XIX - INSCRIPTIONS
Aditya’s son Madhurantakan Irukkuvel alias Achchan
(Adityan) Vikrama Kessari figures in two inscriptions from
Kudumiyamalai (Nos. 413 and 414) dated in the 21st year of the king,l
wherein he is stated to have endowed a village called Marudangudi for
all the requirements of the temple at Tirunalakkunram (Kudumiyanmalai).
436 from the same place dated in the 33rd year of Parakesari
(Parantaka) introduces as donor a certain officer by name Mayilai Tidan alias
Avantiyakova-Pallavaraiyan of Pudukkudi in Urattur-kurram.
This person is already familiar to us from a record (S.I.I. VIII,
No. 694) of the 3rd year of Rajakesarivarman (Gandaraditya)
where he is stated to have obtained the permission of Virasola
Ilangovelar alias Parantakan Kunjaramallan mentioned
above, for bringing a land under cultivation before making a grant of it
to the temple.
seem to have been more than one person bearing the tile Virasola
Ilangovel. A record of
Parakesari’s 10th year (No. 249) from Uyyakkondan Tirumalai
(Tiruchirapalli district) registers a gift of sheep to the temple by one
Peranana Viranarayanan alias Sembiyan Marayan who is referred to
an an officer (perundanam) under Virasola Ilangovelar of
Kodumbalur without mentioning the chief’s proper name.
Taking this Parakesari as referring to Parantaka I we may equate
Virasola-Ilangovelar with the chief of that tile or name figuring in a
record of the 28th year of the same king from Tiruppalatturai
(S.I.I. VIII, No. 566) and with Virasola Ilangovelar Adittan
Tiruvorriyauradigal of another record (Ibid No. 632) from
Tiruchendurai dated in the king’s 23rd year.
He was possibly a brother of Adittan Bhuti alias Madhurantakan
Irukkuve; already mentioned. And
it is likely that the latteer had a son also called Virasola-Ilangovel alias
Orri Madhurantakan (Ibid, No. 611) whose sons again were Parantaka
(Ibid No. 676) and Madhurantakan (Ibid, No. 611) whose sons again were
Parantak (Ibid No. 676) and Madhurantakan Achchapidaran, the donor
mentioned in No. 33 of Volume XIII of the time of Rajaraja I.
The relationship of all the members of this dynasty so far
mentioned, as surmsed above (and one or two others also) may be
expressed in the following provisional genealogical table for easy
Click here to
Arinjaya the son of Parantaka is known to have had a rule of only
two years, (the next Parakesari) Aditya II Karikala also had a
brief reign, and hence the inscriptions of their period are very limited
in number. Even of these
the records of the latter between the 2nd and 5th
years of his reign invariably refer to him with the attribute
“Parakesarivarman who took the head of the Pandya (or Vira-Pandya)”,
and it is therfore doubtful if any inscriptions of Parakesarivarman
without that appelation can be assigned to his reign.
about 80 epigraphs included in this volume dated in the 2nd
year of Parakesarivarman, only 20 seem to belong to Arinjaya.
Most of these are records of gifts to temples made by members
of different military groups or regiments called after the surnames
or titles of Parantaka I and his son Rajaditya who predeceased his
father, having been killed in battle. These are the Singalantaka-terinda-Kaikkolar (Nos. 3 and 21),
the Dantatonga-terinda-Kaikkolar (No. 13), the the
Parantaka-terinda-Kaikkolar (No. 17) and the Muttavalperra-Kaikkolar
(Nos. 18 and 19).
3 gives the interesting information of the dedication of a sword with
its hilt made of sandal-wood (srikhandam) to the god at
Tiruvidaimarudur by a soldier named Mutti Tirunaranan.
A similar gift of a sword by one Arikulakesari-Vilupparaiyan is
also recorded in another inscription (No. 438 of 1908) engraved on a
pillar in the temple at Tiruvilimilai which has been referred to in a
previous paragraph in another connection.
persons Araiyan Vengadavan and Devadi Vidyaparan who ae said to have
belonged to Muttavalperra-Kaikkolar regiment figure as donors in
Nos. 18 and 19 from Udaiyargudi. The
same regiment is mentioned in a later record of the time of Uttama-Chola
also from Kanchipuram (No. 365). The
name of this body suggests the conferment of some special honour like
the presentation of a sword by the king on a company of experienced
soldiers for their efficiency or valour.
prominent person of this reign who figures as donor of land in two
inscriptions from Tiruppalanam (Nos. 30 and 31) was Adittan Viman of
Kumarapadi in Kalatturkottam who is called the chief (araiyan) of
Andurai. He is believed to
have been the father of Viman Kundavaiyar the queen of Arinjaya.
(M.E.R. 1928, II, 3)
11 from Udaiyargudi records a gift to the temple by Sembiyan Mahadeviyar
who is referred to as the queen of Gandaradityadeva “who was pleased
to go west” probably signifying his death as a recent event still
fresh in the memory of the people.
She is also called in the inscription the daughter of
Malavaraiyar a chief of Malanadu family which has been mentioned in a
authorities of the temple of Tirukkilkottattu-Perumanadigal at
Tirukkudamukkil (the present Nagesvarasvami temple at Kumbhakonam) are
said to have purchased in the 2nd year of the king (Arinjaya)
a quarter veli of land from the Mula-parishat (assembly)
of that place out of the land which had been presented to them as abhisheka-dakshimai
or coronation present (No. 6).
Two inscriptions of Rajakesarivarman (Gandaraditya) from the same
place (Vol. XIII, Nos. 44 and 46 also speak of veli of land at
Arisalur as obtained by the sabha as abhisheka-dakshinai.
It finds mention again in aninscription of the 11th
year of Utttama-Chola (No. 95) where it is stated that a portion of this
abhisheka-dakshinai land was sold to a lady at Tanjavur who
endowed it to the temple on behalf (in memory) of her son Kari Kolamban
of the Gandaraditta-terinda-Kaikkola regiment.
More than 200 inscriptions of this volume can be assigned to the reing
of Uttama-Choladeva. A
feature noticeable in some inscriptions of this king is the endowments
made for the various temples to provide for the worship of the gods on
special occasions like the sankranti when they were batched with
108 pots of water (brought from the river mostly) before offerings were
made to them (Nos. 235, 341, 379, 409).
In some temples several persons ere fed inaddition on these days
of the royal family figure as donors in some inscriptions, prominent
among them being the queen mother Sembiyan-mahadeviyar after whom a
village has been named in the Nagapattinam taluk.
She is stated to have built the temple of Kailasanatha at that
place (No. 379) to which gifts were made by her, her daughters-in-law
and others for special worship to the deity on the days of Kettai in the
month of Chittirai whch was hr natal star (Nos. 311 and 458).
Five queens of UttamaChola are mentioned in No. 311.
Orattanan or Urattayana Solabbaiyar alias Tribhuvana-Mahadevi
also called his agra-mahishi (No. 141), viranaraniyar (No. 323),
Gopan Sakappu (No. 407) and Aruran Amabalattadigalar or
Ponnambalattadigalar (Nos. 257, 404 and 405) are his other queens
mentioned as donors. The
last of these is said to have endowed ao land as tiruchchennadaippuram
to goddess Madhurantakan Uma-Bhattaraki in the temple at
Tirukkolambiyur, fondly refferred to by the queen as her “daughter”
(No. 404). Kannapparasiyar alias
Sonna (Svarna) Mahadevi (No. 383) is another donor who might be his
queen though not specifically mentioned as such.
the other ladies mentioned in a few inscriptions one was Arinjigai Keni
“the daughter of Mutta-Udaiyar” (No. 55) She is probably the same as
Arinjigai-Piratti the daughter of Arikulakesari referred to in the
previous volume (Vol. XIII, Intr. P. V), as having been married to a
Bana chief. Still other
members whose benefactions are recorded are Tennavan-Mahadevi “the
queen of Rajakesarivarman” equated with Sundara-chola.
(No. 269), and Nakkan tilaiyalagiyar (No 260) probably the same
as Panchavan-Mahadeviyar queen of Rajaraja I.
gift of gold by princess Irayiravan Devi Ammanar consort of
Anaimerrunjinar (prince Rajaditya) made for worship to the images of Sri
Krishna and Rukmini in the temple at Tiruvellarai is recorded in No. 196
of this volume dated in the 8th year of the king who could be
only Uttama-Chola. The
inscription has been published in S.I.I Vol. III (No. 132).
A reference to a temple of Krishna (Dvara[ato-Paramasvami)
at Udaiyargudi is contained in No. 400 dated in the king’s 16th
year, where it is recorded, that a hundred persons were fed daily with
the endowment of a village called Nindanallu, about 20 veli in
extent, made by two merchants Tiruvarangadeva and his brother Aiyanadeva
in memory of their uncle Dasanagan Nindan.
consecration of an image of Suryadeva in the temple at
Udaiyargudi and provision for the maintenance of two lamps before the
deity by prince. Kundavaiyar
is recorded in No. 306, This
was very likely the queen of Arinjayaand daughter of Aidttan Viman of
Andurai mentioned above. She
was evidently the mother of Sundara-Chola whose daughter was also called
Kundaviyar. The pious wife
of Vandyadefvar and sister of Rajaraja I celebrated in the Tanjavur
inscriptions. Other references to the worship of Sun-God or gifts of lamps
for the deity are found in three more inscriptions. In no. 222 from Tiruppalatturai a certain Murtti Manaviran of
Pirambil in Pattina-Kurram is said to have endowed some land for daily
offerings and worship to the image of Surya set up by him in the temple.
A gift of sheep for a lamp before Suryadeva in the temple at
Vriddhachalam is recorded in another inscription (No. 303).
In No. 325 from the same place the Urar of Nerkuppai are
said to have made a grant of some dry land for oferings to this deity,
the donor in the previous inscription agreeing to convert the same into
inscription from Tirumananjeri (Tanjavur dist.) dated in the 4th
year of Parakesari No. 99) who might be either Parantaka or Uttama-Chola,
records the presentation of some requisites of worship to the tempe by a
merchant (soliyavaniyan) by name Mundan Arangan alias
Mayiletti seems to have been an appellation borne by
members of the merchant class. In
a record of Parthivendravarman (S.I.I. III, No. 170) mention is
made of a certain Chandiran Elunurruvan Nulamba-Mayiletti who is
referred to as a merchat of Ranavirappadi in Kanchipuram.
An inscription of Rajaraja’s 14th year (Vol. XIII,
No. 241) also refers to a merchant by name Achchan Uraiyur alias Soliyavaraiya-Mayiletti.
merchant community called the Disai-ayirattainnurruvar play an
important part in the affiars recorded in 4 inscriptions dated between
the 2nd and 14th year of Parakesari (Uttama-Chola).
Portions of the mandapa in
the temple at Tiruvidaimarudur are said to have been the gift of a
regiment called the Kaikkolaperumadai who named them after their
elders (achchamar) the Tigai (Disai) Ayirattainurravar.
Similarly an endowment of land was made to the temple at
Tiruvilakkudi (No. 170) by a merchant by name Sankayan Manran alias Nanadesiya
Eduttapada-Muttasetti who placed it in charge of the
Disai-Ayirattainurruvar of that place.
A body of the same name is said to have made a gift t th temple
at Vedaranyam on behlaf of a merchant of Karuvur by name Senan
Marataksetti (No. 216). Lastly
an inscription at Tiruvilakkudi (No. 459) records the construction (or
renovation ?) of a portion of the stone temple by the Valanjiyar and
Nanadesiya Disaiyayirattaninurruvar who are said to be part
residents of this place (having temporary sojourn) and the completion of
the same on their behalf by one Tirukkarralippichchan (also mentioned in
No. 355). It would appear
from all these that this class was an organisation of 1, 500 families
spread over different countries for purposes of trade an dknit together
by some social regulations. They
seem to have been connectected with the Valanjiyar (No. 459) who had
settlements in South Ceylon (M.E.R. 1927, II, 46).
It is not known however whether they had any relation with the Manigramam
guild of merchants mentioned in No. 417 from Kuttalam (Tirunelveli)
of the reign of Parantaka and in Volume XIII, Nos. 26 and 28.
This guild figures in inscriptions from very early times and
seems to have been wielding great influence not only in their own
home-country of South India but also over a wide area of the world
outside, in which they had their trading establishments.
Paluvurnakkan is already familiar to us an an officer of great
influence under Mummudi-Chola Rajaraja I (Volume XIII, Intro. P. VIII).
He figures in six inscriptions included in the present series
which are ascribable to his predecessor Uttama-Chola.
Like his two records of the previous volume these are also from
Govindaputtur in the Tiruchirappalli district.
A bi-lingual inscription in Sanskrit and Tamil of the 14th
year of the king (No. 357) states that he hailed from Kuvalalam (Kolar),
that he was nobleman of the king’s council, and had been conferred the
title Vikramachola-Maharaja after the surname of his overlord who
was greatly pleased with his valour.
He built of stone the srivimanam of the temple.
In an inscription of the king’s 10th year (No. 272)
he is stated to have made a gift of sheep for a perpetual lamp in the
temple in the company of another donor Andanattu Malavar who
presented twice that number. The
latter is evidently the same as Senni Nambiyar of No. 237 already
noticed. Ambalavan’s two
wives Aparayitan Seyyavaymani (No. 333) and Singapanman Kanchi Akkan
(No. 334) also made donations to the same temple.
Siva temple at tirukkodikaval (Tanjavaur dist) seems to have been
originally a brick structure. When
the central shrine was constructed of stone some time int eh 11th
year of Uttama-Chola by order of the queen mother Sembiyan-Mahadevi
(No. 292) the several records of enodowments of earlier times which had
been incised on separate stone slabs were re-engraved on the new temple
walls. One such document
was the present one registering a gift of money for a lamp made in the
4+9th year of the Pandya king Maran Sadiayan (Varaguna-Maharaja)
and entrusted to the assembly at Mahendra-Kottur.
Accordingly we find all the inscriptions of this place prior to
th ime of Uttama-Chola clearly stated to be copies of older records
which, being of no further use, were cancelled (destroyed).
Another notable family of chieftains who were intimately connected with
the Cholas for generation from king Parantaka I, are the Paluvettaraiyars
who had their feudal estateround about the present Kila-Paluvur in the
Udaiyarpalayam taluk of the Tiruchirapalli district. There were responsible for a number of benefactions to the
temples at this place and at Mela-Paluvur close by, the two being known
as Siru-Paluvur and Mannu-Perumaluvur respectively. About a dozen records pertaining to this dynasty were
included in the volume of Rajakesarivarman Inscriptions (S.I.I. Vol.
XIII) and the present volume also contains some 15 epigraphs in which
was made above to Paluvettaraiyar Kandan Amudanar the victor over the
Pandya in the battle at Vellur. Two inscriptions assigned to Gandaraditya in the previous
volume spoke of a certain Tappildharma Pallavaraiyan as an officer under
prince Arikulakesari (Volume XIII, No. 177 and 181); and he was equated
with Paluvettaraiyar Kodandan Tappildharman who is mentioned in NO. 23
of the present collection, from Udaiyargudi, dated in the 2nd
year of Parakesarivarman (Arinjaya).
This Tappildharman was very likely a son of Kandan Amudanar.
other members of the family mentioned in the previous volume were
Kanadau maravan, Maravan kandan and Kumaran Maravan.
The present volume contains besides these, the names of a few
Maravan figures in two inscriptions, dated in the 4th and 7th
years of Rajakesarivarmna identified with Rajaraja I (Volume XIII, Nos.
98 and 171), and is also mentioned in two epigraphs of the 15th
and 16th year os Parakesarivarman Uttama-Chola (Nos. 378 and
403 of this volume). Similaraly
records are found of Maravan kandan covering about the same period in
the 10th and 12th years of Rajakesarivarmn
Sundara-chola (Volume XIII, Nos. 208 and 215) and between the 9th
and 15th years of Parakesari Uttama-Chola (Nos. 237, 273 and
384 of this volume). It appears as though these two chiefs were brothers
who is stated in a record of the 12th year of Parakesari (Uttma-chola)
from Udaiyargudi to have made a gift of land to the temple on behalf of
his own younger brother Kandan Satrubhayankaran (No. 305).
It is alo likely that he was known by the name Vikramaditya,
whose wife Raman Koviyar is recorded to have made a gift of sheep for a
lamp to th temple at Kila-Paluvur in the 8th year
Uttama-Chola Parakesari (No. 212)
Maravan mentioned in a rcord of the 22nd year of
Rajakesarivarman Rajaraja I (Volume XIII, No 298) and in Nos. 146 and
172 of this series, dated in the 5th and 6th years
of Parakesari (Uttama) was in all probability the same as Kandan Maravan.
In no. 172 of Parakesari’s 6th year which is from
Tiruppalanam, mention is made of a gift jointly mae with KumaranMaravan
by one Tippanja-alagiyan Maravan.
Malavar chief Kongani Senni-Nambiyar (No. 237) who is stated to have
made a gift of land to the temple at Kila-Paluvur in the 9th
year of the king calls himself the maternal uncle of maravan Kandan.
It is of interest to note here that Sembiyan Mahadeviyar the
mother of Uttama-Chola calls herself the daughter of a
Mala-Perumanadigal who was possibly the same as this Senni-Nambiyar.
In that case the queen and the two elder Paluvettaraiyar chiefs
would be related to each other as cousins.
The Chedi Chiefs of Miladu or Malanadu were another ancient
dynasty of minor rulers exercising authority over portions of the
present South Arcot District, round about Tirukkoyilur.
They were related to the Chola family both by ties of allegiane
and of marriage. Siddhavadavan
Suttiyur a princess of Miladu family was one of the queens of
Uttama-Chola and is said to have made a gift of land to th temple at
Tiruvisalur (Tanjavur dt.) in a record of Rajaraja’s 3rd
year (Volume XIII, Intr.p. VIII). She
has been surmised to be a daughter or sister of the chief Raman
Siddhavadavan alias Vikramasola-Miladudaiyar who had married a
Pandya princess. Three
inscriptions in the present collection which are all dated in the 11th
year of the king are from the Tanjavur district.
Nos. 287 and 295 record gifts of sheep to the temples at
Tiruppalanam and Tiruchchatturai by one Chedi-Mahadeviyar, wife of
Siddhavadattadial of Maladu, no specific name of either of them
being given. The donor
mentioned in the third inscription (No. 293) which is from
Tiruppundurutti, is called SiddhavadavanGamundadevan, chief of
Miladu, probably the Siddhavadattadigal of the other two records.
No. 293 would then have to be assigned to Uttama-Chola and not to
Parantak I as has been surmised in the Text portion. He was probably the
father of Raman Siddhavadavan mentioned above.
Muttaraiyar chiefs after being dispossessed of their domain by
the Cholas seem to have settled down as their vassals and continued as
such under the successive kings. We
have seen two chiefs Perumbidugu Muttariyar and Muttariyar Nambi
Manatongalar mentioned in a record of Aditya I in the previous Volume
(Volume XIII, No. 288). Two
more chiefs are met with in the inscriptions of the present collection. No. 61 from Udaiyargudi dated in the 3rd year of
the king records a gift of god for a lamp in the temple by a lady named
Panchavan-Mahadevi who is called the araisi of Arayiyan
Mahimalayan alias Parantaka-Muttaraiyan.
From the other epigraph, dated in the 13th year of
Parakesari (No. 331), we learn that a certain Araiyan Sankaranarayanana alias
Sola-Muttaraiyar built a temple to Sri Kailayattu-Alvar at
Govindaputtur with due provision made by endowments of Land for daily
and special worship to the god.
Koyil-Mayilai of Siringan who is known from inscriptions of
Aditya II Karikala from Tiruvidaimarudur and Kumbhakonam (Nos. 154 of
1895 and 233 of 1911) under the title Parantaka-Muvendavelar finds
prominent mention as an adhikari in a few records of Uttama-Chola
also, in this volume. He
seems to have got the appellation Madhurantaka-Muvendavelan in
theis reign after the king’s surname.
No. 130 from Tirukkarugavur dated in the 5th year of
the king gives the information that on the representation made to the
king by one Singan Kaliyan alias Uttamasola-Muvendravelan of
Kommaippakkam, a plot of 3 veli of land which was found in excess
of the requirement of 40 veli which had been endowed for th
temple at Tiruvalanjuli, was now withdrawn and granted to the temple at
apportionment of the yield from this land, amounting to 710 kalam of
paddy, for the several purposes in the temple was entrusted to Koyil
Mailai and to another adhikari by name Sattan Pasupati alias Kaliyan
Tandesvaran. Koyil Mayilai
figures in another inscription dated in the 6th year, which
is from Tiruvidaimarudur (No. 162) transacting a purchase of land on
behalf of the temple from the assembly of Tiraimur.
181 from the same place (Tiruvidaimarudur)
dated in the 7th year of the king, states that during te
regime of Madhurantaka-Muvendavelar (Koyil Mayilai) veli of land
was granted to the temple for the maintenance of a musican who was to
sing the desi songs before the God while seated in olakkam in
the hall (on festival occasions). Reference
is made in the same inscription to a previous gift of the 30th
year of arantaka made to (the temples of) Mahadeva and
Talaikkoli-Vinnagar Vishnukkal. Talaikkoli
is a term of distinction in music and is frequently met with in
inscriptions being affixed to thenames of ladies. In No. 283 a gift of
gold for a lamp in the Udaiyargudi temple is said to have been made by a
certainnakkan Piratamadevi alias Mummudisola-Talaikoli daughter
of one Sri-Arurttevanar.
of land made to some ersons for performing what is called the vaigarai-attam
in the temples are recorded in two fragmentary inscriptions (Nos.
254 and 344) dated in the 10th and 14th years of
the king, one coming from Tiruvenkadu and the other from
Tiruvidaimarudur. By vaigarai
is meant the early day-break, but it is not clear whether it has any
connection with the waking service of the deity before sun-rise. Sakkaikkuttu a kind of dance-drama seems to have
formed part of worship in temples on special occasions and is referred
to in a good number of inscriptions (M.E.R. 1915, II, 22).
In a record from Kila-Paluvur (No. 171) it is stated that an
allotment was made of some gold, paddy and pair of clothes to resident
of Alaiyur for enacting 3 parts of Sakkaikuttu in the temple on
the day of festival occurring the in the asterism Asvini in Aippigai
Semban Arulan Uttamanidhi alias Uttamasola-Muvendavelan is stated
(in No. 359) to have contructed the temple of Sivalokattu-Mahadeva at
Gandaraditya-chatur-vedimangalam (Kandaradittam) and made provision for
all the requirements of worship. For
this purpose he seems to have purchased from one Porkumara-Kramavittan a
member of the Alunganam of Venganagar his share of the right of
worhsip with its appurtenances of land, house and other privilegws (like
sravana, idukuru and padukuru) and made it over to the temple
evidently for conferment on a new appointee.
In an earlier inscription (No. 335) the original holder of this
share is referred to as sasana-baddha.
This expression which occurs also in No. 373 from
tiruvandarkoyil near Pondicherry, saeems to mean some bond of service
executed by the beneficiaries, the exact nature of which is not clear.
We learn from two other inscriptions, from Tirukkarugavur (Nos.
326 and 376) of endowments of lands made by Semban Arulan, for the needs
of worship and for the maintenance of nine persons for music during the
several services in the temple.
Marasingan alias Virasekhara-Muvendavelan of Gunamalappadi in
Nallarrur-nadu (Nos. 107, 191, 312 and 354) and Tiruvadigal Aiyanadi alias
Sembiyan Vesalippadi-Muvendavelan of Sirvuvelur in Ilaiyur-nadu (Nos.
139, 189 and 236) are two other prominent donors in this reign to the
temples at Tiruvilakkudi (called Tiruvelvikkudi in inscriptions) and at
Koyil tevaradyanpettai. Besides
these cheifs and officers we come across a dozen more names of nobles or
officials having titles like Muvendavelar, Nadalvar, Peraraiyan,
Pallavaraiyan, Brahmadhirajar etc. attahced to their names indicating
their position or designation
About 30 inscriptions in the collection may be assigned to kings Rajendra-Chola
I and Vikram-Chola on account of their later writing or other
internal evidence. On a
rock to the west of the temple at Tirthamalai in the Salem District are
engraved two inscriptions which are bothe damaged.
They are dated in the 4th year of Parakesarivarman who
may be taken to be the same as Rajendra-Chola Both of them record gift
of gold for lamps in the temple of KudalAlvar by a certain Aiyan
Viramadeviyar of Perunkunram wife of Mummudichcholaperumal-Devar.
(Nos. 85 and 86). This
might be a reference to a local chief of that name.
A queen of Rajendra Chola seems to have been known also as
Viramadevi (No. 260 of 1915). An
inscription of the same year of Parakesari from Tiruvidamarudur (No. 92)
also mentions a Viramadeviyar, who might be different.
is made of a market place at Tanjavur called Tribhuvanamadevi-perangadi
after a queen of Rajaraj, in No.24 of the 2nd year of
Parakaesari. A member of a
regiment known as Arumolideva-terinda-Kaikkolar figures as a donor in
another inscription of the same year from Tiruppalanama (No. 29) Vanavan
Korran Arumoli (No. 73), Rajendrasola-Muvendavelar (No. 43) and
Sandirasan (Chandraditya) Satturugandan of Varampursal (No. 248) are
other persons of some note in this reign.
The last mentioned is referred to as having the menayakam administration
over the Tiraimur-nadu.
inscription of the 6th year of Parakesari from Tiruvarur (No.
158) probably of this period, registers a gift of gold entrusted to the
Nagarattar of the place by one Devan Arubattunavalan, for burnig a lamp
before the image of Tiruvaraneri Mahadeva-Bhattaraka in the
temple. The name of the
deity is reminiscent of th legendary Chola king Manuniti-Chola associated
record of the 2nd year of Parakesarivarman from Udaiyargudi
probably assignable to the reign of Vikrama Chola is No. 14 which
records a gift of gold for a lamp to th etemple by one Aiyaran Sendan alias
Nikalanka-Muvendavelan of Vesalippadi.
Of the same period are two inscriptions from Siddhalingamadam in
the South Arcot district, which mention the Miladu chief.
(See para 9 baove). No.
94 dated in the 4th year of the king registers an endowment
of land to the temple made by Rajamahendran Rajendrasolan of Miladu, probably
so-called after the surname ‘Rajendra-Chola’ borne by vikrama. It is
probably the same chief who is called Vadavan Rajendran in later
inscription of the 10th year (No. 250) wherein he is stted to
have endowed both land and money to privide for the sacred bath and
offerings to have deity on all sankramana days and occasions
of.eclipse, for the maintenance of the priests and for other
requirements in the temple.
an inscription the 8th year of the king from Govindaputtur
(No. 214) the temple authorities of the place are stated to have paid a
lump-sum of 230 kalanju of gold towards the (annual) payment to
the State pm their behalf, of taxes like kudimai, silvari etc. on
121 and odd veli of devadana land by Perunguri-Perumakkal
who received the amount.A similar transaction is recorded in No. 391
from turaiyur dated in the 15+1styear,
last year of the king, in which the Urar of that village
(corresponding to the Sabha or Perunguri) bound themselves
to the temple to pay the taxes on a plot of land newly brought by them
We get some glipses into the working of village assemblies of
ancient times from the inscriptions in this collection.
It would be of interest to note the contents of a few of them as
illustrative of their activities. These assemblies were district from other bodies like the Urar,
the Nagarattar and the Nattar which seems to have represented bigger places.
They were called by various names such as the Sabha or Mahasabha,
Perunguri-sabha, Mulaparishat, Ganam or Alumganam, with their
strength probably variying from places to place according to the size of
the village. They divided
thesmevles into different committes called the variyam for the
distribution of functions. We
learn from No. 84 from tirupparkadal (North Arcot) dated in the 4th
year of Parantaka I that the Mahasabha of Kavidipakkam comprised Ur-variyam
(village supervision), Udasina-variyam (ascetic welfare ?), Eri-variyam
(tank supervision), kalani-variyam (field-supervision), the Two
Hundred Big Men, tha Bhattas and the Visishtas (?). Two
more committees are mentioned in NO. 179 from the same place, dated in
the 7th year of the king, viz. the Kudumbu-variyam (ward
supervision) and the Totta-variyam (garden supervision).
The transactions connected with the temples seem to have been the
concern of the Eri-variyam carrying out the behests of the
general body. In former record (No. 84) it is stated that the assembly
through this committee gave an undertaking to a native of Pandi-nadu,
that they would maintain two perpetual lamps in the temple for 30 kalanju
and old entrusted with them for that purpose.
In the latter the Sabha is said.to have received a similar
amount from a native of Sonadu which was utilised for repairing thte
breaches in the local tank. They
bound themselves however to treat the amount an an endowment with the
tinterest on which a daily offering was to be mae to the deity in the
temple with 4 mail of rice.
In another inscription from the same place (No. 121) dated in the
5th year, the assembly combined an agreement to two
differeent donors in one document. One of them was to a certain Sivabuti Achchandana and the
other to the Kodumbalur chief Ilangovelar
Buti Adittan, the former of whom endowed a garden land for the
maintenance of a lamp before the image of Tirukkarapuratti-Perumanadiga,
and the latter a sum of 50 kalanju for the same purpose in the
shrine of Tiruvagattisvara.
assembly of Pallikond (North Arcot) which was known originally as Vittur
or Vichchur and later as Nandikampa-Chaturvedimangalam, is stated in NO.
310 of the kings (Uttama-Chola’s) 12th year to have
received some amount from a resident of Iraiyanseri in Kachchippedu (kanchipuram)with
the interest on which they agreed to get the silt removed from the local
tank to the extent of 20 kuli once a year.
inscription (No. 62) of the 3rd year of Uttama-Chola
Udaiyargudi (South Arcot) states that on an order received from the
assembly of the 120 members holding office of grama-kariyam for
the year beginning with the month of Rishabha, the Sri-Karyam officer
of the temple made an allotment of some lands belinging to it among the
establishment in proportin to their emoluments hitherto received (in
cash or kind). And got this
deed engraved on the walls of the Srivimana of the temple.
are informe in another inscription (No. 64) of the same year from
Pullamangai near Pasupatikoyil (Tanjavur) that the Mahasabha of
the place which met after beat of drum in the temple cour-yard, sold
tax-free a piece of land at Kandamangalam village to the temple of
Kalapidri in the naduvircheri of their village.
This land is said to have formed part of a bigger plot, which had
been in the enjoyment of their Madhyastha as kavadikani and
was now confiscated by the sabha on account of his breach
of trust in respect of some money and paddy entrusted to him for
a 4th record of this king from tiruvidaimarudur (No. 91) it
is stated that the assembly of Tiraimur, the residents of
Tiruvidammarudil and the temple executives met in the theatre hall of
the temple and decided to re-engrave, on the walls of the temple after
its renovtion, all old inscriptions registering gifts of gold made from
early times from the stones which had been preserved underground.
222 of the king’s 9th year from Tiruppalatturai (Tiruchirappalli)
mentions the Perunguri-sabhai of Uttamasili-chaturvedimangalam as
having acquired some land for the formatin of a madaivilagam round
the temple after paying as compensation to the owner some other land in
inscription (No. 231) of the same year from Kamarasavalli (Tiruchirappalli)
records a provision made by the Perunguri-Perumakkal of the place
for some services in the temple by authorising the Ur-variyam committee
to collect thorugh the temple servants, paddy (from cultivators) at a
certain rate on each ma of land irrigated by the
Kodanadarama-vaykkal during each harvest, evidently as rent for the
water supplied by the assembly.
other inscriptions remain tobe notices.
One is from Tirumeyananam (Tanjavur) and is datd in the 15th
year of Uttama-Chola (No. 370). It
states that the Perunguri-Mahasabha of Nalur sold to thetemple at
Tirumayanam, a land that had come into their possession by the
non-payment of the taxes due thereon by the original oweners, which
consequently the sabha had been oblieged to pay through many
years to a succession of kins. The
other epigraph (No. 398) which is dated in the 16th year of
the king is from Kiliyanur (South Arcot).
It registers a sale of some land irrigated by the local tank to
one Sattan malladigal by the mahasabha of Kilinallur with the
stipulation that the purchaser was to contribute a tuni of paddy
from his land after each harvest (as payment) towards the removal of
silt from thtank, and was also to do the annual collection of the manrupadu
(taxes) due to the reigning king.