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Sunday, February 25, 2007


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 

Part - III

Miscellaneous Inscriptions From the Tamil Country

XII.- Inscriptions of Rajakesarivarman, Madiraikonda Rajakesarivarman or Gandaraditya


No. 111 to 112 Adimulesvara temple at Tiruppalatturai

No. 113 to 115 Ghritasthanesvara, Dandisvara & Adhipurisvara temples

No. 116 to 118 Dandisvara at Velachcheri, Vishnu temple at Tirumalpuram

No. 111.—  ON THE NORTH WALL OF THECENTRAL SHRINE IN THE ADIMULESVARA TEMPLE AT TIRUPPALATTURAI[1]

This inscription is dated in the 8th year of Rajakesarivarman and registers a grant of land to the Siva temple at Tiruppanambudur which was a hamlet of Uttamasili-chaturvedimangalam, by Tappiladaram Pallavaraiyan alias Kilmandur Paruvur, a perundaram of prince (pillaiyar) Arikulakesarideva.  The land granted was made tax-free by the village assembly.

The inscription is engraved on the walls of the stone temple at Tiruppatturai, i.e., the modern Tiruppalatturai which is quite close to Uttamasili, —  the Uttamasili-chaturvedimangalam of the inscription, evidently so called after prince Uttamasili, a probable son of Parantaka I., not mentioned in the Tiruvalangadu plates.  Of the two names Virasrikamugavadi and Arinjigaivaykkal mentioned among the boundaries of the land granted, the latter was probably named after prince Arikulakesarideva.

Arikulakesarideva is identical with the Arikulakesarin of the Tirukkoyilur record of Parakesarivarman Parantaka I.[2]   Professor Kielhorn thinks that this Arikulakesarin is the same as Arinjaya, one of the sons of Parantaka I., mentioned in the large Leyden grant.[3] If this is correct, the king Rajakesarivarman of our inscription who was ruling at that time must evidently be Rajakesarivarman Gandaraditya.[4]

Perundaram or Perundanam is already known as a title of high rank from the Tanjore inscriptions.

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 8th year of (the reign of) king Rajakesarivarman, Tappildaram Pallavaraiyan alias Kilmandur Paruvur (one) of the Perundarm of prince (pillaiyar) Arikulakesarideva, gave (the following) land as a gift for the maintenance of thesacred central shrine (tiruvunnaligaipuram) for sacred offerings to the (god) Paramesvara (Siva) of Tiruppanambudur  (hamlet) of the prosperous Uttamasili-chaturvedimangalam, a brahmadeya on the southern bank[5] ; (viz.,) –

(L. 3.)  The land (consisting) of 2 ma excluding manilai[6] and ˝ ma of mannilai, (both) purchased by me from Vengai Ilaiya-Rudrakumara-Kramavittan and (situated) to the west of the (path called) Virasrikamugavadi and to the south of (the channel called) Arinjigaivaykkal and (which is the) utkurai[7] of this village; one ma (of land given) by Kumara – Kramavittan of this village to be enjoyed along with above as (a gift) for sacred offerings and for (the maintenance of) worshippers (archanabhoga) of the (god) Paramesvara (Siva) of Tiruppanambudur; and ˝ ma which I purchased from the wife of Narayanan Dasapuriyan of Kuttur and gave out of the 2 ma (of land situated) to the east of this vadi  (and formed) the fifth padagam of the sadukkam owned by Sannamandai-Kramavittan and others of Dvedaigomapuram[8].  Thus (were given) these 4 ma of cultivable land (sey).

(L. 7.) (the gift of) these 4 ma of cultivable land was given by both of us as long as the moon and the sun (endure) to the (god) Paramesvara (Siva) of Tiruppanambudur, after having (the gift) engraved on stone in the sacred stone temple of Tiruppatturai.

(L. 8.) We, (the members) of the big assembly, made this land tax-free as long as the moon and the sun (endure).  We, (the members) of the big assembly, declared that (the assembly of) Mahesvaras could themselves decide upon and collect any (fine) they choose for (i.e., on behalf of) the king from (such of us) as might order the levying of taxes on this land or those as were present in the assembly on the occasion or those as might enter the taxes (in the books).  (The assembly of) all Mahesvaras  shall protect this (charity).

No. 112.—  ON THE NORTH WALL OF THE CENTRAL SHRINE IN THE ADIMULESVARA TEMPLE AT TIRUPPALATTURAI[9]

This is again a record of Rajakesarivarman dated in his 8th year and is in some respects similar to the preceding number.  It records that the assembly of Uttamasili-chaturvedimangalam, having received ten kasu as tax-money from Tappildaram Pallavaraiyan alias Kilmandur Paruvur, the donor of No. 111 and a perundaram of alvar Arikulakesarideva, made the land one ma and odd, granted by him to the Siva temple at Tiruppanambudur, tax-free for all time to come.  Like the previous inscription, this record also authorizes the imposition of a fine on the members and the accountants of the assembly who might suggest the levying of a tax on the land.  The epithet alvar  which is applied to Arikulakesarideva in this inscription is perhaps a term of respect, as pillaiyar in the previous inscription was one of endearment.

Of the names mentioned in the description of the boundaries, the pathway called Kodandaramavadi may have been so named after Kodandarama Rajaditya, the eldest son of king Parantaka I or the latter’s father Aditya I.

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 8th year of (the reign of) king Rajakesarivarman, we, (the members of) the big assembly of the prosperous Uttamasili-chaturvedimangalam, a brahmadeya on the southern bank (of the Kaveri)[10], having received in this year as iraikaval  ten kasu from Tappildaram Pallavaraiyan alias Kilmandur Paruvur of the perundaram of alvar  Arikulakesarideva, on account of the land of the (god) Paramesvara (Siva) of Tiruppanambudur, which was the utkurai of this village, —  the land (measuring) one ma and odd including excess or deficiency (line measurement) and situated within (the) following (boundaries) ; —  to the south of (the channel called) Sridevivaykkal (which was) to the west of (the path called) Virasrikamugavadi; to the north of (the channel called) Paantakavaykkal (which irrigates) the first sadiram from the north, of the fifth kannaru[11] (counting) from the east; to the east of (the path called) Kodandaramavadi and to the west of the kannaru to the south of the tenth padagam in the sadukkam belonged to Nottur Attona-chaturvedibhattan and others.

(L. 11.) (We) exempted this one ma and odd of land from payment of taxes and ordered that this land be (registered) tax-free as long as the moon and the sun (endure) ; and we, (the members) of the big assembly had this (deed) engraved on stone : —  (also ordered that the assembly of) all Mahesvaras  could themselves collect for (i.e., on behalf of) the king mentioned above[12] any (fine in) gold they choose from (such of us) as may order the levying of taxes on this land or those who may enter (any) tax (in the accounts).  (The assembly of) all Mahesvaras shall protect this (charity).


[1]  No. 570 of 1908.

[2]  Epigraphia Indica, Vol. VII, p.141.

[3]  In the Tiruvorriyur inscription (No. 104) above, the same prince is actually called Arindigai-Perumanar.

[4]  The Director-General’s Archaeological Survey Report  for 1908-09, page 122.

[5]  Evidently of the river Kaveri.

[6]  The meaning of this word is not apparent.  It must indicate a particular class of land.

[7]  The revenue term utkurai is composed of ul and kurai which signifies the deduction of the lands in question from within the village.  Perhaps the utkurai-lands were not subject to any assessment.

[8]  Same as Vedagomapuram.

[9]  No. 574 of 1908.

[10] See above, page 247, footnote 3.

[11]  This word which has been taken to mean a field in the previous volumes appears to convey the sense of a sub-channel.

[12]  In place of Munthuttra of this inscription, we find in other records the phrase – Annal “the then reigning”

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