thereabouts) of the Anamalai inscription, for king Maranjadaiyan Parantaka, Nedunjadaiyan, the donor of the Velvikudi grant and of the Madras Museum plates.  Thus the initial date of Varaguna II got from the Aivarmalai inscription, is A.D. 862 and the nearest possible date of Parantake Nedunjadaiyan is A.D. 770.  The difference between these two dates i.e., 92 years, suggests at least four generations and Rai Bahadur Venkayya has, accordingly in his genealogical table of the Pandyas given at page 54 of his Annual Report on Epigraphy for 1908, Part II, taken the Varaguna of the Aivarmalai inscription to be the second of that name who, according to the Udayendiram plates, killed the Ganga king Prithvipati I in the battle at Sripurambiyam or Tiruppurambiyam near Kumbhakonam, being himself subsequently defeated by the last Pallava king Aparajita or Aparajitavikramavarman son of Nripatunga[6].  Leaving alone the second Varagunavarman for the present, it may be stated that in the time of Varaguna-Maharaja I the Pandya dominion was largely extended as to include in it the Chola and the Pallava country right up to the bank of the Pennar in Tondai-nadu.  This invasion could not have been allowed to pass without severe resistance by the kings concerned, viz., the Cholas and the Pallavas, and consequently, we see that in the next reign king Srivallabha (10) had to fight fierce battles, three of them being at Kudamukkil, i.e., Kumbhakonam in the heart of the Chola country, against perhaps the allied Cholas, Gangas and Pallavas.[7]  This was perhaps the commencement of the struggle.  It perhaps ended only with the defeat of Varaguna II, by the Pallava king Aparajita at Sripurambiyam, near Kumbhakonam, where his Ganga ally Prithivipati I also died.  The Chola enemies of the Pandyas, now turned against their allies, the Pallavas Rajakesarivarman Aditya I overran the Tondai-nadu in the north and occupied it.  But the Pandya king Rajasimha III (No. 13), the son of Parantaka (Sadaiyan, defeated the king of Tanjai (Tanjore) at Naippur, fought a battle at Kodumbai (Kodumbalur) the seat of one of the powerful Chola subordinates, burnt Vanji anddestroyed the king of southern Tanjai (perhaps another subordinate of the Cholas) at Naval.  Aditya’s son Parantaka I defeated this rajasimha-Pandya, the nephew of Varaguna II and captured the Pandya capital Madura, thereby acquiring for himself the well-known title Madiraikonda.  The mention of Maya-Pandya as in rebellious union against Srivallabha (10) and that of Ugra (perhaps also a Pandya king) against Parantaka Viranarayana Sadaiyan (12) show internal dissensions in the Pandya family which must have been the cause of their eventual downfall.  The Pandya king Parantaka appears to have courted the friendship of the rising powerful Chola and to have married Vanavanmahadevi, evidently a Chola princess as the title[8] the flag of both the lunar and the solar races’ borne by his son Rajasimha clearly shows.

Of the topographical and other proper names mentioned in both the sets of Sinnamanur plats, viz., Chitramuyari, Talaiyalanganam, Nelveli, Sankaramangai, Kunnur, Singalam, Vilinam, Kudamukkil, Sennilam, Kharagiri, Pennagadam, Kongu, Ulappinimangalam, Tanjai, Naippur, Kodumbai, Vanji [on the northern bank of the Ponni (Kaveri) river], Naval Chulal, Rajasingapperungulakkil, Narcheygaiputtur, Ala-nadu, Puttur, Miygundaru, Koluvur-kurram, Maniyachi or Tisaichchudarmangalam, Vada-Kalavalinadu, Pullamangalam, Sola-nadu, Vembarrur in Kalavali-nadu, Kura in Kil-Vemba-nadu, Suruli-aru (river), Marudur, Kuvalaimalai, Korranputtur, Kundur and Anda-nadu, almost all are familiar and known to us from inscriptions.  The first two are not identified, the second being known only to literature.  Kudamukkil is Kumbhakonam ; Vilinam is a port in the Travancore State ; Singalam in Ceylon ; Pennagadam is a village in the Tanjore District ; Kongu comprises the modern districts of Salem and Coimbatore ; Tanjai is the well-known Tanjore ; Kodumbai is Kodumbalur in the Pudukkottai State.  Rajasingakulakkil may be identified with Rajasingamangalam in the Sivaganga Zaminari.  It is called Varagunamangalam in its inscriptions.  Narcheygaiputtur must be identical with Sinnamnur in the Periyakulam taluk where these plates were obtained.  The stone inscriptions of the place, however, show that it bore the name Arikesarinallur and was a brahmadeya in Ala-nadu, a subdivision of Pandi-mandalam.[9]  A hamlet of it was Korranputtur, identical, perhaps, with the native village of the donee.[10]  Mention is also made in stone inscriptions of the places Mandaragauravamangalam ind Arapadasekharamangalam, which had assemblies similar to that of Arikesarinallur that met together in a common places evidently division in which Sinnamanur was situated.  Kottarpolil-Puttur is identical with Tirupputtur in the Ramnad district and is the headquarters of a taluk. From No. 90 of the Madras Epigraphical collection for 1908, we learn that it was situated in Migundaru in Koluvur-kurram, which is the description given of Kottarpolil-puttur in these plates.  Pullamangalam is a village in the Papanasam taluk of the Tanjore district.  It was situated in Kilar-kurram.  Kil-Vemba-nadu is a subdivision of the Pandya country in which Tinnevelly was situated.  As scuh, the village of Kura must be looked for near about Tinnevellly.  Surliyaru is the river that takes its rise from the Suruli-malai, 7 miles from Cumbum in the Periyakulam taluk of the Madura district, and flows past Cumbum and Sinnamanur and joins the Vaigai.  Anda-nadu is that territorial division of the Pandya country in which Periyakottai in the Dindigul taluk was.  Hence Kundur and Korranputtur must be traced out in that locality.

Larger Sinnamanur Plates.


[Metres : Vv. 1 and 30 Upajati ; V. 2, Vaisvadevi ; Vv. 3, 4, 5, 8 and 31, Upendravajra ; Vv. 6, 7, 13, 27 and 38 Pushpitagra ; V v. 9, 11, 14, 16 and 23, Salini ; Vv. 12 and 32, Drutavilambitam ; Vv. 15, 22, 26, 28, 29, 34 and 36, Anushtub ; Vv. 25, 33 and 35, Indravajra  ; Mandakranta ; V v 10 and 20, Sardulavikriditam ; V. 21, Sragdhara ; and Vv. 17, 18, 19 and 37, Vasantatilaka]


(Verse. 1.) The ocean, in whose rows of bounding disturbed wages, as in a dancing hall, are (seen) like gems the sun, the stars and the moon, even when agitated at the end of the Kalpa, bore the form of his foot-stool.[12]

(V. 2.) (Victorious) was the family of him whose prowess had filled the earth and was a sun (in destroying) the night (viz.,) the great heroism of its enemies.  The kings of great glory and merited fame born in this (family), held the earth as their legally married wife.

(V. 3.) Of the kings born in this (family) who had destroyed all enemy kings and had their edicts established on the snowy mountain, the priest was the venerable Agastya.

(V. 4.) One (of the kings) born here, whose wealth was his honour, and who had killed the powerful demons in a battle between the gods and the demons, sat alone on the throne of the Lord of the gods (i.e., Indra) in heaven brought down (to earth).

(V. 5.) Another wise king of right conduct, was an ambassador to secure victory for the gods ; and (stil) another of unopposed commands, caused the Ten-headed giant (i.e., Ravana) to sue for peace.

(V. 6.) (Again), in that family was born a king who was the husband of (Ganga) the daughtr of the friend of Nara (Arjuna) (i.e., Vishnu), who (like Siva) had three eyes (trilochana)[13] whose virtue was praised by the three worlds, a matchless king whostirred the ocean and was a pupil of Agastya.

(V. 7.) (Another) born in that (family) was adorned with the necklace of Hari (i.e., Indra) (which he had) captured (from him) after breaking (his) wristlet on the head of the Lord of gods (i.e., Indra) ; still (another) king born in that (family) conquered Vijaya (i.e., Arjuna) and was the conflagration at the end of time to the cotton (namely) the army of the lord of the Kurus.

(V. 8.) Another (king) born in that (family) cut off his own head in order to save his master; and (a king) named Sundara-Pandya born in this (family) was a helmsman in the ocean of all Sastras.

(V. 9.) Countless number of emperors and kings born in this race attained godhood having performed numberless Rajasuya and Asvamedha sacrifices.  Which mortal could describe them thoroughly ?

(V. 10.) In that family was born king Arikesari, the home of glory, who had controlled his passions.  His son (was) Jatila.  His son (was) the glorious (and) virtuous king Rajasimha.  His son (was) the wise Varaguna of great prowess.  His son (was) king Sri-Mara whose fame was delightful to hear and who was the invincible lord of wealth (Srivallabha).

(V. 11.) He (i.e., Sri-Mara) the matchless hero, the beloved of his subjects, having conquered in battle Maya-Pandya, the Kerala, the king of Simhala, the Pallava and the Vallabha, protected the earth under (his) one umbrella.

(V. 12.) His son, the younger brother of king Varaguna, was the virtuous king Parantaka, whose lotus-feet were brightened by the spreading luster of the sun-like gems in the crowns of (prostrating) kings.

(V. 13.) He quickly captured in a battle near Kharagiri the powerful (king) Ugra who possessed a herd of strong elephants whose tusks were red with the blood of enemy kings with an army (which was) the only sword (held) in hand.

(V. 14.) This emperor, himself of meritorious fame, caused the circle of the earth to be filled with holy boundless Brahmin settlements,[14] numerous temples and countless tanks.

(V. 15.)  The wife of that king was the glorious Vanavanmahadevi, as Sri (was) of Srinivasa (i.e., Vishnu) and as Paulomi (Sachi) (was) of Satakratu (Indra).

(V. 16.) Of this queen was born to him, who was the abode of prosperity, the son, king Rajasimha who was the repository of intelligence, valour, stability, courage, nobility and liberality and who successfully sacred away the heroism of (his) enemies.

(V. 17.) Having obtained him, the banner of (both) the (solar) (and the lunar) races, who caused the utmost grief to the host of enemy kings, satisfaction to the crowds of supplicants and fame (to reach) all directions, the earth (now) became (truly) possessed of a king.

(V. 18.) The requests of all supplicants are not enough for (i.e., to satisfy) his liberality ; nor the enemies for his prowess; nor all the worlds for (his) lustrous fame ; nor (again) the words of the Master of Words (i.e., Brihaspati) for praising (his) virtues.

(V. 19.) Dignified as Bharata, he rules the earth filling all Brahmans with endless wealth, the enemies with ruin which fully deprives (them) of (their) wealth and the ten quarters with faultless fame.

(V. 20.) A great favourite of this lord, the king, was the glorious son of the illustrious Sreshthisarman, who was famous by the well-known name Parantaka, who was born in the Kausika lineage, was possessed of wealth which was learning, who was the best of the upright and of famous descent, who was widely known, wise, dutiful and virtuous, of excellent character and highly modest.

(V. 21.) This (Parantaka) who was ever devoted for the good of others, who was the ocean (into which emptied itself) the river of learning and who was the Parijata (celestial) tree (in fulfilling) the desires of all classes of wise men, was the grandson of him who was named Bhaskara, the sole repository of the Trayi (Vedas), and the great-grandson of him named Sreshthin who was the purest of the Senkuti-Kausikas of great religious austerity born in Puttur, a mine of knowledge and modesty and the home of prosperity.

(V. 22.) His ancestors who had reached the (other) end of Vedic (learning) established on this earth theextensive work called Kalpa written by Agnivesya[15].

(V. 23.) His maternal grandfather was the famous Urasarman, the chief of the residents of Syandana-grama, of the Maudgalya (lineage), who was of high birth and noble character, illustrious, intelligent, famous and a prop of virtue.

(V. 24.) Knowledge, noble conduct, wealth, modesty, praiseworthy riches, a conscience ever attached to the lotus-feet of the lord of Lakshmi (Vishnu), a descent ever high and pure, permanent fame and superior intelligence —  these were the rule in the family of him (i.e., Urasarman) whose fame was widely known.

(Vv. 25 —  27) His (i.e., Parantaka’s) father, the wise and illustrious Sreshthisarman, whose conduct was pure, who was as powerful and glorious as Pitamaha (Brahma) who was the one resort of modesty, intelligent, good and of noble descent whose fame was pleasant to hear and who was the leader of the wise, received from the heroic (king) Parantaka, lord Viranarayana of meritorious fame and an ornament of the Pandya race, the Brahman village (agrahara) named Maniyachi of unfailing fertility, (which was) a famous agrahara (situated) in Vada-Kalavali-rashtra[16] re-naming (it) Tisaichchudarmangala.

(Vv. 28 —  32.) The same god-like king of unfailing prosperity, who pleased the whole circle of the earth and satisfied (his) subjects, who destroyed the host of enemies, who was the banner of polity, whose prowess was (equal to) that of Sakra (i.e., Indra) and who removed the troubles (of the people) on the circle of the earth, in the 16th year of his reign, while camping[17] in the famous village named Chulal situated in the territorial division (rashtra) called Rajasimhakulakkil, gave with libations of water, to the Brahman, Parantakasarman, the whole of the machless and excellent agrahara named Narcheygai-Puttur situated in Ala-nadu which was famous with its (second) name Mandaragauravamangalam, as a brahmadeya  property, together with (its) karanmai and miyatchi and with (its) four boundaries marked off by the circumambulation of the female elephant.

(V. 33.) The vijnapti of this (grant) was the minister Jatila of respectable descent and a storehouse of prosperity who was the councilor of the king and a poet of the Atrigotra, who had performed (Vedic) sacrifices.

(V. 34.) The ajnapti of this (grant) was the servant of that crest-jewel of warriors, the illustrious Maravarman, who was descended of a pure family and was called Kurrangon.

(V. 35.) A minister of the king, born at (the village of) Kura, the son of a nobleman of Kil-Vemba-nadu and known by the famous name Nakkankuman, was the master of the female elephant[18] and the warden (kudikaval).

(V. 36.) Also Nakkan-Kada, Kon-Velan and he, called Pataran-Chola —  these (three) accountant were appointed (to supervise) the circumambulation of the female elephant.

(V. 37.) Worshipped by all rulers, this (king) Abhimanameru prostrates (himself) every day before all future kings with palms folded (over his head) (and saying) “Oh ! pure-minded kings! Protect (this) my gift ! “

(V. 38.) Vasudeva, the friend of Madhuraguna and the elder brother of Vishnu who had studied the whole (science of) literature and was the birth place of modesty and intelligence, composed this matchless prasasti.

[1]  Termaran was Rajasimha I.

[2]  Ep. Ind., Vol. IX, p. 86 f.

[3]  No. 690 of 1905.

[4]  No. 43 of the Madras Epigraphist’s Collection for 1908.

[5]  Mr. K. V. Subrahmanya Ayyar thinks that this belongs to Varagunavarman II, but the title Maharaja added to this name in the Tiruvisalur record leaves no doubt that he is the first of that name.

[6]  Annual Report on Epigraphy for 1906, Part II, p. 64, paragraph 9.

[7]  He carried his conquest also into Simhala.  The Mahavamsa says that Aggabodhi and Sena killed Mahina and his brothers who returned to the island from the opposite coast.

[8]  A similar title was assumed by Varaguna of the Trichinopoly cave inscription.  The solar family to which he belonged on his mother’s side, may have been the Chola.

[9]  Madras Epigraphical Collection for 1907, Nos. 427, 428, 432 and 441.

[10]  Ibid. No. 442.

[11]  From the original plates and a set of ink-impressions

[12]  The missing invocatory verse and the abrupt introduction of a king (perhaps named Pandya) whose greatness is described by verse 1, show that at least a single plate should have been lost, at the beginning.  The submission of the ocean to the Pandyas was a family tradition in which see Ind. Ant., Vol. XXII, p. 73, foot-note 80 ; Compare V. 4 of the Velvikudi grant, Ep. Ind., Vol. XVII, p. 298.

[13]  It is not likely that here we have to take Trilochana as a proper name.  Pandya kings in general are mentioned in Vv. 4 —  9 ; and no particular person, excepting Sundara-Pandya of V. 8, is mentioned by name.

[14]  The word agra hara is used in place of the usual word agrahara, for the sake of the metre.

[15]  Perhaps they were proficient in the Agnivesya-kalpa, the doctrine of medicine in which Agnivesya is said to have been a predecessor of Susruta.

[16]  Rashtratah has evidently to be understood in the sense of rastre.

[17]  The word avasat maybe compared with avasakat or vasakat which often occur at the beginning of copper plate inscriptions.

[18]  The significance of this attribute is not clear.  The female elephant referred to is perhaps the one that circumambulated the village.

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