The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Contents

Preface

Introduction

Topographical Index

Dynastic Index

Text of the Inscriptions 

Chola

Pandya

Vijayanagara

Nayakas of Madurai

Nayakas of Tanjavur

Pallava

Rashtrakuta

Kakatiya and Feudatory

Pottapi-Chodas

Chera

Setupati

Kongu

Kodumbalur

Unidentified Pandya or Chola

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

INSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING THE YEAR 1906-07

PANDYA

Maravarman Kulasekhara (unidentified )

No. 101 (Page No 66)

(A. R. No. 101 of 1907)

Kallidaikkurichchi, Ambdasamudar Taluk, Tirunelveli District

Nagesvaram-Udaiyar temple –on the north wall of the Goddess shrine

Mar. Kulasekhara :  year 20

It is not clear whether this Kulasekhara could be identical with Kulasekhara whose accession took place in A.D. 1268, as his claim to the conquest ‘of all countries’ is not found here. It registers a gift of some land by one adiggaimanar Kulasekhara of Nalayira Isvaramudaiyar and Nilaiyudaiya-Pandisvaramudaiyar (at Kallidaika-kurichchi) in Rajaraja-chaturvedimangalam. Among the boundaries to this gift garden are mentioned a tirunadavanam and a tiruvidaiyattam belonging to the temple of Nalayira-Vinnagar-Emberuman in the same village. 

No. 125 (Page No 94)

(A. R. No. 125 of 1907)

Pappankulam, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District

Sidhajnanesvara temple --- on the west wall of the temple kitchen

Maravarman Kulasekhara : year 8 

This is dated in the 8th regnal year of the king who is probably the one who ascended the throne in A.D. 1268. The details of the date given which should fall in A.D. 1276 are however irregular since it is not possible for Dhanus, ba. 2 to combine with Svati as mentioned in the record. The inscription registers the sale of a village (?) called Mangalakkulam with its income and appurtenances, by the urar (assembly ) of Karkurichchi alias Vikramapandya-nallur in Seranaivenran-tirumadaivilagam for 3230 panam exclusive  of the land already sold by them to the temple in Aippasi month for the purpose of a flower-garden and for forming a street. Reference is made to a previous mortgage of the hands to one Vikrama-Pandya-Solakonar and their redemption now form the hands of his son Anjadaperuman. The Karanmaikkani (tenancy) of the lands is said to have been held by one Kalamegan Alagandar alias Nayanar Gangaiyar who was responsible for the collection of the kadamai (tax) from the temple treasury ( for payment to the State  ?). Among the boundaries are mentioned lands belonging to the temples of Piravari-Vinnagar-Emberuman in the 10th Cheri of Rajaraja-chaturvedimangalam, of Bhagavati-Vinnagar-Emberuman at Velarurichchi and of Rajendra-Vinnagar-Emberuman (in the same place?). 

No. 127 (Page No 99 )

(A. R. No. 127 of 1907)

Pappankulam, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District

Sidhajnanesvara temple --- on the same wall

Mar. Kulasekhara 

This is also an inscription of the same king. The regnal year is lost but the details of date can be read as (Makara) ba. 14, Thursday, Anushanm. It registers another sale of land in their village by the same Uravar of Vikramapandya-nallur to the temple for 928 Danapala-guligai-panam. This also refers to a previous mortgage of the land made in the 8th year of the king. With two individual by name Vanarayar and Sulapanippillai for 728 panam which seems to have been paid back now to the mortgages out of this sale amount.

No. 128 (Page No 100)

(A. R. No. 128 of 1907)

Pappankulam, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District

Siddhajanesvara temple-on the south wall of the first prakara

Mar. Kulasekhara : year 8 

This belongs to the 8th year of the same king, and seems to be connected with the sale transaction mentioned in No. 127 above, as it records the receipt (nattu) by the same assembly for the amount of mortgage paid by them to the two mortgagees out of the sale amount of 928 panam. 

No. 135 (Page No 108)

(A. R. No.135 of 1907)

Kodumbalur, Kulattur Taluk, Tiruchirappalli District

Muchukundesvara temple—on the north wall of the kitchen 

This is a record of the 5th year of Maravarman Kulasekhara, which states that this kitchen called the Vijayapanjaran-tirumadaippalli is the gift of the Nattavar of Mudusolkudi-nadu. Tirumudukunram is said to be situated in Vada-Konadu a division of Urattur-Kurram in Konadu. 

No. 311 (Page No 220)

(A. R. No. 311 of 1907)

Tiruvidaimarudur, Kumbhakonam Taluk, Tanjavur District

Mahalingasvami temple – on the same gopura, left of entrance

Mar. Kulasekhara :   year 2+1 

This is much damaged. It seems to record the decision of the Sri-Rudaras and Sri Mahesvaras and also the people of the Brahmasthanas assembled in the hall Ekanayakn-tirukkavanam in the temple, allotting the income from certain lands for the expenses of worship on monthly and annual festivals in the temple. In continuation of this is a record of an endowment made in the 5th year of  the king, of land s measuring 17 veli in extent in Edirilisola-chaturvedimangalam and is hamlet Kumaramangalam, for the temple repairs to be carried out with the kadamai and other income therefrom.  

Jatavarman Sundara-Pandya II

No. 590 (Page No 410)

(A. R. No. 590 of 1907)  

Nandaluru, Rajampet Taluk, Cuddapah District

Saumyanatha temple – on the north wall

of the tiruchchurrumaligai

Jat. Sundara-Pandya.  Year [15] 

The date is given as Vibhava (?), Kumbha, su. 10, Monday, Purnarvasu (= A.D. 1290, February 20).  The cyclic year was Virodhi. 

This seems to record a gift of money with the interest on which offerings and worship were to be conducted in the temple on a specific day of the year on the occasion of a yoga in honour of god Vishvaksena by the [Darma]talattar with whom the amount was deposited by the donor one [Ar]yaputra, grandson of Kidambi Ramadasa.

No. 591 (Page No 411)

(A. R. No. 591 of 1907)  

Nandaluru, Rajampet Taluk, Cuddapah District

Saumyanatha temple – on the same wall

Jat. Sundara-Pandya.  Year 10 

The cyclic year Vyaya given against the 10th regnal year of the king seems to point to Jatavarman Sundara-Pandya II whose accession is known to have taken place in A.D. 1276.  This records a mutual agreement between the Mahasabha of Nirandanur and Ulagmundan-Dasar one of the Vaishnava-variyam of the temple of Sokkap-perumal by which an amount of 200 panam deposited with the temple by Pillai Pallavarayar for the formation of a flower-garden, was invested on 500 kuli of land and made over to the Dasar on condition that he was to supply flower garlands regularly to the temple, himself enjoying the yield of fruits of the different kinds of trees he could plant therein as murruttu (?)  

No. 592 (Page No 412)

(A. R. No. 592 of 1907)  

Nandaluru, Rajampet Taluk, Cuddapah District

Saumyanatha temple – on the same wall

Jat. Sundara-Pandya (II).  Year 10: 

This is also an inscription of the same king. The details of date here given viz. Vyaya, Tula, su. 12, Monday, Satabhishaj, would yield the equivalent A.D. 1286, September 30, regnal year being 11. This registers a gift of two pieces of areca-nut garden and house sites after purchase by the same donor mentioned in No. 591 above, whose full name is given as Eduttakaiyalagiyar Pillai Pallavarayan of Tunjalur in Tirumilalaikkuram a district in Pandimandalam, to provide for offerings, worship and lamp to the image of Emberumanar set up in the temple of Sokkap-perumal at Nirandanur by one Anaimelalagiyar of Virasikhamukhachcheri Kalattur a suburb of Viranarayana-chaturvedimangalam in Solamandalam and also for the maintenance of a matha presided over by this teacher (?) 

No. 593 (Page No 413)

(A. R. No. 593 of 1907)  

Nandaluru, Rajampet Taluk, Cuddapah District

Saumyanatha temple – In the same place

Jat. Sundara-Pandya.  Year 10 

This registers a transaction similar and in addition to the one recorded in No. 591 above.  This same donor Pillai Pallavarayar is said to have given 200 panam to Srivaishnavadasar Ulagamundan and to Dasan Kesavapperumal Pillai Sokkan on behalf of the temple, for the formation of a flower garden called Ramanujan-tirunandavanam and these latter shared 400 kuli of tiruvidaiyattam between them for cultivating the land and enjoying the yield as murruttu after supplying flower garlands to the temple out of flower plants grown all round the hedges. Another condition was that the different fruit trees, plantains and vegetables (kilapachchai ?) belonged to the temple. 

No. 594 (Page No 415)

(A. R. No. 594 of 1907)  

Nandaluru, Rajampet Taluk, Cuddapah District

Saumyanatha temple -- on the south wall

of the same Tiruchchurrumaligai

Jat. Sundara-Pandya (II).  Year 17 

The details of the date are given as Nandana Mina, su. 5 Saturday, Rohini, which would correspond to A.D. 1293, March 14. 

This record the formation of a garden called Manaparipalam tiruttoppu at Nirandanur in the name of minister Tondaimanar of Tirunelveli and an endowment of land as jivita for the maintenance of the persons looking after it, for the benefit of god Sokkapperumal at Nirandanur, by Karumanikka-Alvan alias Nandivarman the headman of Sirumali residing at Tolur in Tolur-nadu a division of Manavir-kottam in Jayagondasola-mandalam. These dasa-nambis of the garden were to supply flower garlands to the temple daily in addition to 75 palam of vegetables grown on a plot specially set apart for the purpose.  For the 20 panam received by the temple from these persons, two nail of offered rice was to be given to them every day.

No. 614 (Page No 428)

(A. R. No. 614 of 1907)  

Nandaluru, Rajampet Taluk, Cuddapah District

Saumyanatha temple – on another slab set up

in the same place

Jat. Sundara-Pandya. (II).  Year 9. 

The date of this inscription is given as Parthiva, Purattadi. This cyclic year correspond to A.D. 1284-85 which happens to be the 9th regnal year of Jat. Sundara-Pandya II. This seems to register an endowment of land by the king after purchasing it from the Mahajanas of the place (Nirandanur) for the requirements of offerings to god Sokkapperumal on the 6th day of festivals, when the image was taken to the Ramanujan-tirunandavanam (flower-garden) the gift of Pillai-Pallavaraya for special worship.   

Jatavarman Sundara-Pandya (unidentified)

No. 132 (Page No 105)

(A. R. No. 132 of 1907)

Kodumbalur, Kulattur Taluk, Tiruchirappalli District

Muchukundesvara temple—on the same wall

Jat. Sundara-Pandya 

This belongs to Jatavarman Sundara-Pandyadeva. This is badly damaged. It seems to register a sale of land to the temple. With his are found two other pieces of an inscription which may not however form part of this record. One of them mentions a certain Pichchan Tondan Vikrama-Pandya-panman the donor of some land to the temple of Tirumudukunaram-Udaiya-Nayanar. He figures in No. 136 below of Maravarman Kulasekhara I.

No. 150 (Page No 120)

(A. R. No. 150 of 1907)

Puvalaikkudi, Tirumayam Taluk, Tiruchirappalli District

Rock-cut cave—on the west wall of the same shrine

Jat. Sundara-Pandya (?) : year 17 

This is a record of Jatavarman Sundara-Pandya whose identity is not clear. This registers the appointment of three persons, Prakataganda, Marayan  and his two brothers Soran and Bhuman as uvchchar for providing music daily in the temple at Puvalaikkudi in Vadaparru (northern section ?) of Ponnamarapadi-nadu, and an endowment of land in perpetuity for their maintenance by the temple authorities and the urar of Kovanur.

No. 433 (Page No 329)

(A. R. No. 433 of 1907)  

Sinnamanaur, Periyakulam Taluk, Madurai District

Rajasimhesvara temple – on the same wall

Jat. Sundara-Pandya :  year 6 

This records the gift of the proceeds of imposts levied on certain export articles of merchandise like yarn, cloth, areca nut, pepper, turmeric and ginger, by the padinevishayattar of Nalunagaram and the taragar  (brokers) assembled in the tiruvolakka-mandapam of the temple of Tiruppulandurai-udaiya-Nayanar to meet the requirements of the sattuppadi and tirupparivattam (apparel) of the deity. 

No. 434 (Page No 330)

(A. R. No. 434 of 1907)  

Sinnamanaur, Periyakulam Taluk, Madurai District

Rajasimhesvara temple – on the same wall

Jat. Sundara-Pandya :  year 7 

The details of date are given as Makara, su. 3, Friday, Mrigasirsha which are however found to be irregular if we take the record to be assignable to Sundara Pandya of acc.  A.D. 1276.

The inscription records another gift of contribution by toll by the same mercantile bodies mentioned above for the maintenance of a flower-garden called in the temple mentioned in No. 430 above.

No. 459 (Page No 343)

(A. R. No. 459 of 1907)  

Periyakottai, Palani Taluk, Madurai District

Cholesvara temple – on the rock north of the shrine

Jat.  Sundara-Pandya : year 4 

This records a gift of 12 panam deposited with the Sivabrahmanas of the temple of Ariyapirattichchuramudaiyar, for offerings to the god on the day of Tiruvadirai in Margali month and for taking out the deity in procession, by one Nallamangaibagan piraisudum peruman, a vellala o Tiruppakkiyam (village ?) in Anda-nadu.

No. 469 (Page No 348)

(A. R. No. 469 of 1907)  

Periyakottai, Palani Taluk, Madurai District

Cholesvara temple – on the same wall

Jat. Sundara-Pandya :  year 29 

This seems to record a gift of land after purchase for offerings during the early morning service in the temple of Pandisuramudaiya-Nayanar at Alvankoil in Anda-nadu by one Sri Paranjoti Suryadevan of Kanaiyirukkai Solanallur of Pandimandalam.

Sundara-Pandya (unidentified )

No 58 (Page No 328)

(A. R. No. 58 of 1907.)

Kanippakkam , Chittoor Taluk, Chittoor district

Manikanthesvara temple --- on the south wall of the same shrine 

This is dated in the 1[9]th year of a Pandya king  Sundara-Pandyadeva, probably Jatavarman Sundara-Pandya (acc. A. D 1251.). It registers an endowment of some pieces of land as devadana by the Nattavar (assembly) to Tuy-nadu, for the celebration of a festival in honour of the Nayammars in both the temples of Prithvisvaram-udaiya-Nayar and Manivarnisuram-udaiya-Nayanar at Kavanippakkam, and for the expenses of a service called Pallavarayan-sandi in the latter temple.

No. 407 (Page No 328)

(A. R. No. 407 of 1907)  

Perungarunai, Mudukulattur Taluk, Ramnad District

Varadaraja-Perumala temple – on a second stone

built into the same base

Tribh. Sundara – Pandya : year 3 

This is also a fragment. It mentions Madura-udai-valanadu in Pandi-mandalam.

No. 417 (Page No 317)

(A. R. No. 417 of 1907)  

Periyakulam, Periyakulam Taluk, Madurai District

Kailasanatha temple – on the rock to the west 

This is damaged and is engraved partly in Grantha and partly in Tamil. It seems to record the gift of a land to provide for worship in the temple for the merit of king Sundara-raja by (his minister ?) Dvaravatipati, called in the Tamil portion, by the name Alagapperumal Sokkanar Anmaiyalagiyan alias Duvarapativelan.

No. 422 (Page No 322)

(A. R. No. 418 of 1907)  

Virapandi, Periyakulam Taluk, Madurai District

Kannisvara temple – on a stone lying near

Sundara-Pandya :  year 11+3 

This is an incomplete inscription stopping with the mention of the boundaries. It records a gift of 4 ma of land tax-free near the channel of Sivallavan-peranai (dam) (by order of the king?) to one Ennaiala-udaiyar, a disciple of Aghoradevar of the Amundar-madam and Sri Nandikesvara-santana.

Maravarman Vikrama-Pandya 

No. 90 (Page No 53)

(A. R. No. 90 of 1907.)

Kallidaikkurichchhi, Ambamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District

Nagesvaram-Udaiyar temple –on the south wall of the central shrine

Maravarman Vikrama- Pandya :year 7+4 

This inscription begins with historical introduction Tirumagl Jayamagal etc. The initial date of the king has been surmised to be A.D. 1269-70 in the Annual Report for 1917, Part II , para 10. It will be seen however from Nos. 91 and 97 below that this vikrama-Pandya has to be placed about a century earlier, and that he was very likely the predecessor of Jatavarman Kulasekhara who ascended the throne in A.D. 1190. He is referred to in No. 83 of 1927 a record of the latter from Tirunelveli as Periya-Nayanar.

The present epigraph registers a sale by the Maha-sabha of Rajaraia-chaturvedimangalam, of 61/2 ma of land at Marapparru Elivaram to the temple of Nilaiyudaiya-Pandiya-Isvarmudaiyar at Kalladaikkurichchi. The price of the land seems to have been fixed at 13kasu, to be paid to the assembly on behalf of the temple by one Virrirundan Puvandan of Kottaiyur. The reason for this is stated to be that the land did not get the benefit of the first (head) flow of the irrigation water, while that advantage probably went to the individual mentioned. Reference is made to the Exclusion from this transaction, of a land measuring 3 veli which had been gifted to the temple of Gramaraja- Vinnagar-Emberumap.

No. 91 (Page No 55)

(A. R. No. 91 of 1907.)

Kallidaikkurichchhi, Ambamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District

Nagesvaram-Udaiyar temple –on the same wall 

This is closely connected with No. 90 above, and records the grant of remission of antarayam and other taxes on the land purchased by the temple from the assembly (as recorded in No. 90 ), and the issue of the kelvi and ulvari documents to the temple containing the royal assent and the attestation of the same signed by his tax officers (Variyilar). Following the administrative procedure adopted in such cases of remission, the king who is introduced with the title Konerinmaikondan, was first informed of the purchase by his minister Kalingarayar while he was camping at Kalakkudi, and his consent was then conveyed to the temple with permission to get the document engraved both on stone and copper. The inscription is dated at the end in the 9th year plus 4th (with latter is also expressed exactly as the 1430th day ) of the king’s reign. It may be observed here that the revenue officers mentioned at the end of the epigraph, also figure in a clear record of Jatavaraman Kulasekhara I (No.97 of 1907 below) which is dated in the same year as this one. Hence this should be referred to Kulasekhara himself, with Vikrama-Pandya (of No. 90) as his predecessor.

No. 97 (A) (Page No 62)

(A. R. No. 97 (a) of 1907.)

Kallidaikkurichchhi, Ambamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District

Nagesvaram-Udaiyar temple –on the same wall 

This is an incomplete inscription dated in the 7+4th year of MaravaramanVikrama-Pandya (like No.90 above ), and recording the sale of 5 ½ ma of land by the assembly to the temple of Nalayira-Isvaramudaiyar. This land was also exempted from taxes by king Kulasekharadeva as recorded in No. 97, thus confirming the close succession in date of this ruler to Vikrama-Pandya as suggested under No.91.

No. 161 (Page No 129)

(A. R. No. 161 of 1907)

Peraiyur, Tirumayam Taluk, Tiruchirappalli District

Naganathasvami temple – on the same wall   

This belongs to the 5th year of Tribhuvana-chakravartin Vikraman-Pandyadeva. It is mutilated at the right end and seems to record a gift of land for forming a flower-garden for the temple by one Tiruvidaimarududaiyan a horse dealer of Malaimandalam.

No. 313 (Page No 223)

(A. R. No. 313 of 1907)

Tiruvidaimarudur, Kumbhakonam Taluk, Tanjavur District

Mahalingasvami temple – on the same gopura, left of entrance

Vikrama-Pandy  :  year 3 : 1285-86 A.D. 

This begins with the Sanskrit introduction Samasta-bhuvanaikavira etc. of  Maravarman Vikrama-Pandya whose date of accession was 1283 A.D. It is dated in the 226th day of his 3rd regnal year.  In this panegyric Vikrama claims to have been a friend of the Kerala, and a foe of the Chola, Lanka kings, an overlord of chiefs Kshemesvara, Narasimha-Kataka Vira Gandagopala and the Kakatiya Ganapati and to have crowned himself at Kanchipura. The inscription is damaged after the 8th line, and seems to register a gift of 30 veli of land as devadana-iraiyili for the expenses of worship and offerings to the deity during the daily service in the temple instituted in the name of the king, and on same special festival days every month. The lands are stated to be situated at Tirumangalam and other villages. 

No. 423 (Page No 323)

(A. R. No. 423 of 1907)  

Virapandi, Periyakulam Taluk, Madurai District

Kannisvara temple – on a second stone in the same place

Vikrama-Pandya :  year 5 

This states that the kandam and pattigai of the mandapa of the Kannudai-yichchuramudaiya-Nayanar at Pullur (Virapandi?) was the contribution of one Marakatapperumal, a devaradiyal of the temple. 

No. 425  (Page No 324)

(A. R. No. 425 of 1907)  

Virapandi, Periyakulam Taluk, Madurai District

Kannisvara temple – on a fourth stone in the same place

Vikrama-Pandya : year 5+1 

This is a fragment with only the first five lines preserved.  It mentions Pulinallur in Ala-nadu and one Tondaimanar.

No. 426 (Page No 324)

(A. R. No. 426 of 1907)  

Virapandi, Periyakulam Taluk, Madurai District

Kannisvara temple – on the fifth stone in the same place

Vikrama-Pandya : year 5+1 

This is an incomplete inscription probably intended to record some gift to the temple of Kannudai-Ichchuramudaiya-Nayanar at Pullinallur in Ala-nadu of the tirumadaiviliagam of the temple of Mulattanamudaiya-Nayanar at Tenkallaga-nadu.

Parakrama-Pandya

 

No. 437 (Page No 333)

(A. R. No. 437 of 1907)  

Sinnamanaur, Periyakulam Taluk, Madurai District

Lakshminarayana temple – on the south wall

Tribh.  Parakrama-Pandya :  year 15 

The king might possibly be Jatavarman Parakrama I of acc. A.D. 1315. The inscription records a gift of 120 kasu left with three temple servants for burning a perpetual lamp in the temple of Naduvirkoyil-Perumal at Arikesarinallur by a certain Mochcharaman Anantanarayanan of Tirupputtur.

Srivallabha

No. 507 (Page No 384)

(A. R. No. 507 of 1907)  

Madurai, Madurai Taluk, Madurai District

Madanagopala temple – on the 13th stone in the same place

Tribh. Srivallabha – year 3 

This records a gift of land after purchase, as madappuram by queen Ulagamulududaiyar. The name of the temple is not given, neither the details of the land.

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