South Indian Inscriptions
INSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING THE YEAR 1906-07
A Sanskrit inscription in early Grantha characters (Nos. 129) secured
during the year from the temple known as Muvar-koyil at Kodumbalur in
the Pudukkotti state, is of great interest as giving an account of the
achievements and genealogy of the Kodumbalur chiefs who were intimately
connected with the early Chola kings. The
lost of the chiefs mentioned in the epigraph was Bhuti Vikramafesari,
of whom it is stated that the he made red the Kaveri waters with the
blood of the Pallava army, conquered Vira-Pandya and destroyed Vanchivel.
He was living at Kodumbalur with his two wives Karrali and Varaguna, by
the former of whom he had two sons Parantaka-varama and Adiyavarman.
Bhuti Vikrama built three shrines in the name of himself and his
two consorts for the god Mahesvara at
Kodumbalur, and presented a matha to Mallikarjuna of Madurai, a
teacher of the Kalamukha sect of the saivas, and also eleven villages
for feeding daily 50 ascetics of that sect in that matha. since this Vikramakesari is
known from other stone records to be identical with Tennavan [langove],
a feudatory of the chola king Aditya I it is to be surmised that the
destruction of the Pallava army clamed by him was in connection with his
liege lord’s overthrow of Aparajita and Annexation of the latter’s
territory sometimes about A.D. 890. vira-Pandya whom Vikramakesari
claims also to have vanquished, cannot refer to his namesake who was
killed by Aditya II Karikala, because that event took place more than 70
years later. As surmised by Mr. K.V.S. Aiyar (Quarterly Journal of the
Mythic society, Vol. XLIII, Nos.3 and 4), he should have been a contemporary of the Pandya
Parantaka Vijayanagara and
Probably of a collateral Pnadya line. A
detailed study of the Kodumbalur chiefs has been attempted in the volume
of Parakesarivarman Inscriptions (S.I.I., Vol. XIX, introduction).
No. 65 form Tirumalai near Polur belongs to the Rastrakuta king
Krishna III “ Kannaradeva who took Kachchi and Tanjai”. It
records a gift by a servant of Gangamadevi, wife of Kannaradeva
Prithivigangaraiyar. She should
be the same as Kamakkanar Gangamadevi,
the daughter of chief Vanakovaraiyar Orriyuradiyar of the Solapuram
inscription. Prithiviganga was governor of Kalladupppurmaryad (Ep.
Ind., Vol., VII, p. 195).
An early Vatteluttu inscription found engraved on a boulder at
Periyakotti (Madurai district ) is dated in the 2+1+1st year
of a king whose name can be read as Kokkanda[n] Kuttan (No.471).
It is much damaged and seems to record a gift of land to the local
temple by one Brahmasriranjan. A much later record of about A.D. 1668
from Gudalur in the same district (No.420) makes mention of one Kulasekhara-Perumal
as donor of land to a Private Individual and to six shrines.
A few chiefs who flourished during the Kakatiya rules of Warangal or
were feudatory to them are also represented in the year’s collection.
No.592 from Nandalur dated in
the cyclic year Sadharana, is an incomplete record which mentions, evidently as donor, one Saranga-Nayaka who style
himself the Satpradhana of Gandapendara Gangaya-sahini. This
Gangaya-sahini is known to have been Originally a cavalier in the
service of Kakatiya Ganpati who ruled from A.D. 1190 to 1260
(Nos.231and 283 of 1905 and An.
Rept. for 1906. Part II, para 44). Consequently the Cyclic year
Sadharana would correspond to
A.D. 1250. To the same family is said to have belonged Gandapendara
Jannigadeva (No.208 of 1905). His
inscription from Nandalur (No.610) records some gift by way of magamai made
for worship in the temple by one Nagarasa called the Pradhani of
the chief. The date given for him Viz., saka 1186 (A.D.1264) would take
him to the reign of Ganapati’s daughter and successor Rudramba (acc.
A.D. 1260) thought he does not acknowledge her over lordship in the
in time are three records from Gundluru in the Cuddapah district
(Nos.618, 621 and 623) which belong to Ambadeva
Maharaja who is known to have been the most powerful chief of
the family, and whose conquest are described in his inscriptions from
Tripurantakam in the Kurnool district (An. Rept. Part II, para
44). They are dated in saka 1213.1211 and 1219. Another chief who
flourished during the disturbed reign of queen Rudramba was one Somideva
for whose merit a gift of magamai was made to the temple in
saka 1206 (No.622).
About a dozen inscriptions from Nandalur in the Cuddapah district belong
to the family of chiefs known as the Telugu Chodas or the Cholas
of Pottapi who have been noticed already under the chola kings. No.583
with which probably No. 584 is also connected and No. 579 are both dated
in the reign of Vikrama-chola and give the saka year equivalent to A.D.
1120 and 1125 respectively. The former refers to Mahamandalesvara Bettarasa (the name could also be
read as Peddarasa in Tamil) as ruling over Pottapi-nadu , when
Era Siddharasa seems to have
founded an agrahara and settled 20 Bramhana families therein,
for securing strength of arms to the reigning king and this was
confirmed by the latter’s son Vimaladitya. In the latter
inscription (Nos. 579) dated 5 years later, the same chief
Vimaladitya who called Vikramasola-chaturvedimangalam
for securing strength of arms to the king, and divided in into 70
shares among learned Brahmanas.
No. 585 which does not refer itself to any king and of which the saka
date is also lost, mentions a Sidharasan as ruling the Pottapa-nadu,
while another Sidharasa figures in a record of Kulottunga–chola II
dated in his 8th regnal year corresponding to A.D. 1142
(No.572). The place of these chiefs in the genealogy of the Telugu
Chodas given on page 16 of the An. Rept. for 1900 is not
clear. So also that of Somesvara, son of Vimaladitya mentioned in No.611
as having Constructed the gopura of the Vishnu temple at Nandalur.
is not possible that either the Sidharasar mentioned above, or the Era Sidharasar the father
of Vimaladitya, could be identical with Era Siddha the father of Nalla
siddha who figures in No 578 dated in the 26th year of Kulottunga-Chola III (A.D. 1204), as it would then create a gap
of more than 50 years between the father and son and a still wider
interval in date between the brothers Vimaladitya and Nalla siddharasa.
This Nalla Sidha figures in two other inscriptions, one with no
date (No.570) and the other (No.601) dated in the 24th year
of Kulottunga III corresponding to A.D. 1202, which records a gift of
lamp to the temple by his wife Nukamadevi. No.
582 dated in the 31st year of the same king (A.D. 1209)
register a gift of money for some lamps made by Madhurantaka Pottipi
Chola Tirukkalattideva (Tikka I) for evidently the chief mentioned above.