The Indian Analyst

South Indian Inscriptions



Volume - III




Part - I

Inscription at Ukkal





Part - II

Kulottunga-Chola I

Vikrama Chola

Virarajendra I

Kulottunga-Chola III

Part - III

Aditya I

Parantaka I


Parantaka II



Aditya II Karikala

Part - IV

copper-plate Tirukkalar


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The Tiruvalangadu copper-plates of the sixth year of Rajendra-Chola I

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Translation of the Sanskrit text

(V. 101.) It may be no wonder that the fire of his anger burst into a flame as it came into contact with the descendant of Taila.[1]  This is (more) strange that it consumed the enemy-fuel, having crossed the great waters of the ocean.[2]

(V. 102.) While this king with anger was engaged in vanquishing Jayasimharaja, very strangely (indeed), the fire of grief of the Ratta ladies burst into a flame, washed by the tears (trickling) from (their) eyes.

(V. 103.) The sides of the ample breasts of the ladies of the Ratta king who was cut to pieces by his fierce General, (though rendered) destitute of ornaments (on account of their widowhood) (nevertheless) became brilliant and beautiful as before with shining pearls, viz., the drops of their tears.

(V. 104.) The forces of Cholendrasimha and Jayasimha fought an intensive battle, each (side) kindling the anger of the other, wherein the fire generated by the tusks of huge infuriated elephants dashing (against each other), burnt all the banners.

(V. 105.) That lord of Rattarashtra (i.e., Jayasimha) in order to escape from the fire of the terrible rage of the ornament of the Solar race (i.e., Rajendra-Chola) took to his heels with fear, abandoning all (his) family riches and reputation.

(V. 106.) Afraid to the anger of the ornament of the Valabha race (i.e., of Rajendra-Chola) to whom fame was dear, the rest of the enemy’s forces quickly sought refuge in forests and mountain-caves as did (also) the dust (raised by) his (i.e., Rajendra-Chola’s) (pursuing) army.

(V. 107.) The army of Rattaraja hemmed in on all sides by the continuous downpour of arrows, (and) beleaguered by the heroes in the army of the ornament of the Solar race, was (completely) destroyed just as a range of clouds tossed about by the force of furious winds.

(V. 108.) Having defeated Rattaraja with (his) forces, the son of Rajaraja, well-versed in polity and attended by all his numerous virtues such as courage, prowess and victory, got (back) to (his) (capital) town.

(V. 109.) This light of the Solar race, laughing at Bhagiratha who had brought down the Ganga (to the earth from heaven) by the power of (his) austerities, wished to sanctify his own country with the waters of the Ganga (i.e., the river Ganges) carried thither through the strength of (his) arm.

(V. 110.) Accordingly (he) ordered the commander of the army who had powerful battalions (under his control), who was the resort of heroism (and) the foremost of diplomats, — to subdue the enemy kings occupying (the country on) the banks of that (river).

(V. 111).  Before him, as from the slopes of the Himalayas, marched a very large army like the tremendous volume of the waters of the Ganga with wavy rows of moving horses, causing all the quarters to resound with its confused clamour.

(V. 112.) The van of his army crossed the rivers by way of bridges formed by herds of elephants.  The rest of the army (crossed the same) on foot, (because) the waters in the meantime had dried up being used by elephants, horses and men.

(V. 113.) The soldiers of Vikrama-Chola having reached the points of the compass (first) by the dust raised by crowds of elephants, horses and foot-men, quickly entered (next) the country of hostile kings.

(V. 114.) That general of the ornament of the Solar race first conquered Indraratha (and) captured the country of that jewel of the Lunar race to meet him (on the battlefield) with very powerful elephants, horses and innumerable foot-soldiers.

(V. 115.) The white parasol of that king, the jewel of the Lunar race, fell (to the ground) its (supporting) staff and top being cut (asunder) in battle by sharp arrows, as if the disc of the moon (fell), distressed by the defeat (of her descendant).

(V. 116.) Then having robbed Ranasura of his prosperity he entered the extensive dominions of Dharmapala.  (And) conquering him too, this General of the king of Sibis (i.e., of Rajendra-Chola) reached the celestial river (Ganga).

(V. 117.) The dandanayaka then immediately got the most sacred waters of that (river) carried to his master Madhurantaka by the subjugated chiefs on the banks of that (Ganga river).

(V. 118.) (Meantime) Rajendra-Chola (himself) with a desire to conquer (enemy kings) reached the river Godavari and by the scented cosmetics on his body (washed away) during a playful bath in the waters (of that river) caused her (i.e., the Godavari river) to be suspected (of enjoyment with a stranger) by the lord of rivers (i.e., the ocean).[3]

(V. 119.) The powerful General had (just then) got the waters of the Ganga carried to his master (Rajendra-Chola), after having defeated Mahipala and having taken possession of his fame, splendour and precious gems.

(V. 120.) The heroic king killed in battle (the lord of) Odda who was carrying on the orders of the king of the Kali (-age),[4] together with (his) younger brother and (his) army and then forcibly took possession of (his) rutting elephants.

(V. 121.) There, the king with his own hand (and) from the (back of the) elephant mounted by himself, killed a mad elephant that ran at him with its trunk raised.

(V. 122.) He (then) entered his own (capital) town, which by its prosperity despised all the merits of the abode of the gods, — his lotus feet (all along) being worshipped by the kings of high birth who had been subdued (by him).

(V. 123.) Having conquered Kataha with (the help of) his valiant forces that had crossed the ocean, (and) having made all kings bow down (before him) this (king) (Rajendra-Chola) protected the whole earth for a long time.

(V. 124.) (This) lord constructed in his own dominions as a pillar of victory (a tank) known by repute as Cholagangam which was composed of the waters of the Ganges.

(V. 125.) This glorious and highly prosperous king Madhurantaka staying in the town called sri-Mudigondacholapura, deputed with pleasure the illustrious and virtuous Jananatha, the son of Rama, in the sixth year (of his reign), (ordering) him to have the prosperous village of Palayur granted to the enemy of (the demon) Andhaka (i.e., Siva)

(V. 126.) Wise men call him (i.e., Jananatha) who was the chief of the learned, a Dhishana (Brihaspati) come down (to the earth) from heaven in
order to establish in the world once again the path of righteousness (set up) by him (before), (but) which was (now) tottering under the force of
the Kali (-age).

(V. 127.) He was the minister of the glorious (king) Madhurantaka, as Brihaspati (is) of sacra (Indra), the foremost of the learned who directed his intelligence to go always along the path of virtue, who was the crest-jewel of the Chalukyas (Chalukyachudamani), who (like) the rising sun, caused the groups of the lotus (-like) faces of all learned men to bloom (with joy), (and) who was the storehouse of virtues and the birth-place of compassion.

(V. 128.) That son of Rama (i.e., Jananatha) gave this village to the god of gods Sankara, the enemy of the (three) cities, known by name Ammayyappa who had his abode in (the village) called Puranagrama (i.e., Palayanur in Tamil) which was the ornament of Jayangonda-Cholamandala and was situated within (the district) Paschatyagiri.

(V. 130.) The village Simhalantaka-chaturvedimangala formed the boundary of that (village) on the east, south and front.

(V. 131.) (The village) known as Nityavinoda-chaturvedimangala was the boundary of (this) village called Tiruvalangad[u], on its back-side (i.e., west).

(V. 132.) The royaql order (srimukha) was written by Uttamachola-Tamil-adaraiya.  Tirukkalatti Pichcha made the request (vijnapti) in this (grant).  The wise and illustrious Arneri, the son of Mayana, a full-moon (in gladdening) the ocean, viz., the village named Mangalavayil, born of the fourth-caste (chaturthanvaya), which was pure on either side (i.e., both on the paternal and the maternal) did, under order of Jananatha (the rest of) the business, such as, the taking round of the female elephant (karini-bhramana) etc.,

(V. 136.) The learned poet Narayana, son of Sankara (and) a devotee of the Enemy of (the demon) Mura (i.e., Vishnu), composed this grant.

(V. 137.) May Rajendra-Chola be victorious all over the earth, whose many gem (— like) virtues step beyond the bounds of the egg of the three worlds ; (the number of) whose enemies is not sufficiently (large) for the (full) display of (his) splendid heroism ; who (like) an ocean is the birth-place of all innumerable gem (-like) virtues ; for (the grasp of) whose intelligence sciences (as they now exist) are limited (in number) ; who being solicited gives to the crowd of supplicants super-abundant wealth ; and who is the birth-place of prosperity !

[1]  Taila-santali also means ‘quantity of oil.’

[2]  This statement of rajendra-Chola’s anger crossing the oceans need not be taken in connection with the conquest of the Chalukyas between whom and the Chola invaders there was no ocean intervening.  The poet evidently had in his mind the oversea campaigns of Rajendra-Chola.

[3]  This poetic idea of the lord of rivers suspecting Godavari must have been borrowed from the Raghuvamsa where in Canto. IV, verse 45, Raghu is stated to have similarly caused the river Kaveri to be suspected by the ocean.

[4]  I.e., who was following vicious ways.

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