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Sunday, November 20, 2005


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 

VOLUME XIX - INSCRIPTIONS OF PARAKESARIVARMAN

INTRODUCTION

..... Bhuti Aditya’s son Madhurantakan Irukkuvel alias Achchan (Adityan) Vikrama Kessari figures in two inscriptions from Kudumiyamalai (Nos. 413 and 414) dated in the 21st year of the king,l wherein he is stated to have endowed a village called Marudangudi for all the requirements of the temple at Tirunalakkunram (Kudumiyanmalai).

No. 436 from the same place dated in the 33rd year of Parakesari (Parantaka) introduces as donor a certain officer by name Mayilai Tidan alias Avantiyakova-Pallavaraiyan of Pudukkudi in Urattur-kurram.  This person is already familiar to us from a record (S.I.I. VIII, No. 694) of the 3rd year of Rajakesarivarman (Gandaraditya) where he is stated to have obtained the permission of Virasola Ilangovelar alias Parantakan Kunjaramallan mentioned above, for bringing a land under cultivation before making a grant of it to the temple.

There seem to have been more than one person bearing the tile Virasola Ilangovel.  A record of Parakesari’s 10th year (No. 249) from Uyyakkondan Tirumalai (Tiruchirapalli district) registers a gift of sheep to the temple by one Peranana Viranarayanan alias Sembiyan Marayan who is referred to an an officer (perundanam) under Virasola Ilangovelar of Kodumbalur without mentioning the chief’s proper name.  Taking this Parakesari as referring to Parantaka I we may equate Virasola-Ilangovelar with the chief of that tile or name figuring in a record of the 28th year of the same king from Tiruppalatturai (S.I.I. VIII, No. 566) and with Virasola Ilangovelar Adittan Tiruvorriyauradigal of another record (Ibid No. 632) from Tiruchendurai dated in the king’s 23rd year.  He was possibly a brother of Adittan Bhuti alias Madhurantakan Irukkuve; already mentioned.  And it is likely that the latteer had a son also called Virasola-Ilangovel alias Orri Madhurantakan (Ibid, No. 611) whose sons again were Parantaka (Ibid No. 676) and Madhurantakan (Ibid, No. 611) whose sons again were Parantak (Ibid No. 676) and Madhurantakan Achchapidaran, the donor mentioned in No. 33 of Volume XIII of the time of Rajaraja I.  The relationship of all the members of this dynasty so far mentioned, as surmsed above (and one or two others also) may be expressed in the following provisional genealogical table for easy reference.

TABLE:  Click here to Table

6. Arinjaya the son of Parantaka is known to have had a rule of only two years, (the next Parakesari) Aditya II Karikala also had a brief reign, and hence the inscriptions of their period are very limited in number.  Even of these the records of the latter between the 2nd and 5th years of his reign invariably refer to him with the attribute “Parakesarivarman who took the head of the Pandya (or Vira-Pandya)”, and it is therfore doubtful if any inscriptions of Parakesarivarman without that appelation can be assigned to his reign.

Of about 80 epigraphs included in this volume dated in the 2nd year of Parakesarivarman, only 20 seem to belong to Arinjaya.  Most of these are records of gifts to temples made by members of different military groups or regiments called after the surnames or titles of Parantaka I and his son Rajaditya who predeceased his father, having been killed in battle.  These are the Singalantaka-terinda-Kaikkolar (Nos. 3 and 21), the Dantatonga-terinda-Kaikkolar (No. 13), the the Parantaka-terinda-Kaikkolar (No. 17) and the Muttavalperra-Kaikkolar (Nos. 18 and 19).

No. 3 gives the interesting information of the dedication of a sword with its hilt made of sandal-wood (srikhandam) to the god at Tiruvidaimarudur by a soldier named Mutti Tirunaranan.  A similar gift of a sword by one Arikulakesari-Vilupparaiyan is also recorded in another inscription (No. 438 of 1908) engraved on a pillar in the temple at Tiruvilimilai which has been referred to in a previous paragraph in another connection.

Two persons Araiyan Vengadavan and Devadi Vidyaparan who ae said to have belonged to Muttavalperra-Kaikkolar regiment figure as donors in Nos. 18 and 19 from Udaiyargudi.  The same regiment is mentioned in a later record of the time of Uttama-Chola also from Kanchipuram (No. 365).  The name of this body suggests the conferment of some special honour like the presentation of a sword by the king on a company of experienced soldiers for their efficiency or valour.

A prominent person of this reign who figures as donor of land in two inscriptions from Tiruppalanam (Nos. 30 and 31) was Adittan Viman of Kumarapadi in Kalatturkottam who is called the chief (araiyan) of Andurai.  He is believed to have been the father of Viman Kundavaiyar the queen of Arinjaya.  (M.E.R. 1928, II, 3)

No. 11 from Udaiyargudi records a gift to the temple by Sembiyan Mahadeviyar who is referred to as the queen of Gandaradityadeva “who was pleased to go west” probably signifying his death as a recent event still fresh in the memory of the people.  She is also called in the inscription the daughter of Malavaraiyar a chief of Malanadu family which has been mentioned in a previous paragraph.

The authorities of the temple of Tirukkilkottattu-Perumanadigal at Tirukkudamukkil (the present Nagesvarasvami temple at Kumbhakonam) are said to have purchased in the 2nd year of the king (Arinjaya) a quarter veli of land from the Mula-parishat (assembly) of that place out of the land which had been presented to them as abhisheka-dakshimai or coronation present (No. 6).  Two inscriptions of Rajakesarivarman (Gandaraditya) from the same place (Vol. XIII, Nos. 44 and 46 also speak of veli of land at Arisalur as obtained by the sabha as abhisheka-dakshinai.  It finds mention again in aninscription of the 11th year of Utttama-Chola (No. 95) where it is stated that a portion of this abhisheka-dakshinai land was sold to a lady at Tanjavur who endowed it to the temple on behalf (in memory) of her son Kari Kolamban of the Gandaraditta-terinda-Kaikkola regiment.

7. More than 200 inscriptions of this volume can be assigned to the reing of Uttama-Choladeva.  A feature noticeable in some inscriptions of this king is the endowments made for the various temples to provide for the worship of the gods on special occasions like the sankranti when they were batched with 108 pots of water (brought from the river mostly) before offerings were made to them (Nos. 235, 341, 379, 409).  In some temples several persons ere fed inaddition on these days (No. 379)

Ladies of the royal family figure as donors in some inscriptions, prominent among them being the queen mother Sembiyan-mahadeviyar after whom a village has been named in the Nagapattinam taluk.  She is stated to have built the temple of Kailasanatha at that place (No. 379) to which gifts were made by her, her daughters-in-law and others for special worship to the deity on the days of Kettai in the month of Chittirai whch was hr natal star (Nos. 311 and 458).  Five queens of UttamaChola are mentioned in No. 311.  Orattanan or Urattayana Solabbaiyar alias Tribhuvana-Mahadevi also called his agra-mahishi (No. 141), viranaraniyar (No. 323), Gopan Sakappu (No. 407) and Aruran Amabalattadigalar or Ponnambalattadigalar (Nos. 257, 404 and 405) are his other queens mentioned as donors.  The last of these is said to have endowed ao land as tiruchchennadaippuram to goddess Madhurantakan Uma-Bhattaraki in the temple at Tirukkolambiyur, fondly refferred to by the queen as her “daughter” (No. 404).  Kannapparasiyar alias Sonna (Svarna) Mahadevi (No. 383) is another donor who might be his queen though not specifically mentioned as such.

Of the other ladies mentioned in a few inscriptions one was Arinjigai Keni “the daughter of Mutta-Udaiyar” (No. 55) She is probably the same as Arinjigai-Piratti the daughter of Arikulakesari referred to in the previous volume (Vol. XIII, Intr. P. V), as having been married to a Bana chief.  Still other members whose benefactions are recorded are Tennavan-Mahadevi “the queen of Rajakesarivarman” equated with Sundara-chola.  (No. 269), and Nakkan tilaiyalagiyar (No 260) probably the same as Panchavan-Mahadeviyar queen of Rajaraja I.

A gift of gold by princess Irayiravan Devi Ammanar consort of Anaimerrunjinar (prince Rajaditya) made for worship to the images of Sri Krishna and Rukmini in the temple at Tiruvellarai is recorded in No. 196 of this volume dated in the 8th year of the king who could be only Uttama-Chola.  The inscription has been published in S.I.I Vol. III (No. 132).  A reference to a temple of Krishna (Dvara[ato-Paramasvami) at Udaiyargudi is contained in No. 400 dated in the king’s 16th year, where it is recorded, that a hundred persons were fed daily with the endowment of a village called Nindanallu, about 20 veli in extent, made by two merchants Tiruvarangadeva and his brother Aiyanadeva in memory of their uncle Dasanagan Nindan.

The consecration of an image of Suryadeva in the temple at Udaiyargudi and provision for the maintenance of two lamps before the deity by prince.  Kundavaiyar is recorded in No. 306,  This was very likely the queen of Arinjayaand daughter of Aidttan Viman of Andurai mentioned above.  She was evidently the mother of Sundara-Chola whose daughter was also called Kundaviyar.  The pious wife of Vandyadefvar and sister of Rajaraja I celebrated in the Tanjavur inscriptions.  Other references to the worship of Sun-God or gifts of lamps for the deity are found in three more inscriptions.  In no. 222 from Tiruppalatturai a certain Murtti Manaviran of Pirambil in Pattina-Kurram is said to have endowed some land for daily offerings and worship to the image of Surya set up by him in the temple.  A gift of sheep for a lamp before Suryadeva in the temple at Vriddhachalam is recorded in another inscription (No. 303).  In No. 325 from the same place the Urar of Nerkuppai are said to have made a grant of some dry land for oferings to this deity, the donor in the previous inscription agreeing to convert the same into wet land.

An inscription from Tirumananjeri (Tanjavur dist.) dated in the 4th year of Parakesari No. 99) who might be either Parantaka or Uttama-Chola, records the presentation of some requisites of worship to the tempe by a merchant (soliyavaniyan) by name Mundan Arangan alias Narpattennayira Panmahaesvara-Mayiletti.  Mayiletti seems to have been an appellation borne by members of the merchant class.  In a record of Parthivendravarman (S.I.I. III, No. 170) mention is made of a certain Chandiran Elunurruvan Nulamba-Mayiletti who is referred to as a merchat of Ranavirappadi in Kanchipuram.  An inscription of Rajaraja’s 14th year (Vol. XIII, No. 241) also refers to a merchant by name Achchan Uraiyur alias Soliyavaraiya-Mayiletti.

The merchant community called the Disai-ayirattainnurruvar play an important part in the affiars recorded in 4 inscriptions dated between the 2nd and 14th year of Parakesari (Uttama-Chola).  Portions of the mandapa  in the temple at Tiruvidaimarudur are said to have been the gift of a regiment called the Kaikkolaperumadai who named them after their elders (achchamar) the Tigai (Disai) Ayirattainurravar.  Similarly an endowment of land was made to the temple at Tiruvilakkudi (No. 170) by a merchant by name Sankayan Manran alias Nanadesiya Eduttapada-Muttasetti who placed it in charge of the Disai-Ayirattainurruvar of that place.  A body of the same name is said to have made a gift t th temple at Vedaranyam on behlaf of a merchant of Karuvur by name Senan Marataksetti (No. 216).  Lastly an inscription at Tiruvilakkudi (No. 459) records the construction (or renovation ?) of a portion of the stone temple by the Valanjiyar and Nanadesiya Disaiyayirattaninurruvar who are said to be part residents of this place (having temporary sojourn) and the completion of the same on their behalf by one Tirukkarralippichchan (also mentioned in No. 355).  It would appear from all these that this class was an organisation of 1, 500 families spread over different countries for purposes of trade an dknit together by some social regulations.  They seem to have been connectected with the Valanjiyar (No. 459) who had settlements in South Ceylon (M.E.R. 1927, II, 46).  It is not known however whether they had any relation with the Manigramam guild of merchants mentioned in No. 417 from Kuttalam (Tirunelveli) of the reign of Parantaka and in Volume XIII, Nos. 26 and 28.  This guild figures in inscriptions from very early times and seems to have been wielding great influence not only in their own home-country of South India but also over a wide area of the world outside, in which they had their trading establishments.

Ambalavan Paluvurnakkan is already familiar to us an an officer of great influence under Mummudi-Chola Rajaraja I (Volume XIII, Intro. P. VIII).  He figures in six inscriptions included in the present series which are ascribable to his predecessor Uttama-Chola.  Like his two records of the previous volume these are also from Govindaputtur in the Tiruchirappalli district.  A bi-lingual inscription in Sanskrit and Tamil of the 14th year of the king (No. 357) states that he hailed from Kuvalalam (Kolar), that he was nobleman of the king’s council, and had been conferred the title Vikramachola-Maharaja after the surname of his overlord who was greatly pleased with his valour.  He built of stone the srivimanam of the temple.  In an inscription of the king’s 10th year (No. 272) he is stated to have made a gift of sheep for a perpetual lamp in the temple in the company of another donor Andanattu Malavar who presented twice that number.  The latter is evidently the same as Senni Nambiyar of No. 237 already noticed.  Ambalavan’s two wives Aparayitan Seyyavaymani (No. 333) and Singapanman Kanchi Akkan (No. 334) also made donations to the same temple.

The Siva temple at tirukkodikaval (Tanjavaur dist) seems to have been originally a brick structure.  When the central shrine was constructed of stone some time int eh 11th year of Uttama-Chola by order of the queen mother Sembiyan-Mahadevi (No. 292) the several records of enodowments of earlier times which had been incised on separate stone slabs were re-engraved on the new temple walls.  One such document was the present one registering a gift of money for a lamp made in the 4+9th year of the Pandya king Maran Sadiayan (Varaguna-Maharaja) and entrusted to the assembly at Mahendra-Kottur.  Accordingly we find all the inscriptions of this place prior to th ime of Uttama-Chola clearly stated to be copies of older records which, being of no further use, were cancelled (destroyed).

8. Another notable family of chieftains who were intimately connected with the Cholas for generation from king Parantaka I, are the Paluvettaraiyars who had their feudal estateround about the present Kila-Paluvur in the Udaiyarpalayam taluk of the Tiruchirapalli district.  There were responsible for a number of benefactions to the temples at this place and at Mela-Paluvur close by, the two being known as Siru-Paluvur and Mannu-Perumaluvur respectively.  About a dozen records pertaining to this dynasty were included in the volume of Rajakesarivarman Inscriptions (S.I.I. Vol. XIII) and the present volume also contains some 15 epigraphs in which they figure.

Reference was made above to Paluvettaraiyar Kandan Amudanar the victor over the Pandya in the battle at Vellur.  Two inscriptions assigned to Gandaraditya in the previous volume spoke of a certain Tappildharma Pallavaraiyan as an officer under prince Arikulakesari (Volume XIII, No. 177 and 181); and he was equated with Paluvettaraiyar Kodandan Tappildharman who is mentioned in NO. 23 of the present collection, from Udaiyargudi, dated in the 2nd year of Parakesarivarman (Arinjaya).  This Tappildharman was very likely a son of Kandan Amudanar.

Three other members of the family mentioned in the previous volume were Kanadau maravan, Maravan kandan and Kumaran Maravan.  The present volume contains besides these, the names of a few more chiefs.

Kandan Maravan figures in two inscriptions, dated in the 4th and 7th years of Rajakesarivarmna identified with Rajaraja I (Volume XIII, Nos. 98 and 171), and is also mentioned in two epigraphs of the 15th and 16th year os Parakesarivarman Uttama-Chola (Nos. 378 and 403 of this volume).  Similaraly records are found of Maravan kandan covering about the same period in the 10th and 12th years of Rajakesarivarmn Sundara-chola (Volume XIII, Nos. 208 and 215) and between the 9th and 15th years of Parakesari Uttama-Chola (Nos. 237, 273 and 384 of this volume). It appears as though these two chiefs were brothers who is stated in a record of the 12th year of Parakesari (Uttma-chola) from Udaiyargudi to have made a gift of land to the temple on behalf of his own younger brother Kandan Satrubhayankaran (No. 305).  It is alo likely that he was known by the name Vikramaditya, whose wife Raman Koviyar is recorded to have made a gift of sheep for a lamp to th temple at Kila-Paluvur in the 8th year Uttama-Chola Parakesari (No. 212)

Kumaran Maravan mentioned in a rcord of the 22nd year of Rajakesarivarman Rajaraja I (Volume XIII, No 298) and in Nos. 146 and 172 of this series, dated in the 5th and 6th years of Parakesari (Uttama) was in all probability the same as Kandan Maravan.  In no. 172 of Parakesari’s 6th year which is from Tiruppalanam, mention is made of a gift jointly mae with KumaranMaravan by one Tippanja-alagiyan Maravan.

The Malavar chief Kongani Senni-Nambiyar (No. 237) who is stated to have made a gift of land to the temple at Kila-Paluvur in the 9th year of the king calls himself the maternal uncle of maravan Kandan.  It is of interest to note here that Sembiyan Mahadeviyar the mother of Uttama-Chola calls herself the daughter of a Mala-Perumanadigal who was possibly the same as this Senni-Nambiyar.  In that case the queen and the two elder Paluvettaraiyar chiefs would be related to each other as cousins.

9. The Chedi Chiefs of Miladu or Malanadu were another ancient dynasty of minor rulers exercising authority over portions of the present South Arcot District, round about Tirukkoyilur.  They were related to the Chola family both by ties of allegiane and of marriage.  Siddhavadavan Suttiyur a princess of Miladu family was one of the queens of Uttama-Chola and is said to have made a gift of land to th temple at Tiruvisalur (Tanjavur dt.) in a record of Rajaraja’s 3rd year (Volume XIII, Intr.p. VIII).  She has been surmised to be a daughter or sister of the chief Raman Siddhavadavan alias Vikramasola-Miladudaiyar who had married a Pandya princess.  Three inscriptions in the present collection which are all dated in the 11th year of the king are from the Tanjavur district.  Nos. 287 and 295 record gifts of sheep to the temples at Tiruppalanam and Tiruchchatturai by one Chedi-Mahadeviyar, wife of Siddhavadattadial of Maladu, no specific name of either of them being given.  The donor mentioned in the third inscription (No. 293) which is from Tiruppundurutti, is called SiddhavadavanGamundadevan, chief of Miladu, probably the Siddhavadattadigal of the other two records.  No. 293 would then have to be assigned to Uttama-Chola and not to Parantak I as has been surmised in the Text portion. He was probably the father of Raman Siddhavadavan mentioned above.

The Muttaraiyar chiefs after being dispossessed of their domain by the Cholas seem to have settled down as their vassals and continued as such under the successive kings.  We have seen two chiefs Perumbidugu Muttariyar and Muttariyar Nambi Manatongalar mentioned in a record of Aditya I in the previous Volume (Volume XIII, No. 288).  Two more chiefs are met with in the inscriptions of the present collection.  No. 61 from Udaiyargudi dated in the 3rd year of the king records a gift of god for a lamp in the temple by a lady named Panchavan-Mahadevi who is called the araisi of Arayiyan Mahimalayan alias Parantaka-Muttaraiyan.  From the other epigraph, dated in the 13th year of Parakesari (No. 331), we learn that a certain Araiyan Sankaranarayanana alias Sola-Muttaraiyar built a temple to Sri Kailayattu-Alvar at Govindaputtur with due provision made by endowments of Land for daily and special worship to the god.

10. Koyil-Mayilai of Siringan who is known from inscriptions of Aditya II Karikala from Tiruvidaimarudur and Kumbhakonam (Nos. 154 of 1895 and 233 of 1911) under the title Parantaka-Muvendavelar finds prominent mention as an adhikari in a few records of Uttama-Chola also, in this volume.  He seems to have got the appellation Madhurantaka-Muvendavelan in theis reign after the king’s surname.  No. 130 from Tirukkarugavur dated in the 5th year of the king gives the information that on the representation made to the king by one Singan Kaliyan alias Uttamasola-Muvendravelan of Kommaippakkam, a plot of 3 veli of land which was found in excess of the requirement of 40 veli which had been endowed for th temple at Tiruvalanjuli, was now withdrawn and granted to the temple at Tirukkarugavur.  The apportionment of the yield from this land, amounting to 710 kalam of paddy, for the several purposes in the temple was entrusted to Koyil Mailai and to another adhikari by name Sattan Pasupati alias Kaliyan Tandesvaran.  Koyil Mayilai figures in another inscription dated in the 6th year, which is from Tiruvidaimarudur (No. 162) transacting a purchase of land on behalf of the temple from the assembly of Tiraimur.

No. 181 from the  same place (Tiruvidaimarudur) dated in the 7th year of the king, states that during te regime of Madhurantaka-Muvendavelar (Koyil Mayilai) veli of land was granted to the temple for the maintenance of a musican who was to sing the desi songs before the God while seated in olakkam in the hall (on festival occasions).  Reference is made in the same inscription to a previous gift of the 30th year of arantaka made to (the temples of) Mahadeva and Talaikkoli-Vinnagar Vishnukkal.  Talaikkoli is a term of distinction in music and is frequently met with in inscriptions being affixed to thenames of ladies. In No. 283 a gift of gold for a lamp in the Udaiyargudi temple is said to have been made by a certainnakkan Piratamadevi alias Mummudisola-Talaikoli daughter of one Sri-Arurttevanar.

Grants of land made to some ersons for performing what is called the vaigarai-attam in the temples are recorded in two fragmentary inscriptions (Nos. 254 and 344) dated in the 10th and 14th years of the king, one coming from Tiruvenkadu and the other from Tiruvidaimarudur.  By vaigarai is meant the early day-break, but it is not clear whether it has any connection with the waking service of the deity before sun-rise.  Sakkaikkuttu a kind of dance-drama seems to have formed part of worship in temples on special occasions and is referred to in a good number of inscriptions (M.E.R. 1915, II, 22).  In a record from Kila-Paluvur (No. 171) it is stated that an allotment was made of some gold, paddy and pair of clothes to resident of Alaiyur for enacting 3 parts of Sakkaikuttu in the temple on the day of festival occurring the in the asterism Asvini in Aippigai month.

One Semban Arulan Uttamanidhi alias Uttamasola-Muvendavelan is stated (in No. 359) to have contructed the temple of Sivalokattu-Mahadeva at Gandaraditya-chatur-vedimangalam (Kandaradittam) and made provision for all the requirements of worship.  For this purpose he seems to have purchased from one Porkumara-Kramavittan a member of the Alunganam of Venganagar his share of the right of worhsip with its appurtenances of land, house and other privilegws (like sravana, idukuru and padukuru) and made it over to the temple evidently for conferment on a new appointee.  In an earlier inscription (No. 335) the original holder of this share is referred to as sasana-baddha.  This expression which occurs also in No. 373 from tiruvandarkoyil near Pondicherry, saeems to mean some bond of service executed by the beneficiaries, the exact nature of which is not clear.  We learn from two other inscriptions, from Tirukkarugavur (Nos. 326 and 376) of endowments of lands made by Semban Arulan, for the needs of worship and for the maintenance of nine persons for music during the several services in the temple.

Ayyan Marasingan alias Virasekhara-Muvendavelan of Gunamalappadi in Nallarrur-nadu (Nos. 107, 191, 312 and 354) and Tiruvadigal Aiyanadi alias Sembiyan Vesalippadi-Muvendavelan of Sirvuvelur in Ilaiyur-nadu (Nos. 139, 189 and 236) are two other prominent donors in this reign to the temples at Tiruvilakkudi (called Tiruvelvikkudi in inscriptions) and at Koyil tevaradyanpettai.  Besides these cheifs and officers we come across a dozen more names of nobles or officials having titles like Muvendavelar, Nadalvar, Peraraiyan, Pallavaraiyan, Brahmadhirajar etc. attahced to their names indicating their position or designation

11. About 30 inscriptions in the collection may be assigned to kings Rajendra-Chola I and Vikram-Chola on account of their later writing or other internal evidence.  On a rock to the west of the temple at Tirthamalai in the Salem District are engraved two inscriptions which are bothe damaged.  They are dated in the 4th year of Parakesarivarman who may be taken to be the same as Rajendra-Chola Both of them record gift of gold for lamps in the temple of KudalAlvar by a certain Aiyan Viramadeviyar of Perunkunram wife of Mummudichcholaperumal-Devar.  (Nos. 85 and 86).  This might be a reference to a local chief of that name.  A queen of Rajendra Chola seems to have been known also as Viramadevi (No. 260 of 1915).  An inscription of the same year of Parakesari from Tiruvidamarudur (No. 92) also mentions a Viramadeviyar, who might be different.

Mention is made of a market place at Tanjavur called Tribhuvanamadevi-perangadi after a queen of Rajaraj, in No.24 of the 2nd year of Parakaesari.  A member of a regiment known as Arumolideva-terinda-Kaikkolar figures as a donor in another inscription of the same year from Tiruppalanama (No. 29) Vanavan Peraraiyan  alias Korran Arumoli (No. 73), Rajendrasola-Muvendavelar (No. 43) and Sandirasan (Chandraditya) Satturugandan of Varampursal (No. 248) are other persons of some note in this reign.  The last mentioned is referred to as having the menayakam administration over the Tiraimur-nadu.

An inscription of the 6th year of Parakesari from Tiruvarur (No. 158) probably of this period, registers a gift of gold entrusted to the Nagarattar of the place by one Devan Arubattunavalan, for burnig a lamp before the image of Tiruvaraneri Mahadeva-Bhattaraka in the temple.  The name of the deity is reminiscent of th legendary Chola king Manuniti-Chola associated with Tiruvarur.

A record of the 2nd year of Parakesarivarman from Udaiyargudi probably assignable to the reign of Vikrama Chola is No. 14 which records a gift of gold for a lamp to th etemple by one Aiyaran Sendan alias Nikalanka-Muvendavelan of Vesalippadi.  Of the same period are two inscriptions from Siddhalingamadam in the South Arcot district, which mention the Miladu chief.  (See para 9 baove).  No. 94 dated in the 4th year of the king registers an endowment of land to the temple made by Rajamahendran Rajendrasolan of Miladu, probably so-called after the surname ‘Rajendra-Chola’ borne by vikrama. It is probably the same chief who is called Vadavan Rajendran in later inscription of the 10th year (No. 250) wherein he is stted to have endowed both land and money to privide for the sacred bath and offerings to have deity on all sankramana days and occasions of.eclipse, for the maintenance of the priests and for other requirements in the temple.

In an inscription the 8th year of the king from Govindaputtur (No. 214) the temple authorities of the place are stated to have paid a lump-sum of 230 kalanju of gold towards the (annual) payment to the State pm their behalf, of taxes like kudimai, silvari etc. on 121 and odd veli of devadana land by Perunguri-Perumakkal who received the amount.A similar transaction is recorded in No. 391 from turaiyur dated in the 15+1styear,

The last year of the king, in which the Urar of that village (corresponding to the Sabha or Perunguri) bound themselves to the temple to pay the taxes on a plot of land newly brought by them undr cultivation.

12. We get some glipses into the working of village assemblies of ancient times from the inscriptions in this collection.  It would be of interest to note the contents of a few of them as illustrative of their activities.  These assemblies were district from other bodies like the Urar, the Nagarattar and the Nattar  which seems to have represented bigger places.  They were called by various names such as the Sabha or Mahasabha, Perunguri-sabha, Mulaparishat, Ganam or Alumganam, with their strength probably variying from places to place according to the size of the village.  They divided thesmevles into different committes called the variyam for the distribution of functions.  We learn from No. 84 from tirupparkadal (North Arcot) dated in the 4th year of Parantaka I that the Mahasabha of Kavidipakkam comprised Ur-variyam (village supervision), Udasina-variyam (ascetic welfare ?), Eri-variyam (tank supervision), kalani-variyam (field-supervision), the Two Hundred Big Men, tha Bhattas and the Visishtas (?). Two more committees are mentioned in NO. 179 from the same place, dated in the 7th year of the king, viz. the Kudumbu-variyam (ward supervision) and the Totta-variyam (garden supervision).  The transactions connected with the temples seem to have been the concern of the Eri-variyam carrying out the behests of the general body.  In former record (No. 84) it is stated that the assembly through this committee gave an undertaking to a native of Pandi-nadu, that they would maintain two perpetual lamps in the temple for 30 kalanju and old entrusted with them for that purpose.  In the latter the Sabha is said.to have received a similar amount from a native of Sonadu which was utilised for repairing thte breaches in the local tank.  They bound themselves however to treat the amount an an endowment with the tinterest on which a daily offering was to be mae to the deity in the temple with 4 mail of rice.  In another inscription from the same place (No. 121) dated in the 5th year, the assembly combined an agreement to two differeent donors in one document.  One of them was to a certain Sivabuti Achchandana and the other to the Kodumbalur chief  Ilangovelar Buti Adittan, the former of whom endowed a garden land for the maintenance of a lamp before the image of Tirukkarapuratti-Perumanadiga, and the latter a sum of 50 kalanju for the same purpose in the shrine of Tiruvagattisvara.

The assembly of Pallikond (North Arcot) which was known originally as Vittur or Vichchur and later as Nandikampa-Chaturvedimangalam, is stated in NO. 310 of the kings (Uttama-Chola’s) 12th year to have received some amount from a resident of Iraiyanseri in Kachchippedu (kanchipuram)with the interest on which they agreed to get the silt removed from the local tank to the extent of 20 kuli once a year.

An inscription (No. 62) of the 3rd year of Uttama-Chola Udaiyargudi (South Arcot) states that on an order received from the assembly of the 120 members holding office of grama-kariyam for the year beginning with the month of Rishabha, the Sri-Karyam officer of the temple made an allotment of some lands belinging to it among the establishment in proportin to their emoluments hitherto received (in cash or kind).  And got this deed engraved on the walls of the Srivimana of the temple.

We are informe in another inscription (No. 64) of the same year from Pullamangai near Pasupatikoyil (Tanjavur) that the Mahasabha of the place which met after beat of drum in the temple cour-yard, sold tax-free a piece of land at Kandamangalam village to the temple of Kalapidri in the naduvircheri of their village.  This land is said to have formed part of a bigger plot, which had been in the enjoyment of their Madhyastha as kavadikani and was now confiscated by the sabha on account of his breach of trust in respect of some money and paddy entrusted to him for disbursement.

In a 4th record of this king from tiruvidaimarudur (No. 91) it is stated that the assembly of Tiraimur, the residents of Tiruvidammarudil and the temple executives met in the theatre hall of the temple and decided to re-engrave, on the walls of the temple after its renovtion, all old inscriptions registering gifts of gold made from early times from the stones which had been preserved underground.

No. 222 of the king’s 9th year from Tiruppalatturai (Tiruchirappalli) mentions the Perunguri-sabhai of Uttamasili-chaturvedimangalam as having acquired some land for the formatin of a madaivilagam round the temple after paying as compensation to the owner some other land in its possession.

Another inscription (No. 231) of the same year from Kamarasavalli (Tiruchirappalli) records a provision made by the Perunguri-Perumakkal of the place for some services in the temple by authorising the Ur-variyam committee to collect thorugh the temple servants, paddy (from cultivators) at a certain rate on each ma of land irrigated by the Kodanadarama-vaykkal during each harvest, evidently as rent for the water supplied by the assembly.

Two other inscriptions remain tobe notices.  One is from Tirumeyananam (Tanjavur) and is datd in the 15th year of Uttama-Chola (No. 370).  It states that the Perunguri-Mahasabha of Nalur sold to thetemple at Tirumayanam, a land that had come into their possession by the non-payment of the taxes due thereon by the original oweners, which consequently the sabha had been oblieged to pay through many years to a succession of kins.  The other epigraph (No. 398) which is dated in the 16th year of the king is from Kiliyanur (South Arcot).  It registers a sale of some land irrigated by the local tank to one Sattan malladigal by the mahasabha of Kilinallur with the stipulation that the purchaser was to contribute a tuni of paddy from his land after each harvest (as payment) towards the removal of silt from thtank, and was also to do the annual collection of the manrupadu (taxes) due to the reigning king.

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