The Indian Analyst

South Indian Inscriptions






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Chalukyas Eastern






Marathas of Tanjore 


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Rulers of Kongu



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Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27





Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India



No. 422 referring to Nanurruvan Malayaman alias Rajendrasolach-chediyarayan and dated in the 15th year of the king states that his daughter Alavandal and wife of Malaiyaman Raman Surriyan alias Rajendrasola Malaiyakularayan of Kiliyur, caused the image of the goddess of Palliyarai to be set up in the temple of Tiruppulippagavadevar of Sirringur in Kurukkaikkurram in Miladu in Rajaraja-valanadu, for the merit of her mother (achchi) Udaiyan Suriyadevi alias Ninratavanjeydal.  This lady is referred to as the wife of Nanurruvan Malaiyaman alias Rajendrasolach-chedirayan in a record of his predecessor discussed above (No. 409).  It records that Alavandal purchased two veli of lands in Sirringur, from Vikkiramasolach-chediyarayan son of Rajavirarajendrasolach-chediyarayan, and granted it as iraiyili-devadana to the same deity for worship and offerings. 

The next king represented in the volume is Kulottunga II (No. 374) from Olakkur in South Arcot District.  It records a gift of 100 kalanju of gold entrusted to the ur for the construction to a stone temple to god Tiruvagattisvaram-udaiya-mahadevar of Ulakkaiyur alias Rajamahendranallur in Oyma-nadu alias Vijayarajendra-valanadu in Jayangondasola-mandalam, by Rajendradevar.  The urar received it and raised the stone structure (tirukkarrali) upto the level of the panchanga expending 50 kalanju of gold for its work.  The balance of 50 kalanju was otherwise spent in course of time (kala virodattal-antarappattapinbu) and because of this the construction work came to a standstill; the artisans (kalum pidarun-seyvargal) and the srimahesvaras represented to the ur to take up the construction work but they could not do so.  This is on account of the reason, that funds were being utilised for the above work.  A gift of 20 kalanju was made for the setting up of an image of god Umaskanda in the temple in lieu of the gold that was spent.  It is not impossible that Rajendra was a chief and not a king, for the record does not refer to a grant made in the reign period of Rajendra.  It is difficult to take it as a title of Kulottunga I and consequently as a grant made in his reign period.  The expression panchanga indicates the five out of the six component parts of a vimana,  viz., adhishthana, bhitti, prastara, griva and sikkara.  The last part, i.e., stupi seems to have been left unfinished. 

One of the two records of Tribh Rajaraja from pon-Amaravati in Tiruchirappalli district, dated in the 8th year (No. 4) records the provision made for the installation of the linga and for the consecration of the vimana at Ponnamaravati in Puramalai-nadu in Rajendrasola-valanadu in Rajaraja-Pandinadu by Rajendrasolan-keralan alias Nishadharajan.  The other record of his 19th year (No.9) states that vimana Rajendrasolan-cholisvaram-udaiya-mahadeva and records the assignment of right of worship to the Sivabrahmanas the same temple.  In the inscriptions of Kulottunga, the same deity is referred to.  This king has been identified with Kulottunga, the same deity is referred to.  This king has been identified with Kulottunga III who succeeded Rajaraja II for the temple itself is stated to have been built during the reign period of Rajaraja.  It may therefore be noted that the chief Rajendrasola Kerala Nishadharajan and Vimana Rajendrasola-Nishadharajan are identical.  Similarly the identification of Rajaraja suggested in the report reasonable (A. R. Ep., 1909, part. II, para 51 (6), p. 100).  Since during the 12th century A.D. the fight of steps (sopana) and the cloister around central shrine (tirunadaiumaligai) were added by a chief named Nilaimaiyalagian, the vimana should have come into existence in the time of Rajaraja II and not in Rajaraja III’s reign.  It is therefore, that this may neither be the rebuilding of the temple nor the reconsecration of the image.  (Cf. Ins. of  Padu.  State part.  I, p. 110)    

No. 432 dated in the 19th (?) year of Rajaraja II registers an endowment of 4 veli of land in Marudur alias Abharanadaninallur in Rajarajavalanadu, by Malaiyaman Attimallan Sokkapperumal alias Rajagambhirach-chediyarayan of Killiyur in Tirumunaippadi in the same valanadu, for the god Tiruppulippagavadvar of Sirringur in Kurukkai-kurram in Malanadu, probably so called after the title Rajagambhira borne by this king Rajaraja II). 

The record from Olakkur (No. 373) of the 4th year of king Rajadhiraja II is of social interest as it enlightens us with the practice of observing prayachchitta by one who aims at an individual wrongly for the object of hunt.  It states that when Appan Sattan of Kudippalli Nediyam in Eyilinedungala-nadu in Vijaya-Rajendra-valanadu in Jayangondasola-mandalam and a certain Udaiyan Perumal belonging to Orali of Uratti in Uratti-nadu in Venkunra-kottam, went out for hunting, the arrow aimed by Udaiyan Perumal at a pulvay (bird) fell on Appan Sattan and killed him.  The pattappaerumakkal, the periyanattar, and the pannattar met and decided to impose prayachchitta on Udaiyan Perumal, who made a gift of 32 cows for a perpetual lamp, in order to atone for the killing of Appan Sattan, to god Vatapivitankar in the temple of Tiruvagattisvaram-udaiyar at Ulakkaur alias Rajendranallur in Jayangonda-sola-mandalam. 

Another Malaiyaman chief Kannan Suran alias Akarasura Malaiyaman is stated in a record of the same king, dated in his 19th year, to have endowed a bronze vessel weighing 60 palam, for food-offerings to god Tiruppulippagavadevar (No. 448).  His identity with the Malaiyaman chiefs who bore the title Akarasuran like Alakiyanayan Tiruvannamalai-perumal etc., is not known except for the fact that he belongs to the same family.  The regnal year quoted in the record seems to be a mistake for 14.   

The only Chola inscription (No. 434) that refers to the Kadava chief, who claims to belong to Kudal, identified with the modern Cuddalore (Kudalur) in South Arcot district, is from Siddhalingamadam of the same district.  It is dated in the 6th year of Virarajendracholadeva, a title of Kulottunga III and in this record a donor named Elisaimohan alias Jananatha-Kachchiyarayan, son of Alappirandan Arasanarayanan of Kudalur is mentioned thus indicating his subordination to this Chola king.  This chief is said to have granted the remission of taxes (specified) for worship, offerings etc., to the god Urbagankondaruliya-nayanar at Iraiyanaraiyur alias Solakerala-chaturvedimangalam in Paranur-kurram, a sub-division of Maladu alias Jananatha-valanadu.  The record to doubt belongs to Kulottunga III whose inscriptions commence with the Prasasti Puyal vayttu valam peruga’ etc. and the title Rajakesari is a mistake for Parakesari, frequently occurring in the records later to Vikramachola.  The only difference found in these two records in that is the former, the title Alappirandan assumed by the chief Arasanarayanan, father of Elisaimohan is mentioned.  That this was an epithet also borne by the younger Perunjinga is evident from his records.  (S.I.I., Vol. XII, Introd., p. XI).  In both the records Elisaimohan calls himself Jananatha Kachchiyarayan and this should therefore be taken as his surname as suggested by V. Venkatasubba Ayyar.  He is also simply called Kachchiyarajan in a record from Vriddhachalam in South Arcot district (A.R. Ep., 1934-35,

No. 99).  The name Arasanarayanan Elisaimohan consisting of two names clearly reveals that they represent the names of the father and the son.  It has to be noted that
the chief Elisaimohan is definitely referred to in the record under review as the son of
Arasanarayanan, who assumed title Alappirandan. (Also see S.I.I., Vol., XII, p. 170). 

In the Siddhalingamadam inscriptions (Nos. 435 and 436) of Virarajendradeva identified with Kulottunga III as mentioned above and dated in the same year, one of the Malaiyaman chiefs, Sokkapperumal is stated to have assumed the epithets Ponparappinan and Rajagambhirachchediyarayan.  The vassalage of a chief of this family named Attimallan Sokkapperumal who has a similar biruda Rajagambhirachchediyarayan (No. 432) to the Chola king Rajaraja II had been noticed above.   

From the name Attimallan Sokkapperumal, one may have to infer that Sokkapperumal was the son of Attimallan on the analogy of the names of the Kadava chief Arasanarayanan Elisaimoham.  It is not impossible to identify Sokkapperumal of the present inscription with the chief of the same name under Rajaraja II and suggest that he continued to server under Kulottunga III from the same place i.e., Kiliyur.  As the interval between the last years of Rajaraja II and the 6th year of Kulottunga III is not a long period for the service of this chief, we have necessarily to presume the existence of one and the same chief.  By referring to the title Ponparappina borne by a servant named Kuttan Panaiyan in a record of the same king and date (No. 436) it would gives us a clue to identify the chief of this record calling himself Rajagambhirach-chediyarayan with Sokkapperumal who had both the epithets.  Such a title as Ponparappinan assumed by this servant (kanmi) after his master reveals his devoted service to the master, who might have honored him by bestowing a title.  Kolottunga III was served by another Malaiyaman chief of Kiliyur viz., Malaiyaman Suriyan Nirerran Edirigalnayan alias Rajaraja Malaiyakularayan (No. 421). 

No. 286 from Tirukkachchur, Chingleput taluk and district which is dated in the 10th year of Kulottunga III mentions a certain Panchanadi-vanan alias Irasarasa Nilagangaraiyan Devan as a donor to god Tiruvalakkoyil-nayanar of Tirukkachchur.  This chief is probably identical with panchanadivanan alias Rajaraja-Nilagangaraiyan mentioned in a record of the same king, three years later, from the same place (No. 290).  This inscription furnishes-his name Kulottungasolakkannappan-Adinayan and his native village Tiruchchuram in Kulottungasola-valanadu in puliyur-kottan in Jayangonsasola-mandalam.  In a record from Tirumalisai (A.R. Ep., 1911, part II, para 29) a certain pillaiyar Kulottungasola Kannappan Nallanayan is also stated to be a resident of Tiruchchuram.  This Nilagangaraiyan chief bears the title Pachanadivanan and the prefix pillaiyar (i.e. prince).  The record referring to him is 3 years later than the record under review which does not mention any such prefix and therefore they are two different chiefs of the family. 

No. 730, from Tirunedungalam, Lalgudi Taluk, Tiruchchirappalli District dated in the 4th year of Rajarajadeva is an interesting record which states that a certain Aludaiyapillaiyaradiyan Idaragalaivan alias Anapayamuttaraiyan son of Vilambikkudaiyan Tillai Tirunattapperumal alias Visaiyalaya Muttaraiyar of Vilambikudi in Pandikulasani-valanadu set up a linga called Ulaganadisvaram Udaiyar in the first prakara of the temple of Tirunedungalam Udaiyar, for the merit of the latter (the donor’s father) and perission was obtained by the donor from Tribhuvanaviradeva described as Periyadevar.  Tribhuvanaviradeva, as we know from a number of records of Kulottungachola, was a title assumed by him in the latter part of his reign.  He is also referred to as Periyadevar in the records of his successor Rajaraja III (A.R. Ep., 1912, part II, para 30).  It is evident from this, that Periyadevar (see Ep., Ind., Vol XXXIV, p.159) must be taken in indicate a predecessor who is respected by his successor in his records (i.e., Rajaraja III).  It is further stated that Tribhuvanaviradeva granted in Lalgudi permission while he was staying in the Rajaraja-manadapa at Urrattur, which is the same as Uttattur, Lalgudi taluk of the same district. 

Only one record of Rajendrachola III is found in this year’s collection.  This record from Konerirajapuram (No. 688) dated in his 11th regnal year refers to a certain lady named Kuttadu-Nachchiyar, the wife of a chief Sri Vanakovaraiyar of Karaikkadu, whose identity is not known.  She is different from a queen of the same name mentioned in No. 522 of 1902 (S.I.I., Vol., VIII, No. 112) from Tiruvannamalai.  The attribute Tribhuvanachakravartti borne by him clearly indicates that he is a later king i.e. Rajendra III. 

Pandyas.—No. 525 from Solapuram, Sivaganga Taluk, Ramanathapuram District is a record of the 13th year of Konerimeikondan.  The identification of this king is rather interesting.  It registers the re-grant of a group of villages, on the request of sabhai of Uttamasolach-chaturvedi-mangalam, devadana of Uttamasolavinnagar-alvar of Solapuram, originally endowed during the time of the elder grandfather (Periya-appattar) and subsequently in the time of younger grandfather (ilaiya-appattar) of the king and enjoyed in the name of Sundarapandyach-chaturvedimangalam.  It is further stated that the sabhai requested the grandson named Uttamasolaperiyar to rename these villages as Uttamasolach-chaturvedi-mangalam and gave it to twenty individuals, for worship, etc., after reclamation of the same, to Uttamasola-vinnagar-alvar. 

In a record from the same place but dated in the 4th year of Jatavarman Srivallabha, one Sundara-Pandya is described as pillaiyar and mentioned to have granted lands to the temple, while he was camping at Arukai-Kuntrattur in Anma-nadu, on the request of the sabhai of Sundarapandya-chaturvedi-mangalam.  This prince Sundara-pandya has been identified as the son of Srivallabha.  (S.I.I., Vol. XIV, No. 205 and Introd. P. vii) and the village was so called after this name.  Since the name of the original grant village mentioned in the record under review is the same, whose sabhai is said to have represented to the prince Sundara-pandya in the 4th year of Srivallabha, the grant should have been made earlier to this date.  It may also be inferred from the present inscription, that Sundarapandya was the ilaiyaappattan who was again the son of Jatavarman Srivallabha as stated above.  Here neither the name of the periya-appattar nor of his son is known. Uttamacholapperiyar, was the grandson (peran) probably of periyan-appattar  and it was after him the deity and the village were renamed respectively as Uttamasola-virragar-alvar and Uttamasola-chaturvedimangalam. Konerimelkondan who issued order to this effect may be identified with Uttamasolapperiyar. (Cf.A.R. Ep., 1910, part II, ara 32). 

There are two records of Jatavarman Kulashekara with high rebnal years. The record from Pon-Amaravati is dated in the 23rd year of the king (No. 10). One of the three kings of this name with the introduction puvin-kilatti has a reign period of 28 years. It is not therefore unlikely that the king of the present record is Jatavarman Kulashekara I whose accession has been taken to be, 1190 A.D. In this inscription, Tirukkodunkunram-uadaiyan Keralan alias Nishadharajan  is stated to be the donor of the village Velkur alias Malayadhvajach-chaturvedimangalam in Purumalai-nadu along with income from several taxes for various offering to the goddess Tirukkamakotta-nachchiyar alias Aludaiya-nachchiyar of the temple of Rajendrasolisvaram-udaiyanayanar at Ponnamarapati in the same nadu. 

This chief is probably identical with the donor occurring in inscriptions Nos, 3, 4 and 5 who seem to have assumed the titles Rajendrasolan and Alagiyadevan. He is called the lord of Tirukkodunkuram which is identified with the modern Piranmalai in the Pudukotti District (Cf  Inscription. of  pudu state, part. I, p. 134 and p. 221). This, and the fact that it carries a high regnal year, support the possibility of the king being identified with Jatavaram kulashekara I (accn.  1190 A.D.) 

One of the records of Maravarman Sunarapanya I found in the temple of Cholesvara at Pon-Amaraviati, Tirumayam Taluk, Tirchchirapalli District is dated in the 11+1st  year (=1127-28 A.D.) It refers to the title Marachchakravarti-pillai conferred on Tiruvarankulam-udaiyar by the group of people called Maramanikkar of Ponnamarapati inn Puramalai-nadu for his reciting the Per-vanji and records the grant of tax-free lands for the purpose of reciting verses in praise of the rerumal (god) of this place. It may be inferred from the title borne by this chief  that he must have belonged to the same group the Per-vanji which may be the same as Peru-vani  is a theme describing the setting fire to an anemy's country as referred to in a Tamil grammatical work called Puraporrul –venba-malai. Another record (No.18) of this king is dated in the year 13+1 (=1229-30 A.D.) It records a royal grant of the villages sevur and Munjaikkudi described as Vallakurruva-koduvatkani in Puramalainadu, as tax-free (iraiyili) devadana for the nambimar of the temple and for the daily offering to god. Alagapperumai-vinnagar-alvar of ponna marapati in the same nadu. It is not unlikely that this temple might have been named probably after its builder Alagapperumal, who was a brother of the queen Maravarman Sundarapandya I. (A.R.Ep., 1973-74, No. 152 and Introduction, p. 18). 

In a record (No. 718) of Jata Sundarapandya I dated in his 8th year from Tirunedungalam, Lalgudi taluk, Tiruchirapalli District, it is stated that a sale of land by a certain Thirukkattuppalli-udaiuan Seliyagangan of Kiliyur in Kiliyur-nadu in Vadakarai-nadu.  It also refers to a Periyamudali alias Kangayar, the younger brother of Seliyanganan as the owner of this sold land.  Two years later in another record of this king, Perrandan alias Seliyagangan, one of the residents of Kiliyur is said to have attested a sale document (No. 722).  It is not unlikely that this Perrandan is the same as Periyamudali alias Kangayar of the former record, who is mentioned as the younger brother of Triukkattupalli-udaiuan Seliyagangan of Kiliyur.  The expressions andan and mudalai denoted one and the same meaning viz., ‘the chief ‘or the ‘lord’. 

 An interesting inscription (No. 333) from Tirukkachchur, Chingleput Taluk and District dated in the 13th year of Jatavarman Sundarapandya refers to an instance of social justice shown by pillai (prince) Pottappiyarayar by apprehending the criminals of Uttippakkam.  (A.R. Ep., 1913, part, II para 34).  The details of date Kumbha, su. 5., Wednesday, Asvati-in his thirteenth regnal year may be equated with 1263 A>D., February 14, the nakshatra ended at 0.98 on the previous day. The name of this officer Enadi Merkudaiyan Periyanayan is mentioned in an undated record from Tiruvorriyur Saidapet Tlauk, Chingleput District. He is stated to be the donor of a door way (tiruvasal) called Ellantalaiyanaperumal caused to be made probably in the temple of Tiruvorriyur-mahadeva where the record is found engraved on a pillar of the shrine of the goddess, for the merit of Perumal Sundarapandyadeva. The epithet Ellantalaiyanaperumal, after which the door-way was named is said to have been borne by Jata Sundarapandya I. (A. R. Ep., 1913, part II, para 44) Hence, the chief Pottappiya-rayar who is no doubt identical with the donor of the latter record must have served under Jatavarman Sundarapandya I. (A. R. Ep., 1910, part II,  para 34).  

No. 431 from Siddhalirigamadam dated in the 6th year of Maravarman Vikramapandyadeva refers to the institution of a service called Pulavartalaivan-sandhi by the nagarattars of Sirringur in the Kurukkai-kurram in Maladu in Rajaraja-valanadu in the temple of Tiruppulippagava-nayanar of the place and place and records a grant of 1000 kuli of land here for the same service by the nagarattars who received it from the king as Perumal-kani, It is not Know whether this king had a title Pulavar-talaivar similar to Rajakkal-nayan, a distinguishing epithet of his (A. R> Ep., 1922, part 31 and 35).

Alaganperumal Ativiraraman is mentioned in about eight inscriptions from Solapuram in Ramanathapuram District and Tenkasi in Tirunelveli District. He is described as the son (nandar) of Dharmapperumal Kulasekharadeva in the 13th year of the latter king (No.511). The expression namkumaran occurring in a record of Perumal Ativiraraman alias Sivaladeva dated Saka 1509 and in his 26th year may be taken to indicate his position as a crown-prince (No. 511). The former record gives the details of date viz.,  Saka 1483, 13th year, Durmati, Varsha-ritu, Kunnai 19, su.10, Thursday, Uttiradam corresponding to 1561 A.D., September 18 which must be the date of his appointment as a crown-prince.  There is another record in Tamil dated Saka 1486, Raktakshi, Chittirai 20, su. 6, Sunday, Punarpusam equivalent to 1564 A.D., April 16 in which he is stated to have been crowned. (See A.R.Ep., part II, para 38). 

In an inscription (no. 562) of Perumal Kulasekharadevar-Parakrama-Pandyadeva, son of Jatilavarman Trib Konerinmaikondan Perumal Abhirama Parakrama Pandyadeva, from Tenkasi, dated Saka 1473, year 8, Virodhikrit, Karnataka 15, su. 12, Tuesday, Mula corresponding to 1551A.D., July 14, the farmer’s son Tirunelvelipperumal is stated to have assumed the title ViravenbamalaiI.  Another record (No. 557) from this place but dated twelve years later refer to the king Perumal Tirunelvelipperumal Dharmaperumal Kulasekharadeva, son of Abhirama parakrama, with a similar epithet mentioned above.  From this it may be said that the title was borne both by the father and the son. 

An inscription from Tenkasi, Tenkasi Taluk refers to Nelvli Maran Viravel Kulasekharachcheliyan also called Ponnin Pandyan who was crowned at Kasi in the presence of the god on saka 1474, Paridhavi, Chittirai 29, ba. Monday, Rohini, Mithuna-lagnam (-1552 A.D., April 25) and to the composition of Viravenbamalai by a poet to mark this occasion (No. 538). It may be noted that in the inscriptions from the same place Tirunelveliperumal Kulasekjardeva, son of Abhirama Parakrama Pandyadeva is credited with the title Viravenbamalai (A. R. Ep., 1917, No. 513). This record which furnishes the same details of date as the one referring to Kulasekharachcheliyan (No. 538) also mentions his second regnal year. In the light of this inscription, it has been surmised that Abhirama Parakrama’s son who was born in Asvati (A. R. Ep., 1918, part II, paras 60-63) i.e., Tirunelvelipperumal alias Vira Venbamalai alias Dharmapperumal Kulasekhara ascended the throne in Saka 1474 (Ibid.). If the second year is taken as Saka 1474, then it would yield the date of his accession to the throne as Saka 1473.

Since our record (No. 538) states that on Monday the 29th day of the second paksha in the month of Chittirai when the constellation was Rohini he was coroneted, it is not unlikely that the regnal year mentioned in the other record (A. R. Ep., 1917, No. 513) is a mistake.

No.542 from Tenkasi dated in Kali 4689 states that Vel viramaran alias Abiraman was crowned in this year. This date corresponds to 1588 A. D.  It records that a certain Kasikkaliyan, a poet (kavirayan) composed a verse describing his valour. Also a similar verse-record in Tamil from the same place (No. 546) in praise of King Virapandyan Abiraman described his conquest of Villavan and capture of Vallam, He is styled herein as Viramaran Seliyan This king may be identified with Vel Viramaran Abiraman.


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