The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Contents

Preface

Introduction

Topographical Index

Dynastic Index

Text of the Inscriptions 

Chola

Pandya

Vijayanagara

Nayakas of Madurai

Nayakas of Tanjavur

Pallava

Rashtrakuta

Kakatiya and Feudatory

Pottapi-Chodas

Chera

Setupati

Kongu

Kodumbalur

Unidentified Pandya or Chola

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

INSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING THE YEAR 1906-07

INTRODUCTION 

PANdyas 

16. The most noteworthy feature of the year was the examination of the contents of the contents of the Velvikkudi grant and the Madras Museum Plates of Nedunjadaiyan Parantaka with those of the Sinnamanur Plates Plates of Rajasimha II, and the construction of a genealogy and connected account of the Early Pandya kings of Madurai who flourished between the 7th and 10th centuries A.D. some stone inscriptions of Baragana-Maharaja and kings known only by their surnames Maran sadaiyan or Sandaiyamaran which were copied during the year also belong to about the same period. All these inscriptions have been published elsewhere (S.I.I. Vol. XIV) and are referred to here only by way of information. 

17. The next king after Rajasimha II, and probably his successor, was Virapandya who claims to have taken the head of the Chola. This adversary has been surmised to be no other than the great Parantaka I himself, whose death was avenged later by his descendant prince Aditya II Karikala about A.D. 966 (Ep.Ind., Vol. XXV, No.6). The period that followed the demise of Vira-pandya was one of Chola Suzerainty over the Panday Kingdom, and it is known that for at least 50 years from A.D. 1020, it was being governed by Chola viceroys under the title Chola-pandya. Though under subjection the pandya seem to have continued to rule over parts of their territory, and the period is marked by constant and prolonged warfare either against their Chola overlords or among the rival Pandya prince themselves, as can be gathered from disconnected scraps of information found in Chola records. With the beginning of the 12th century A.D. the Cholas seem to have gradually lost their hold on the Pandyas, and we find inscriptions of  Jatavarma srivallabha, a younger contemporary of Kulottunga-chola I, whose date of accession has been fixed between A.D. 1120 and 1122, and whose rule seems to have been confined to a small tract comprising portions of Madurai, Ramnad and Tirunelveli district. (S.I.I., Vol. XIV, Intr. P. VI). To this king may perhaps be ascribed No. 507 of the year’s collection from Madirai . 

18. Then came the war of Pandya succession in the 3rd quarter of the century, in which the choals and the Ceylonese king took opposite sides supporting the claims of rival prince to the throne, and which continued for a number of years. Prof. K. A. N. Sastri in his Pandyam Kingdom, thus sums up the final pahse of this war: whatever happened to Vira-pandya and his relatives, it seems clear that Kullotunga (III) succeeded in establishing Vikrama-pandya on the Pandya throne and thus putting an end to all disputes about the succession in which the Cholas and the Ceylon Kings had taken sides for over a decade. But it is not yet possible to ascribe any inscriptions with confidence to this Vikrama-pandya, and we cannot say if he was the immediate predecessor or not of Jatavaraman Kulasekhara who came to the throne of the Pandyas in A.D. 1190. 

There are two inscriptions in the year’s collection which can be definitely assigned to this king. Nos.90 and 97 (A) from Kallidaikkurichchi in the Tirunelveli district are both dated in the 7+4th year of  Maravarmaa Vikrama-pandya beginning with the introduction Tirumagal Jayamagal ect. One of these register a sale of some land by the assembly of Rajaraja-chaturvedimangalam to the temple of Nilaiyudaiya-pandya-Isvarmudaiyar at Kallidaikkurichchi and the other, the sale of another piece of land to the temple of Nalayira-Isvaramudauyar in the same place. The taxes on these lands were remitted in the 9+4th year of Jatavarma kulasekhara as recorded in Nos. 91and 97 on the representation made by his minister Kalingarayar, thus showing the very close proximity in time of these two kings. This seems to receive support from an epigraph of Kulasekhara from Tirunelveli (No. 83 of 1927) which refers to Vikramapandyadeva as Periya-nayanar.

The same epithet is given to king Srivallbha in No.110 of the 2nd year Kulasekhara. But the way in which the reference is worded in the inscription seems to point to a much anterior time, and probably to the relationship of Srivallabha as father both to Maravarman Vikramapandya and Jatavaraman Kulasekhara I, the latter being the younger brother of the former. 

19. This  Jatavarman Kulasekhara  who came to power by A.D. 1190 is represented by a dozen inscriptions which begin with one of the three introductions Pudalamadandai, Pudala-vanitai or Puvinkilatti, ect., and range between the 2nd and 25th years of his reign (No.99) the earliest of these is No. 110 already quoted above which records the confirmation of the grant of a land made by the Nagarattar of  Kshatriyasikhamanipuram in Mulli-nadu to the Nalayira-Vinnagar temple at Kallidaikkurichchi, agreeing to pay the kadamai on the land themselves as they had been doing in the time of periyar-nayar Srivallabhadevar. In No. 152 of the king’s 3rd year copied at Melaikkoyil ( Pudukkottai state), a chieftain of the region by name Kalvayil –nadalvan is stated to have remitted the taxes kadamaarivi and antarayam on a devadana village. Another important person of the reign was one Sivallavan Tirunilakantan alias Tondaiman of Pandimandalam who figures in three records from Sinnamanur (Nos. 445, 450 and 451). In No. 112 from Kallidaikkurichchi the king is mentioned as being seated on his throne Munaiyadaraiyan in his palace at Madurai while making a grant to the Vishnu temple at the village.

20. Of Maravarman Sundara-pandya (acc.A.D.1216) there are 16 inscriptions from his 5th year (No. 100) to his 23rd (No.124). All of them except Nos. 124, 416 and 436 begin with only a short formula giving him the attributes “who took the Chola country”, “who presented the Chola country”, or “who having taken the Chola country celebrated the anointment of heroes at Mudigondasolapuram.” These three inscriptions commence with the long historical introduction  Pumaruviya Tirumadandaiyam ect., containing an account of all his military achievements culminating in his virabhisheka in the chola capital. No. 416 dated in his 17+1+1st year mentions an officer of the king by name Alagapperumal  Duvarapativelan. In No. 124 which is his latest record, mentions is made of his throne Malavarayan at Madurai and of his two minister Malavarayar and solan Uyyaninraduvan  Kurukulattaraiyan of Tadanganni Sirrur.

21. Jatavarama sundara-pandya I (acc. A.D. 1251) was the most powerful of the Pandya kings, with his sway extending over the whole of south India as north as Nellore and in the south, even outside to Ceylon, and with his secondary capital at Kanchipuram. There is only a single inscription of his this years’ collection (No.613) which comes from Nandalur in the Cuddapah district. It beings with the Sanskrit introduction samasta-jagad-adhara etc. It is damaged and seems to register the gift of the village Mananur by the king to the Vishnu temple at Nirandanur . 

22. Sundara-pandya’s  close relation and subordinate was Jatavarman Vira-pandya whose date of accession has been fixed at A.D. 1253. His rule covers almost the same period as sundara’s and he lays claim to several expeditions similar to these of his senior. In No. 131 from Kodumbalur (Pudukkottai state) dated in his 17th year, which is however damaged, we can read his claims for the conquest of Konganam and Gangai-nadu and his ‘anointment of heroes ‘ at puliyar ( Chidambaram ). It records the sale of some lands to the local temple by the Kaikolas in lieu of the money due from them. Three different kinds of coins are mentioned in this inscription viz., Pon or kalanju, Soliyan-kasu and vira-pandyan-kasu. Two other epigraph may also be ascribed to him. No. 421 from Kambam (Madurai dt.) dated in his 10th year and No. 402 from Perungarunai in the Ramanathapuram district of his 14th year both mention his conquest of Ilam. Kongu and solamandalam and his coronation at Tillaimanagar. 

23. We are not quite so certain of the identity of Jatavarman  Vira-pandya whose inscriptions from Sinnamanur and Kallidaikkurichchi (Nos.430 and 117) are respectively dated in the 26th and 28th years of his reign, but do not begin with any preamble giving his exploits. The former refers to a hall in the temple built by an officer of the king and called the vangai-Mikaman-Mandapam after the surname of one Pillai Kulasekhara-Mahabali-Vanarayar. No. 117 registers an endowment for a feeding house made by a certain Tirunilakantan Rajakkanayanar alias Tondaimanar of Puduvur in Ala-nadu. 

24. Of Maravarman Kulasekhara I (acc. A.D. 1268) “who was pleased to take all countries “ there are a dozen inscription the latest of which dated in his 41st regnal year ( No.431). It is possible that three more inscriptions (Nos.125, 127 and128) are also his, though they do not give him the above attribute. The village Pappangulam (Tirunelveli dt). from where these records come, is called Seranaivera-Tirumadaivilagam probably in commemoration of the king’s campaign over the Chera country. No. 136 from Kodumbalur dated in his 42nd year may also belong to one Devan Tirunelveli-Udaiyan, who undertook to reclaim them from a state of wild growth into which they had fallen by neglect , following a breach in the local irrigation tank. The lessee is stated to have also paid 100 panam to the temple as  parivatta-mudal, perhaps for some temple honours shown to him during his visits of worship. 

25. Seven inscriptions from Nandalur (Cuddapah district .) of which Nos.588, 590, 592 and 594 give details of date can be referred to the reign of Jatavarman sundara-pandya II (acc. A.D.1276 ), and range between his 9th and 17th regnal years (Nos.614 and 594 ). He is surmised to have been a co-ruler of Maravarman Kulasekhara I (An. Rept. for 1908, Part II, Para 47) and also a contemporary of Maravarm Vikarama-Pandya of accession date A.D. 1283, to whom No. 313 from Tiruvidaimarudur (Tanjavur district) should also be ascribed. Nos. 591-3 and 614 record endowment made by one Pillai Pallavarayar alias Eduttakaiyalagiyar of Tunjalur in Pandi-mandalam. Another donor was Sirumalikilan of Jayangondasola-mandalam (Nos.588 and 594). 

VIJAYANAGARA KINGS

26. The earliest inscription of the Vijayanagara kings is No. 156 from Mallangudi (Pudukottai State), which belongs to Viruppana (Virupaksha I), the son of Harihara II. It is dated in the cyclic year Pingala corresponding to Saka 1299 or A. D. 1377. It is much damaged and seems to state that the village Malaiyalangudi was the place of refuge (asrayam) for the Tandirimar of Kalvasal-nadu, Kana-nadu and other places. 

27. Next in point of time is No. 501 from Vijayanagara (Hampi) which also gives only the cyclic year Isvara which corresponds to Saka 1319. It records the gift of a dipamala by Bukkayave, the consort (Ardhaniga-Lakshmir) of Vira Harihararaya (II) for the merit of her spiritual teacher Bhaskaradevayya. 

28. Two inscriptions, one from Peraiyur in Pudukkottai State (No. 158) and the other from Tirumalai in N. Arcot district (No. 69) are of Devaraya II and are dated respectively in Saka 1343 and 1367. The later record gives him the attribute “who witnessed the elephant-hunt” and mentions an agent of the king by name Tipparaisar-Nayaka. 

29. No. 67 which is also from Tirumalai is dated in Saka 1373 and refers itself to the reign of Pratap Immadideva-Maharaya ‘who witnessed the elephant-hunt’. He is probably the same as Mallikarjuna Immadi Praudhadeva, son of Devaraya II. 

30 Of Krishnadevaraya there are 5 records ranging from Saka 1436 to 1451.  Of these No. 53 from Putalapattu registers an undertaking given by several merchants of the place to pay magamdi impost on all their articles of merchandise at specified rates to the local temple. In No. 493 from Kuttalam dated in Saka 1440 the king is given the title Oddiyandala-vibatan. It records the remission of 90 pon accruing to him by way of taxes like jodi and sulavari from Merkaviri-maganai, made through Karanikam Vasavarasar for the requirements of the temple. No 355 form Tiruvisalur is a damaged copy of a same inscription of his found in several temples of the south, remitting the jodi and sulavari amounting to 10,000 varahan in favour of these enumerated in them, of which that at Tituvasalur was also one. 

31. Of Krikhanadevaraya’s successor Achytu deva  there are 7 inscription ranging from saka 1454 to 1462. Of these, No. 408 from Hanumantagudi of date saka 1455 consists of there disconnected pieces recording the grant of Padikaval right to an individual and mentioning Arhaparamesvara Maluva-Nayaka. No.271 from Tiruvisalur dated saka 1456 makes mention of a gift of land and house site to the temple (?) by one Ramappa-Nayaka as subhakshaya-sadanam for the merit of his father Vasavananayakar of Tiruvannamalai Devamandala-sirmai. The king is given, in No.400 from Kodumalur in the Ramantapuram district, some high-sounding titles like Telunga-Narapati-Purandaran, Dakshinasamudradhipati, Gajaturaga naradhisvaran, Parapaksha bhujanga Virapratapa Immadi Achyutadeva-Maharayar. The inscription registers a gift of the village Melaikkodumalur, half as tiruvidaiyattam and half as devadana, for the requirements of worship of god Setumadhava-Perumal at Dhanushkodi. No.151gives him the epithet “who took every country”. No.64 dated saka 1462 seems to record a gift of magamai (duty on goods?) for worship in the Siva and Vishnu temples at Tenepalli (Chittoor district). 

32. Sadasivaraya  is the last king to be represented in the collection. He has four inscriptions dated between saka 1467 and saka1490 (Nos.55 and 63). No.148 gives him the epithet “who took every country” and mentions Aiyan Tyagana-Nayakar Peddappa-Nayakar as a donor, while No. 54 dated saka 1471 refers to mahamandalesvara  Ramaraja  Chinna-Timmayadeva and his agent Dalavay Timmarajayyan. To the same Timmayadeva (Tirimala I) belongs No. 510 from Madurai. It is dated in saka 1468 and is engraved on 15 detached stones found in the Madanagopala temple at the place. As some stones are lost and some are damaged it is difficult to piece the fragments together to from a continuous inscription. It gives a long list of names of the Aravidu dynasty beginning from Vishnu, down to Tirumala through several chief. It registers an endowments of a hundred villages to Brahmanas both Vaishnava and others and apportionment of shares of land for their living. Provision seems to have also been made for worship in the Vishnu and Siva temples.

Continuation

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