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Sunday, February 25, 2007


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 

Two Pandya copper-plate grants from Sinnamanur

No. 206 Two Pandya copper-plate grants from Sinnamanur

No. 207 Tirukkalar Plate of Rajendra Chola I

No. 209 Tirukkalar Plate of Kulottungs-Chola I

No. 211 Tirukkalar Plate of Kulottunga-Chola III & Rajakesarivarman

Tamil portion

...(Line 76.) Hail ! Prosperity ! May the prosperous family of the Pandyas live long —  (the family) which came forth commencing with the white Moon enthroned on the brilliant plaited hair of Hara (i.e., Siva), and born (from the milk ocean) along with (the goddess of) prosperity, the pure ambrosia, the kaustaubha (gem) of luster, like that of the Sun’s and that single elephant (the Airavata) of flowing rut ; —a fit object of prise for the people of the four quarters which possesses the four (divisions) of the earth ; which was justly extolled by Bharadvaja and other (sages) ; which was beyond the reach the enemies ; whose commands bore (the seal of) the double[1] fish ; which had for its family priest (the sage) Agastya of unequalled glory ; which has been in existence through aeons and which counts (among its members) the one ever-lasting Being.[2]

(L. 84.) After many great kings and emperors born in this (family) who ruled right up to the boundaries of the heavens, (such as) he who churned the billowy ocean and obtained nectar ; he who bathed in a single day[3] in the four oceans, causing admiration to the people of the four (divisions of) the earth, who with a crown (bedecked) with gems of faultless luster, wore (also) an anklet of white conch ; he who went round the globe of the earth ; he who sent ambassadors on several occasions to the gods of  matchless victory ; he who carried away the garland of Pakasasana (i.e., Indra) ; he who, appearing with ornaments of valuable gems, mastered the Tamil (language) of the south ; he who by throwing a sharp-edged javelin caused the quick return of the sea; acquired the name Puliyan ; who gave away thousand (of gifts) of the golden hill (Meru) ; he who stood firmly in the field (of battle) at Pali and obtained the name Panchavan ; he who founded the prosperous city of Madura and built (a surrounding) wall for it; he who with the supreme intelligence of his mind, was profoundly versed in the beautiful Tamil and Sanskrit and became the foremost among scholars ; he who led the elephants in the Bharata (war) so as to destroy the great charioteers in a hill-battle[4] ; he who relieved Vijaya (Arjuna) from the curse of vasu ; he who drove (his enemies) to the forest so that they might be scorched up and destroyed (there) and had the blameless (royal emblems) of the big fish, the tiger and the bow engraved on the top of the Northern Mountain (i.e., the Himalayas); he who, securing the services of huge giants, restored many tanks and relieved the country from disease and pinching hunger; he who with a dreadful sword cut off the heads of two kings that advanced against him in the battles at Chitrmuyari and Talaiyalanganam and stopped the dance of their (two) headless trunks and he who had the Mahabharata translated into Tamil and had established the “Sangam” in the town of Madhura had ruled the circle of the earth and had passed away.

(L. 104.) Then (came) Parankusa, the king of the Panchavas (i.e., Pandyas) who saw the back of the Chera king (Villavan) at Nelveli and that of the Pallava (king) at Sankaramangai of extensive pleasure gardens.  His grandson (was) Rajasimha, the lord of kings.  (Next came) king Varaguna-Maharaja whose feet (wearing) anklets are worshipped by monarchs.[5] His son was Parachakrakolahala, who bore the burden of the earth, who wore (a victorious garland of) never-fading vagai (flowers)[6] at Kunnur, (surrounded by) gardens of delightful fragrance, at Singalam and at Vilinam ; who firmly wielded his scepter and who shining with the prowess of the Sun and shooting from (his) bow-string sharp and deadly arrows on Ganga, Pallava, Chola, Kalinga, Magadha and other (kings) that came to give battle and opposed (him) at Kudamukkil of fragrant and blooming flower-gardens and made them bathe in a big river of blood.

(L. 113.) (Next came) Varagunavarman, the lord of kings, whose feet were worshipped by kings (wearing) jingling anklets on their legs, and who by (his) beautiful long arms resembling hills, made the earth his own.

(L. 115.) His younger brother, the glorious warrior Parantakan Sadaiyan, the king whose conduct (followed the rules prescribed by) Manu, who wore many golden ornaments, who put on a golden crown decorated with gems ; who showered arrows from (his) powerful bow so that the elephant troops whose (long) trunks touched the earth, the horse battalions and the infantry (of the enemies) fell on the earth at (the battle of) Sennilam ; who captured at Kharagiri crowds of files of powerful elephants of enemy (kings) and who a battle at Nilamber ; who had destroyed the extensive Pennagadam, who with the help of a single powerful prancing horse, won battles in the extensive Kongu (country) ; who performed many (gifts of) devadana (lands) and restored many brahmadeya (grants) and who subdued the whole of India (Navaltivu)[7], having also gone to heaven.

(L. 123.) The first son of the goddess of the (lotus) flower (i.e., Lakshmi) called Vanavanmahadevi, was he the king of the Minavar, (i.e., the Pandyas) Rajasimha Vikatavadavan[8],  who having himself borne (easily) by the strength of his broad shoulders, the great burden of the circle of the earth which the lord of serpents (i.e., Sesha) bears with much difficulty by his thousand heads, became distinguished as “the strong-armed that relieved the serpent Lord of (the pain of) carrying the earth”; who at Ulappinimangalam pierced the bodies of the enemies that attacked (him), and gave (their) blood, the superior (position) of becoming the scented cosmetics of the goddess Earth, who sounded his drum when the king of the Tanjai (country) (full of) water flowing from sluices, ran away surrendering his arms,[9] at Naippur which was filled with mountain-like battalions[10]; who commenced his battle[11] at the big city of Kodumbai where the assembled (enemy’s) forces, vast like the roaring ocean, dispersed suffering afficition; whose looks caused (the town of) Vanji with walls surrounded on all sides by flower-gardens (and situated) on the northern bank of the Kaveri (Ponni) abounding in water to be consigned to flames, and whose eyes which became red (with anger) made to dance the headless bodies of the heroes that opposed him ; who like Kumara (Skanda) of the high cock flag, swelled with rage and displayed the strength of (his) galloping steeds by destroying in the battle at the beautiful and well watered town of Naval the crowds of elephants, horses and foot-men of the lord of the southern Tanjai (country).  (His) victorious flag reaching the sky, his scepter wielded (right) upto the ends of quarters, acquiring the bridled horse, the chief mountain and the blood-red garland, was enjoying pleasure of Mahendra with his prosperous sons worshipping at his feet, the king Vikatavadava, the lord of Prosperity, who marked the chief of mountains with his fish emblem, the crest-jewel of kings, this lord of the south (Tennan), of many brilliant virtues having founded with pleasure in every direction numberless brahmadeyas, numberless devadanas, and numberless pallichchandam.

(L. 143.) Being pleased to stay in the town of Chulal (situated) in Rajasingapperungulam, abounding it wreath of water-lilies and resembling the noisy ocean whichwas formerly founded by himself —  in the 14th year opposite the 2nd year of his reign, the Brahman Bhaskaran-Setti who was like the lotus-born (Brahma) and was praised by al, the son of the virtuous Bhaskara, the chief of the noble and illustrious race of the Settis, the foremost of Ombalvas of the Agnivesya-kalpa and the Komara-Kausika-gotra (living) in the village Kottarpolil[12] named  Puttur in the watery Miygundaru (district) (which was included) in the big (district of) Koluvur-kurram, having obtained as ekabhoga the brahmadeya consisting of the place (called) Tisaichchudarmangalam in Vada-Kalavali-nadu, by the grace of the Pandya king the glorious Parantakan Sri-Viranaranan.

(L. 155.) The chief of kings mentioned above, the illustrious Rajasimhavarman, the sovereign whose umbrella touched the sky, desirous of doing some good to Parantaka the famous son of Bhaskaran Setti (i.e., Setti son of Bhaskara) who walked in the path of the virtuous, a Kausika of Sengudi (surrounded by) a forest of lotuses, thefriend of the created beings and the home of good qualities, was pleased to kindly confer as ekabhoga-brahmadeya together with karanmai and miyatchi (the village) Narcheygai-Puttur in Ala-nadu of Beautiful streams of cool water which he was pleased to found calling it Mandaragauravamangalam after his own name.

(L. 162.) The vinnappam (of this grant) was Sadaiyapiran Bhattasomayajin of Pullamangalam in Sola-nadu ; the ajnapti (anai-al) (of the grant) was Kurrangon of Vembarrur in Kalavali-nadu ; the chief warden (Kudikaval-nayakan) was Kuman of Kura in Kil-Vemban-nadu and the accountants were Nakkan-Kadan of Siru-Sevur in Tirukkanapper-kurram, Pataran-Cholai in Tunjalur in Naduvir-kurram (a sub-division) of Milalaik-kurram and Kon-Velan of Perungakkur (near) Kalattirukkai.

(L. 167.) The residents (nattar) of Ala-nadu being appointed to mark the boundary line, the female elephant was led around and (the following) four big boundaries were thus (marked).  The eastern boundary (was) to the west of Suruliyaru ; the southern boundary (was) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in Karkulam.[13]

(V. 1.) Hail ! May Purushottama (i.e., Vishnu) who wears his characteristic weapons[14] and whose hairs stand on end in the rapture of an embrace from the arms of Padma (i.e., Lakshmi), profusely grant us knowledge, fame and prosperity.

(V. 2.) May the family prosper long, that which is produced from the nectar-rayed (Moon), in which were born kings who crushed the pride of the enemies of gods (i.e., demons). 

(L. 3.) After a number of kings of the Pandya family of endless fame (born) in the race of the Moon, — who drew their bow to cut off the heads of crowds of Asuras on the battle-front, to prevent thedestruction of Akhandala (i.e., Indra) ; who decorated the adamantine crest of the Northern Mountain (i.e., the Himalayas) with the (royal) sign of the beautiful carp ; who bathed their ears with the sweet Tamil of Kumbhodbhava (i.e., Agastya), residing on the top of the Southern Mountain[15] ; who wore the necklace of Harihaya (i.e., Indra) and sat with him on one half of his throne ; who raised (their) arms showering many (arrows) from (their) quivers on the sacred crown of Surivalaiyavan ; who threw the javelin in order to drive back the (encroaching) sea ; performed a thousand sacrifices ; exacted service from crowds of goblins ; released the expanse of Earth of (her) common possession (by kings) ; bestowed on supplicants a thousand elephants and did many (other) astounding deeds —  had passed away ;

(L. 14.) there was seated on the (Pandya) throne like Vasava (Indra), the king, the great lord Maravarman, — who being the son of Jayantavarman whose great fame was sung by the world, burst forth causing the heads of hostile kings to tremble, (his) many characteristic titles (such as) Arikesari, Asamasaman, Alanghyavikraman and Akalakalan, being ravishingly proclaimed by the whole world, a host of enemy kings prostrating, relased the extensive Earth of (its)( common possession (by other kings), resolved to act in the fashion of the thunder cloud in raining gold on Brhamans and removed their distress ; ascended the Tulabhara  with pleasure, ruled the world offering protection to all, entered twice the (womb of) hiranyagarbha and made many other great gif gifts beginning with gosahasra.

(L. 23.) And his son was . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .  who having immediately protected  without a flaw the circle of the Earth brought (her) under the shade of his moon-like umbrella, who in giving forth benevolence resolved to act in the fashion of the wishing tree (Kalpaka), expelled completely the sins of the Kali (age), averted the misery of the gods of Earth (i.e., Brahmanas) by giving great wealth, who at Marudur and Kuvalaimalai drove rutting elephants (into the battle-field) so that heroes wearing anklets who opposed, attacked or unwaringly advanced and stood in his way became extinct, who . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(L. 29.) . . . . . . . .  . . . .. . . . . to the east of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; the northern boundary (was) to the south of the Bhagavati temple of Korranputtur.  (The land) comprised within the thus-described four big boundaries was given away with all exemptions.  Its anatti (Skt. ajnapti) was Tayan Singan who was the uttaramantri  of Kundur (a village) in Kundur-kurram of Anda-nadu.  The purankaval[16] to be given on this (land) is eighty-five kalam (of paddy).

(L. 34.) “The flower —  like feet of those that protect this (gift) shall be on my crown” : So saying, the king himself graciously ordered and had (this) copper edict executed at once.

[Verses 3 and 4 are the usual imprecations.]

(L. 38.) (This is) the signature of Arikesari, son of Pandi-Perumbanaikaran.


[1]  It is possible that dvaya here stands for dhvaja = banner.

[2]  The reference is evidently to the story in the Halasyapurana of Siva himself being counted as one of the Pandyas.

[3]  I.e., day time.

[4]  [Maharatia and Malaikalam may preferably be left untranslated.  The former may refer to a people and the latter to a field of battle.  The passage when so altered would stand thus : — “Who led his elephants into Bharata and caused the Maharathas to bedestroyed at Malai-kalam. —  K.V.S.]

[5]  The relationship existing between Rajasimha and Varaguna-Maharaja is not given.

[6]  I.e., ‘was victorious at’.

[7]  The Jambudvipa.

[8]  The great sub-marine fire to the ocean of his enemies.

[9]  The phrase padai-pporisaram tandu has been tentatively translated ‘surrendered his arms’.

[10]  Tanai-varai has perhaps to be taken as an adjective qualifying Naippur.

[11]  The phrase may also be interpreted as “having mounted on the back of his (elephant) Ranodaya.”

[12]  [Mr. Venkayya has also treated Koltariolil  as a proper noun and as a surname of the village Puttur.  I would prefer to read Kottarpolil instead of Kottarpoli and take it as an adjunct to grama  (village) meaning “(surrounded) by a forest filled with bunches of flowers” —  K.V.S.]

[13]  The inscription is incomplete.  One or more copper-plates must be missing.

[14]  These are the conch, disc, cub and the lotus.

[15]  The Pondiyil hill in the Tinnevelly district is said to have been the seat of Agastya.

[16]  Purankaval is evidently the same as puravu of the Gudimallam plates (Ep. Ind., Vol. XVII, p. 6, text —  line 54).

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