Pandya copper-plate grants from Sinnamanur
206 Two Pandya copper-plate grants from Sinnamanur
207 Tirukkalar Plate of Rajendra Chola I
209 Tirukkalar Plate of Kulottungs-Chola I
211 Tirukkalar Plate of Kulottunga-Chola III & Rajakesarivarman
here to continue Copper-plates from Sinnamanur, Tirukkalar...
king Jatila, the second in the genealogical list (D) given above,
nothing is stated in the plates in the Sanskrit portion, the Tamil
portion omitting his name altogether.
On the hypothesis, however, of Arikesari Parankusa being
identical with Termaran of the Velvikudi grant, Jatila will have to
be identified with (No. 7) Parantaka Nedujadaiyan, thedonor of the
Velvikudi grant — it
being inexplicable, however, why this king of whom we hear so much
in the Velvikudi and in the Madras Museum plates, should have been
mentioned without any remarks in the Sanskrit portion and omitted
altogether in the Tamil portion.
The other kings who follow are later names in the Pandya
genealogy and their achievements are detailed in the genealogical
table (D) given above.
successor of Jatila was Rajasimha (II)
of whom nothing is stated. After
him came Varaguna or Varaguna-Maharaja of great prowess who was
separated by two generations or roughly 50 years from Termaran (No.
6 of A) the contemporary of Pallavamalla Nandivarman already
he should have flourished about he beginning of the 9th
century A.D. Though very scanty information is supplied about this
king by the bigger Sinnamanur plates, still he is familiar to
students of epigraphy and we know of very many references in
inscriptions to Varaguna or Varaguna-Maharaja,
sometimes also called Maranjadaiyan.
We learn, e.g., that Varaguna, for the first time, carried
his conquests northward into the Chola country against Idavai
on which occasion also he should perhaps have destroyed the
fortified walls of Vembil (Vembarrur).
Varaguna thence pushed further north into the Tondai-nadu
making there a grant from his camp at Araisur, a village on the
banks of the Pennar to the temple of Erichcha-Udaiyar at
Ambasamudram in the Tinnevelly district.
Again, a inscription at Kalugumalai,
also in the Tinnevelly district, supports the above statement by
referring to an expedition of the king (herein called only
Maranjadaiyan) against Arividurkkottai and casually mentions the
village Pundanamali (i.e., Poonamalli) in Tondai-nadu.
The Tiruvisalur inscription dated in the 4th year
of the reign of Varaguna-Maharaja might also belong to this same
The Aivarmalai inscription which supplies the initial date
Saka 784 or A.D. 862 to Varaguna must refer to the later
Varagunavarman who was the grandson of Varaguna I. An inscription from Tiruvellarai which is dated in his 13th
year, and where the king is called Maranjadaiyan supplies
astronomical details for the verification of the date.
The actual calculation, worked out by Mr. Sewell at page 253
of Ep. Ind., Vol. XI, fits in with the 13th year
of this Varagunavarman II, viz., Monday the 22nd
November, A.D. 874. This
is the second sure date in the Pandya
chronology, the first being
A.D. 769-70 (or thereabouts) of the Anamalai inscription, for king
Maranjadaiyan Parantaka, Nedunjadaiyan, the donor of the Velvikudi
grant and of the Madras Museum plates.
Thus the initial date of Varaguna II got from the Aivarmalai
inscription, is A.D. 862 and the nearest possible date of Parantake
Nedunjadaiyan is A.D. 770. The
difference between these two dates i.e., 92 years, suggests
at least four generations and Rai Bahadur Venkayya has, accordingly
in his genealogical table of the Pandyas given at page 54 of his Annual
Report on Epigraphy for 1908, Part II, taken the Varaguna of the
Aivarmalai inscription to be the second of that name who, according
to the Udayendiram plates, killed the Ganga king Prithvipati I in
the battle at Sripurambiyam or Tiruppurambiyam near Kumbhakonam,
being himself subsequently defeated by the last Pallava king
Aparajita or Aparajitavikramavarman son of Nripatunga.
Leaving alone the second Varagunavarman for the present, it
may be stated that in the time of Varaguna-Maharaja I the Pandya
dominion was largely extended as to include in it the Chola and the
Pallava country right up to the bank of the Pennar in Tondai-nadu.
This invasion could not have been allowed to pass without
severe resistance by the kings concerned, viz., the Cholas and the
Pallavas, and consequently, we see that in the next reign king
Srivallabha (10) had to fight fierce battles, three of them being at
Kudamukkil, i.e., Kumbhakonam in the heart of the Chola country,
against perhaps the allied Cholas, Gangas and Pallavas.
This was perhaps the commencement of the struggle.
It perhaps ended only with the defeat of Varaguna II, by the
Pallava king Aparajita at Sripurambiyam, near Kumbhakonam, where his
Ganga ally Prithivipati I also died.
The Chola enemies of the Pandyas, now turned against their
allies, the Pallavas Rajakesarivarman Aditya I overran the
Tondai-nadu in the north and occupied it.
But the Pandya king Rajasimha III (No. 13), the son of
Parantaka (Sadaiyan, defeated the king of Tanjai (Tanjore) at
Naippur, fought a battle at Kodumbai (Kodumbalur) the seat of one of
the powerful Chola subordinates, burnt Vanji anddestroyed the king
of southern Tanjai (perhaps another subordinate of the Cholas) at
Naval. Aditya’s son
Parantaka I defeated this rajasimha-Pandya, the nephew of Varaguna
II and captured the Pandya capital Madura, thereby acquiring for
himself the well-known title Madiraikonda.
The mention of Maya-Pandya as in rebellious union against
Srivallabha (10) and that of Ugra (perhaps also a Pandya king)
against Parantaka Viranarayana Sadaiyan (12) show internal
dissensions in the Pandya family which must have been the cause of
their eventual downfall. The
Pandya king Parantaka appears to have courted the friendship of the
rising powerful Chola and to have married Vanavanmahadevi, evidently
a Chola princess as the title the flag of both the lunar
and the solar races’ borne by his son Rajasimha clearly shows.
the topographical and other proper names mentioned in both the sets
of Sinnamanur plats, viz., Chitramuyari, Talaiyalanganam, Nelveli,
Sankaramangai, Kunnur, Singalam, Vilinam, Kudamukkil, Sennilam,
Kharagiri, Pennagadam, Kongu, Ulappinimangalam, Tanjai, Naippur,
Kodumbai, Vanji [on the northern bank of the Ponni (Kaveri) river],
Naval Chulal, Rajasingapperungulakkil, Narcheygaiputtur, Ala-nadu,
Puttur, Miygundaru, Koluvur-kurram, Maniyachi or
Tisaichchudarmangalam, Vada-Kalavalinadu, Pullamangalam, Sola-nadu,
Vembarrur in Kalavali-nadu, Kura in Kil-Vemba-nadu, Suruli-aru
(river), Marudur, Kuvalaimalai, Korranputtur, Kundur and Anda-nadu,
almost all are familiar and known to us from inscriptions.
The first two are not identified, the second being known only
to literature. Kudamukkil
is Kumbhakonam ; Vilinam is a port in the Travancore State ;
Singalam in Ceylon ; Pennagadam is a village in the Tanjore District
; Kongu comprises the modern districts of Salem and Coimbatore ;
Tanjai is the well-known Tanjore ; Kodumbai is Kodumbalur in the
Pudukkottai State. Rajasingakulakkil
may be identified with Rajasingamangalam in the Sivaganga Zaminari.
It is called Varagunamangalam in its inscriptions.
Narcheygaiputtur must be identical with Sinnamnur in the
Periyakulam taluk where these plates were obtained.
The stone inscriptions of the place, however, show that it
bore the name Arikesarinallur and was a brahmadeya in Ala-nadu,
a subdivision of Pandi-mandalam.
A hamlet of it was Korranputtur, identical, perhaps, with the
native village of the donee.
Mention is also made in stone inscriptions of the places
Mandaragauravamangalam ind Arapadasekharamangalam, which had
assemblies similar to that of Arikesarinallur that met together in a
common places evidently division in which Sinnamanur was situated.
Kottarpolil-Puttur is identical with Tirupputtur in the
Ramnad district and is the headquarters of a taluk. From No. 90 of
the Madras Epigraphical collection for 1908, we learn that it was
situated in Migundaru in Koluvur-kurram, which is the description
given of Kottarpolil-puttur in these plates.
Pullamangalam is a village in the Papanasam taluk of the
Tanjore district. It
was situated in Kilar-kurram. Kil-Vemba-nadu
is a subdivision of the Pandya country in which Tinnevelly was
situated. As scuh, the
village of Kura must be looked for near about Tinnevellly.
Surliyaru is the river that takes its rise from the
Suruli-malai, 7 miles from Cumbum in the Periyakulam taluk of the
Madura district, and flows past Cumbum and Sinnamanur and joins the
Vaigai. Anda-nadu is
that territorial division of the Pandya country in which
Periyakottai in the Dindigul taluk was.
Hence Kundur and Korranputtur must be traced out in that
: Vv. 1 and 30 Upajati ; V. 2, Vaisvadevi ; Vv. 3, 4,
5, 8 and 31, Upendravajra ; Vv. 6, 7, 13, 27 and 38 Pushpitagra
; V v. 9, 11, 14, 16 and 23, Salini ; Vv. 12 and 32, Drutavilambitam
; Vv. 15, 22, 26, 28, 29, 34 and 36, Anushtub ; Vv. 25, 33
and 35, Indravajra ;
Mandakranta ; V v 10 and 20, Sardulavikriditam ; V.
21, Sragdhara ; and Vv. 17, 18, 19 and 37, Vasantatilaka]
1.) The ocean, in whose rows of bounding disturbed wages, as in a
dancing hall, are (seen) like gems the sun, the stars and the
moon, even when agitated at the end of the Kalpa, bore the
form of his foot-stool.
2.) (Victorious) was the family of him whose prowess had
filled the earth and was a sun (in destroying) the night (viz.,)
the great heroism of its enemies.
The kings of great glory and merited fame born in this (family),
held the earth as their legally married wife.
3.) Of the kings born in this (family) who had destroyed all
enemy kings and had their edicts established on the snowy mountain,
the priest was the venerable Agastya.
4.) One (of the kings) born here, whose wealth was his honour,
and who had killed the powerful demons in a battle between the gods
and the demons, sat alone on the throne of the Lord of the gods (i.e.,
Indra) in heaven brought down (to earth).
5.) Another wise king of right conduct, was an ambassador to secure
victory for the gods ; and (stil) another of unopposed commands,
caused the Ten-headed giant (i.e., Ravana) to sue for peace.
6.) (Again), in that family was born a king who was the husband of
(Ganga) the daughtr of the friend of Nara (Arjuna) (i.e.,
Vishnu), who (like Siva) had three eyes (trilochana)
whose virtue was praised by the three worlds, a matchless king
whostirred the ocean and was a pupil of Agastya.
7.) (Another) born in that (family) was adorned with the necklace of
Hari (i.e., Indra) (which he had) captured (from him)
after breaking (his) wristlet on the head of the Lord of gods
(i.e., Indra) ; still (another) king born in that (family)
conquered Vijaya (i.e., Arjuna) and was the conflagration at
the end of time to the cotton (namely) the army of the lord
of the Kurus.
8.) Another (king) born in that (family) cut off his
own head in order to save his master; and (a king)
named Sundara-Pandya born in this (family) was a helmsman in
the ocean of all Sastras.
9.) Countless number of emperors and kings born in this race
attained godhood having performed numberless Rajasuya and Asvamedha
mortal could describe them thoroughly ?
10.) In that family was born king Arikesari, the home of glory, who
had controlled his passions. His
son (was) Jatila. His
son (was) the glorious (and) virtuous king Rajasimha.
His son (was) the wise Varaguna of great prowess.
His son (was) king Sri-Mara whose fame was delightful to hear
and who was the invincible lord of wealth (Srivallabha).
11.) He (i.e., Sri-Mara) the matchless hero, the beloved of
his subjects, having conquered in battle Maya-Pandya, the Kerala,
the king of Simhala, the Pallava and the Vallabha, protected the
earth under (his) one umbrella.
12.) His son, the younger brother of king Varaguna, was the virtuous
king Parantaka, whose lotus-feet were brightened by the spreading
luster of the sun-like gems in the crowns of (prostrating)
13.) He quickly captured in a battle near Kharagiri the powerful (king)
Ugra who possessed a herd of strong elephants whose tusks were red
with the blood of enemy kings with an army (which was) the
only sword (held) in hand.
14.) This emperor, himself of meritorious fame, caused the circle of
the earth to be filled with holy boundless Brahmin settlements,
numerous temples and countless tanks.
15.) The wife of that
king was the glorious Vanavanmahadevi, as Sri (was) of
Srinivasa (i.e., Vishnu) and as Paulomi (Sachi) (was)
of Satakratu (Indra).
16.) Of this queen was born to him, who was the abode of prosperity,
the son, king Rajasimha who was the repository of intelligence,
valour, stability, courage, nobility and liberality and who
successfully sacred away the heroism of (his) enemies.
17.) Having obtained him, the banner of (both) the (solar) (and
the lunar) races, who caused the utmost grief to the host of
enemy kings, satisfaction to the crowds of supplicants and fame (to
reach) all directions, the earth (now) became (truly)
possessed of a king.
18.) The requests of all supplicants are not enough for (i.e.,
to satisfy) his liberality ; nor the enemies for his prowess; nor
all the worlds for (his) lustrous fame ; nor (again)
the words of the Master of Words (i.e., Brihaspati) for
praising (his) virtues.
19.) Dignified as Bharata, he rules the earth filling all Brahmans
with endless wealth, the enemies with ruin which fully deprives (them)
of (their) wealth and the ten quarters with faultless fame.
20.) A great favourite of this lord, the king, was the glorious son
of the illustrious Sreshthisarman, who was famous by the well-known
name Parantaka, who was born in the Kausika lineage, was possessed
of wealth which was learning, who was the best of the upright and of
famous descent, who was widely known, wise, dutiful and virtuous, of
excellent character and highly modest.
21.) This (Parantaka) who was ever devoted for the good of others,
who was the ocean (into which emptied itself) the
river of learning and who was the Parijata (celestial) tree (in
fulfilling) the desires of all classes of wise men, was the
grandson of him who was named Bhaskara, the sole repository of the
Trayi (Vedas), and the great-grandson of him named Sreshthin who was
the purest of the Senkuti-Kausikas of great religious austerity born
in Puttur, a mine of knowledge and modesty and the home of
22.) His ancestors who had reached the (other) end of Vedic (learning)
established on this earth theextensive work called Kalpa
written by Agnivesya.
23.) His maternal grandfather was the famous Urasarman, the chief of
the residents of Syandana-grama, of the Maudgalya (lineage),
who was of high birth and noble character, illustrious, intelligent,
famous and a prop of virtue.
24.) Knowledge, noble conduct, wealth, modesty, praiseworthy riches,
a conscience ever attached to the lotus-feet of the lord of Lakshmi
(Vishnu), a descent ever high and pure, permanent fame and superior
intelligence — these
were the rule in the family of him (i.e., Urasarman) whose
fame was widely known.
25 — 27) His (i.e.,
Parantaka’s) father, the wise and illustrious Sreshthisarman,
whose conduct was pure, who was as powerful and glorious as Pitamaha
(Brahma) who was the one resort of modesty, intelligent, good and of
noble descent whose fame was pleasant to hear and who was the leader
of the wise, received from the heroic (king) Parantaka, lord
Viranarayana of meritorious fame and an ornament of the Pandya race,
the Brahman village (agrahara) named Maniyachi of unfailing
fertility, (which was) a famous agrahara (situated) in
re-naming (it) Tisaichchudarmangala.
28 — 32.) The same
god-like king of unfailing prosperity, who pleased the whole circle
of the earth and satisfied (his) subjects, who destroyed the
host of enemies, who was the banner of polity, whose prowess was (equal
to) that of Sakra (i.e., Indra) and who removed the
troubles (of the people) on the circle of the earth, in the
16th year of his reign, while camping
in the famous village named Chulal situated in the territorial
division (rashtra) called Rajasimhakulakkil, gave with
libations of water, to the Brahman, Parantakasarman, the whole of
the machless and excellent agrahara named Narcheygai-Puttur
situated in Ala-nadu which was famous with its (second) name
Mandaragauravamangalam, as a brahmadeya property, together with (its) karanmai and miyatchi
and with (its) four boundaries marked off by the
circumambulation of the female elephant.
33.) The vijnapti of this (grant) was the minister
Jatila of respectable descent and a storehouse of prosperity who was
the councilor of the king and a poet of the Atrigotra, who had
34.) The ajnapti of this (grant) was the servant of
that crest-jewel of warriors, the illustrious Maravarman, who was
descended of a pure family and was called Kurrangon.
35.) A minister of the king, born at (the village of) Kura,
the son of a nobleman of Kil-Vemba-nadu and known by the famous name
Nakkankuman, was the master of the female elephant
and the warden (kudikaval).
36.) Also Nakkan-Kada, Kon-Velan and he, called Pataran-Chola —
these (three) accountant were appointed (to
supervise) the circumambulation of the female elephant.
37.) Worshipped by all rulers, this (king) Abhimanameru prostrates (himself)
every day before all future kings with palms folded (over his
head) (and saying) “Oh ! pure-minded kings! Protect
(this) my gift ! “
38.) Vasudeva, the friend of Madhuraguna and the elder brother of
Vishnu who had studied the whole (science of) literature and
was the birth place of modesty and intelligence, composed this