The Indian Analyst

South Indian Inscriptions



Volume - III




Part - I

Inscription at Ukkal





Part - II

Kulottunga-Chola I

Vikrama Chola

Virarajendra I

Kulottunga-Chola III

Part - III

Aditya I

Parantaka I


Parantaka II



Aditya II Karikala

Part - IV

copper-plate Tirukkalar


Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

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Part 1

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Part 2

Volume 23

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Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

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Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India


Tirukkalar Plate of RajendraChola I & Rajadhiraja I

No. 207 Tirukkalar Plate of Rajendra Chola I

No. 206 Two Pandya copper-plate grants from Sinnamanur

No. 209 Tirukkalar Plate of Kulottungs-Chola I

No. 211 Tirukkalar Plate of Kulottunga-Chola III & Rajakesarivarman

No. 207.— Tirukkalar plate of Rajendra-Chola I

These are five copper-plates belonging to the Parijatavanesvara temple at Tirukkalar, a village ten miles south-east of Mannargudi in the Tanjore district[1].  A short notice of these appeared in Dr. Hultzsch’s Annual Report on Epigraphy for 1902 —  03, paragraph 17.  The report also contains a list of 23 stone inscriptions which were copied from the same temple.[2]  These five copper-plates, strung on a copper-ring of 5” diameter, have flat rims, measure 1’ 7/8” x 5 ½ “ each, weigh together 566 tolas and have ring-holes bored in the middle of the left margin about an inch from the edge.  They contain in them five complete inscriptions of different Chola kings.  The first of them, which is also the earliest, is a record of Parakesarivarman Rajendra-Chola I who ascended the Chola throne in A.D. 1012.  It begins with the king’s usual historical introduction commencing with the words Thiru manni valara, enumerates his conquests up to the capture of Kadram, is dated in the 18th year of his reign and registers the extent of the devadana lands belonging to the temple of Mahadeva at Tirukkalar which is said to be a village in Purangarambai-nadu, a subdivision of Arumolideva-valanadu.

Compared with the inscription of this king found at Tirumalai[3] dated in the 13th year of reign and his Tanjore epigraph[4], dated in the 19th year of reign, the present inscription furnishes a few differences in reading which are noticed in foot-notes.

The identification of all the place names occurring in the historical introduction has been made by Professor Hultzsch[5], and it remains to note here only a few facts in this connection.  Idaiturai-nadu which has been taken to be Yedatore, a small village in the Mysore district by Mr. Rice, has since been shown by Dr. Fleet to be identical with the territorial division Ededore, two thousand, a tract of country lying between the rivers Krishna on the north and Tungabhadra on the south, comprising a large part of the present Raichur district[6].  The Kanyakumar inscription of Virarajendra shows that Mannaikadakkam is not to be identified with Manne in the Nelamangala taluk of the Bangalore district but is the same as Manyakheta, which Rajendra-Chola is said to have made a playground for his armies[7]  Chakkara-kottam has been satisfactorily identified by Rai Bahadur Hira Lal with Chitrakuta or kota, eight miles from Rajapura in the Bastar State : he has also adduced epigraphical evidence to show that its king was really Dharavarsha in A.D. 1111[8], as stated in the epigraphs of Kulottunga I.

  Dakshina-Ladam has been taken to be Dakshina-Virata or Southern Berars ; but it looks likely that it is identical with Dakshina-Radha in Bengal[9].  Sri-Vijaya appears under the form Sri-Vishaya in a Kandiyur inscription[10] of the same king ; and the large Leyden grant states that Maravijayotungavarman was the overlord of this territory[11]. This has been taken to be the same as San-fotsai of the Chinese annals and has been identified with Palembang, a residency of Sumatra[12].

Hail ! Prospertiy ! In the eighteenth year (of the reign of) king Parakesarivarman alias UdaiyarSri-Rajendra-Choladeva, in (his) life of high prosperity, while Tiru (Lakshmi), having become constant, was increasing, (and) while the goddess of the great earth, the goddess of victory in battle, and the matchless goddess of fame rejoiced to have become this great queens,— conquered with (his) great, warlike army (the following):-

Idaidurai-nadu, Vanavasi, whose unbroken hedge of forest (trees) was extending; Kollippakkai, whose walls were surrounded with brushwood ; Mannaikkadakkam, whose fortification was unapproachable ; the crown of the king of Ilam who came to close quarters in fighting ; the exceedingly fine crowns of the queens of that (king) ; the beautiful crown and Indra’s pearl necklace, which  the king of the south (i.e., the Pandya) had previously deposited with that (king of Ilam) ; the whole Ila-mandala (on) the transparent sea ; the crown praised by many and the garland emitting beautiful rays, family treasures, which the (kings of) Kerala, whose armies possessing missle weapons, rightfully wore ; many ancient islands whose old, great guard was the ocean which resounds with its conches ; the crown of pure gold, worthy of Tiru (Lakshmi) which Parasurama, having considered the fortifications of Sandimattivu, impregnable, had deposited (there), when, in anger (he) bound the kings twenty-one times in battle ; the seven and a half lakshas of Irattapadi (which was) strong by nature, (and which he took), together with immeasurable fame, (from) Jaysimha, who, out of feat, turned his back at Musangi and his himself (thus earning) great infame ; the principal great mountains (which contained) the nine treasures (of Kubera) ; Sakkarakottam (guaraded by) brave warriors ; the ancient andstrong northern Madura-mandala ; Namanaikkonam, which was surrounded by dense groves ; Panchapalli (protected by) warriors (who bore) cruel bows ; the moth (-grown) ancient Masunidesa ;  a large heap of family-treasures, together with many (other) treasures (which he carried away) after having captured Indraratha of the old race of the moon, together with (his) family, in a fight which took place in the beautiful city of Adinagar, filled with unceasing abundance ; Odda-vishaya, which was difficult to approach, (and which he subdued in) close fight ; the good kosalai-nadu, where Brahmanas abounded ; Dandabutti, in whose gardens beetles abounded (and which he acquired) after having destroyed Dharmapala (in) a hot battle ; Takkana-Ladam, whose fame reached (all) directions (and which he occupied) after having forcibly attacked Ranasura ; Vangaladesa, where the rain-wind never stopped (and from which) Govindachandra fled, having descended (from his) male elephant ; elephants of rare strength and treasures of women, (which he seized) after having been plased to put to fright on a hot battle-field, Mahipala, decked (as he was) with ear-rings, slippers and bracelets ; Uttira-Ladam in the neighbourhood of the expansive ocean abounding in pearls ; and the Gangal whose waters dashed against the banks filled with fragrant flowers ; and (who), having dispatched many ships in the midst of the rolling sea and having caught Samgrama-Vijayaottungavarman, the king of Kadaram, along with (his) rutting elephants, which put up rare fight and brought victory,— (took) the large heap of treasures, which (that king) had rightfully accumulated ; the (arch called) Vidyadhara-torana put up at the “gate” of his wide inland city provided with accoutrements of war ; the “jewel-gate”, adorned with great splendour ; the “gate of large jewels” the prosperous Sri-Vishaiya ; Pannai with a ghat of (bathing) water ; the ancient Malaiyur (with) a fort situated in a fine hill ; Mayirudingam, surrounded by the deep sea (as) a moat ; Ilangasogam (i.e., Lankasoka) undaunted (in) fierce battles ; mappappalam, having aundant high waters as defence ; Mevilimbangam, having fine walls as defence ; valaippanduru, possessing (both) cultivated land (?) and jungle ; the principal (city of) Takkolam, praised by great men (versed in) the sciences ; the island of Madamalingam, of strong battlements ; Ilamuri-desam, provided with scientifically ripe excessive strength ; the great Nakkavaram, whose gardens (abounded in) flowers dribbling honey ; and Kadaram, of fierce strength, protected by foot-soldiers wearing kalal ; the devadana lands (belonging to the temple) of the Mahadeva at Vengurkkala-Tirukkalar in Purangarambai-nadu (a sub-division) of Arumolideva-valanadu, measured ½ (veli) 19 ¼ , 1/160 and . . . . . This land was inclusive of excess and deficiency (in measurement) of the surrounding parts.


This inscription in six lines is engraved on the second plate of the Tirukkalar set.  It is dated in the 31st year of the reign of the Chola king Rajakesarivarman Rajadhiraja I and registers an arrangement made, by a certain Tirumanappichchan, who bore the double surname Araiyan Nagaraiyan and Mahipalakulakalapperaraiyan, whereby one Brahmin had to perform worship in the temple at Tirukkalar in addition to another who was doing that service till then.  From the short  historical introduction which states that the king with the help of his army took the head of Vira-Pandya, Salai of the Chra king and Ilangai, it is clear that “Salai is an important place in the Chera dominions and not a feeding house” as the late Mr. T.A. Gopinatha Rao had taken to be.[13]

In the 31st year of (the reign of) king Rajakesarivarman alias Udaiyar Sri-Rajadhirajadeva, who, with his army, had taken the head of Vira-Pandya, Salai of the Chera king and Ilangai (i.e., Ceylon), Araiyan Nagaraiyan alias Mahipalakulakalapperaraiyan alias Tirumanappichchan
gave 1 ¼ (veli of) land for (yielding an income of) 150 (kalam of paddy) for the expenses of two Brahmins, viz., one Brahmin, performing the worship of the god from of old and one Brahmin who is to perform (the same) receiving the income provided for by Tirumanappichchan at the rate of (one) tuni and (one) kuruni[14] of paddy per day for 360 days.  Those who destroy this (shall incur the sin of acting against) the sacred (or royal) order.

[1]  Sewell’s Lists of Antiquities, Vol. I, p. 280.

[2]  Nos. 642 to 655 of the Madras Epigraphical collection for 1902.  They belong to the reigns of the Chola kings Tribhuvanachakravartin Rajadhiraja, Rajaraja, Virarajendra and Kulottunga, the Pandya kings Jatavarman Tirubhuvanachakravartain Srivallabha and Maravarman Kulasekhara and the Vijayanagara sovereigns Viruppanna and Vira-Bhupati.

[3]  Edited in Ep. Ind., Vol. IX, pp. 229 ff.

[4]  Above, Vol. II, pp. 105 ff.  No. 20.

[5]  Ep. Ind., Vol. IX, pp. 230 —  1.

[6]  Ibid, Vol. XII, p. 296.

[7]  Trav. Arch. Series, Vol. III, pp. 119 and 156.

[8]  Ep. Ind., Vol. IX, p. 179.  Mr. Hira Lal would substitute “Kulottunga conquered king Dharavarsha at Chakrakotta” for “Kulottunga conquered the king of Dhara at Chakrakottam” : see foot-note 2.

[9]  Memoirs of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. LXI, p. 7 ff.

[10]  Annual Report on Epigraphy for 1894-5, paragraph 12.

[11]  Arch.  Survey of Southern India, Vol. IV, p. 218.

[12]  Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. XXVI, p. 73 and Ep. Ind., Vol. XVII, p. 313.

[13]  See p. 65 of the Annual Report on Archaeology of the Travancore State for 1920-21.

[14]  These are expressed by symbols.

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