No. 3 of 1915 â 1916).
grant of Vijaya-Skandavarman (II): 33rd year.
Sanskrit charter issued by the king Maharaja Vijaya-Skandavarman, on the
13th day of the third fortnight of winter in the 33rd
year, from the royal camp Tambrapa, registers the grant of the
village Omgodu-grama in the Karmma-rashtra as sattvika-gift (i.e.
without any motive) to Golasarman of the Kasyapa-gotra, a student of two Vedas
and well versed in the six Angas.
The kingâs genealogy is traced from his great-grandfather Kumaravishnu
whose son and grandson were Skandavarman and Viravarman respectively.
in Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XV, pp. 251 ff.
No. 1 of 1905 â 1906).
grant of Kumaravishnu (III): 2nd year.
is a Sanskrit copperplate record issued from Kanchipura in the 2nd
year of the reign of the Pallava king, Maharaja Kumaravishnu (III)
who was the son of Maharaja Buddhavarman, the grandson of Maharaja Kumaravishnu
(II) and the great-grandson of Maharaja Skandavarman. The genealogy
adopted by Rao Bahadur Krishnamacharlu is here followed. The two previous kings of the name
Kumaravishnu were the father and son of Skandavarman. The object of the present grant is to record the royal gift of a
field in the village Chendalura in Kavachakarabhoga, a subdivision of
Kammanka-rashtra, to a Brahmana named
Bhavaskandatrata of the Kaundinya-gotra and the Chhandoga-sutra.
in Epigraphia Indica, Vol. VIII, pp. 234 ff.
No. 4 of 1915 â 1916).
grant of Simhavarman : 4th
is a Sanskrit charter issued by Dharmamaharaja Simhavarman of the Bharadvaja-gotra, in his 4th year, in the month of
Vaisakha, sukla-paksha, panchami, registering a gift of the village Omgodu
in Karmma-rashtra to the scholar Devasarman, a resident of Kundur, who belonged
to the Kasyapa-gotra and Chhandoga-sutra. As the same village was the object of grant in the previous charter of
is possible that that donee, Golasarman had probably died without issue and
thus necessitated its its reconferment on Devasarman of the Kasyapa-gotra, who
was probably a member of the collateral branch of the original doneeâs family.
king is stated to have been the son of Yuva-Maharaja Vishnugopa, grandson of
Maharaja Skandavarman and great-grandson of Maharaja Viravarman.
the characters in which the record is incised are latter, i.e., of about the 7th
century A.D., it has been surmised that it is a later copy of an earlier
in Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XV, pp. 254 ff.
No. 1 of 1905).
grant of Simhavarman: 5th year
Sanskrit grant was issued from the royal camp at Menmatura, in the 5th
year of the reign of the Pallava king Maharaja Simhavarman, son of
Yuva-Maharaja Vishnugopa, grandson of Maharaja Skandavarman and great-grandson
of Maharaja Viravarman. It registers
the grant of the village Pikira in Munda-rashtra, to Vilasasarman of the
Kasyapa-(gotra) and of the Taittiriya-(sakha).
in Epigraphia Indica, Vol. VIII, pp. 161 ff.
No. 1 of 1933 â 1934).
grant of Simhavarman: 10th year
is a copper plate grant of the Pallava king Simhavarman, engraved in
archaic characters on five plates strung together by a ring bearing a circular
seal with the Pallava emblem of a couchant bull facing the proper left
and another figure resembling an anchor above it. The inscription opens with an invocation to Bhagavat (Vishnu),
like the Mangalur and Pikira grants of the same king. The genealogy of Simhavarman, son of Yuva-Maharaja Vishnugopa, is
traced from Viravarman, the great-grandfahter. The record is dated in the 10th year of the king in
the month of Sravana, su., panchami and registers a royal grant of the
village Vilavatti in
Munda-rashtra with all the taxes due on it, to Vishnusarman of the
Gautama-gotra and the Chhandoga-(sutra), for securing long life, strength of
arms and victory to the king.
this record it is learnt that the king collected taxes from metal and leather
workers, cloth-dealers, rope-jugglers or dancers, Ajivikas, water-diviners,
weavers, gamblers, barbers, etc.,
grant was issued from Paddukkara, which has been identified with
Padugupadu in the Kovur taluk of the Nellore district. The oral order of the king regarding this
gift was committed to writing by Rahasyadhikrita (Private Secretary) Achyuta.
village Vilavatti in Munda-rashtra has been identified with either Vavveru
where the plates were discovered, or with greater probability, with Vidavaluru,
both situated in the Kovur taluk of the Nellore district.
in Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XXIV, pp. 141 ff.
(A. R. No. 354 of 1904).
a rock to the south of the Melakkoyil temple.
Sanskrit, which is engraved in the Pallava-Grantha characters of the 7th
century A.D., consists of a musical treatise composed by a royal disciple of Rudracharya. Though the name of the king is not
mentioned, the characters of the record as well as the title âSankiranajatiâ
assumed by the Pallava king Mahendravarman whose inscriptions are also
found in the region round Trichinopoly, have led to the attribution of this
record to the same Pallava monarch, who, we knw, achieved distinction in the
realm of architecture, literature and drama. A little to the north of this inscription, over the Valampuri-Ganesa
image is engraved the word âparivadini-e,â meaning a lute with seven
strings âonlyâ, which indicates that the musical instrument intended for the
notations used in this record was the Vina.
in Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XII, pp. 231 ff.
(A. R. No. 386 of 1906).
the north and south walls of the rock-cut Siva temple.
is a fragmentary record engraved in Pallava-Grantha characters of the 7th
century A.D. A major portion of the inscription is erased, but from the
preserved portion, the names of musical notes such as gandharam, panchamam,
dhaivatam, nishadam etc., can be read. A certain order is noticeable in the arrangement of the notes in seven
sections with subsections. Unfortunately the subsections have been so erased as to make it
impossible to follow the method adopted here. As the palaeography of the inscription resembles that of the
Kudimiyamalai epigraph, this record also may be attributed to the time of
(A. R. No. 411 of 1904).
Trichinopoly Taluk, Trichinopoly District.
the beam and pillars in the upper cave on âthe rock.â
the two monolithic caves, one at the
foot and the other half-way up, of âthe rockâ t Trichinopoly, the latter alone
contains inscriptions, two of which, published in South Indian Inscriptions,
Vol. I, pages 29 and 30, state that the cave (upper) was constructed by Gunabhara
(i.e.) Mahendravarman I. A verse
inscription (No. 9 below) engraved on the beam over the inner row of pillars
here, calls the cave Lalitankura-Pallavesvara-grihamâ after the title
âLalitankuraâ of this king, which also occurs in his record at Pallavaram. His birudas are engraved in bold
Pallava-Grantha and Tamil characters on all the pillars in the upper cave at
Trichnipoly. The outer wall of the
sanctuary in this cave seems to have contained an inscription, but only a few
letters of its first line are now visible, the rest being completely
damaged. The name âMahendravikramaâ is
found mentioned in the inscription on the extreme left outer pillar and most of
the birudas occurring here are also found in the records of this king at
Pallavaram and other rock-cut excavations of his time. Some of these titles are unintelligible and
appear to be Telugu in origin. The
bottom of each of the four pillars contains a biruda in the
Pallava-Tamil characters, of which only two are now clear, viz. Pinapinakku and Chitti[rakara]ppuli.
is of interest to note that the birudas are alphabetically arranged and
so engraved on the front face of the pillars. The same arrangement, though followed in the Pallavaram inscription, is
not so conspicuous there as in the present record (plates I and II).
characters employd in the present inscriptions are of an ornate nature and
provide an interesting contrast with the simpler variety of letters found in
the Pallavaram record of the same king, where almost all these birudas
description of the cave is found in the Memoir of the Archaeological Survey of India, No. 17,
pages 13 â 15.
(A. R. No. 411-A of 1904).
the beam above the inner row of pillars in the upper cave.
is a Sanskrit verse engraved in Pallava-Grantha characters stating that the (upper) cave called
âLalitankura-Pallavesvaragrihamâ was constructed by the Pallava king Lalitankura
(i.e., Mahendravarman I).
(A. R. No. 51 of 1905).
Gingee Tanluk, South Arcot District.
a pillar in the rock-cut cave.
epigraph consisting of a Sanskrit verse, states that the (cave) temple on
the hill was executed by the order of
the king Narendra alias Satrumalla and named
âSatrumallesvaralaya.â Mahendravarman I had the title âSatrumallâ and according
to the present inscription he had also the biruda âNarendraâ. It may be pointed out here that the Vayalur
inscription gives the epithet âNarendrasimhaâ to Rajasimha ; but the simpler
and earlier style of the Dalavanur temple, however, precludes its assignment to
the time of this king.
cave temple is described in the Memoir of the Archaeological Survey of India, No. 17,
pages 12 â 13.
in Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XII, page 225.
(A. R. No. 50 of 1905).
the same pillar.
inscription in Tamil verse states that Narendrapottaraiyan constructed,
to the south of Venbedu, a Siva temple called Satrumallesvaralya. The composer of the verse was Brammamangalavan
Sellan Sivadasan, a native of the village.
may be noted that the Tamil characters in which this inscription is engraved
are not so archaic as to be attributed to the period of Mahendravarman I, but
could be assigned to the 9th century A.D. It is, therefore, probable that this Tamil translation in verse
of the previous record was composed by a local poet of the 9th
century and was not engraved on the same pillar of the cave.
in Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XII, pp. 225 ff.
(A. R. No. 56 of 1905).
Villupuram Taluk, South Arcot District.
a pillar in the Mandapa of the rock-cut cave.
is an important inscription in Sanskrit verse which states that the rock-cut
shrine was caused to be made by king Vichitrachitta for the enshrinement
of the three gods Brahma, Isvara and Vishnu, without the use of bricks, timber,
metal and mortar. Since from Pallava
inscriptions we know that Mahendravarman I had the biruda
âVichitra-chittaâ (i.e.) curious or fancy-minded, this cave must have been
excavated by him.
in Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XVII, page 17.
(A. R. No. 369 of 1908).
Saidapet Taluk, Chingleput District.
the beams in the rock-cut cave now used as a âDargaâ.
inscription is engraved in Pallava-Grantha characters in a single line
on the beams of the upper and lower verandahs of the rock-cut cave (plates II
and IV.) It gives a long list of birudas, some of them obscure in their
import, of the Pallava king Mahendravikrama (I) with whose name the
inscription commences. These titles are
in Sanskrit, Tamil and Telugu and indicate the character, erudition and
personal tastes of the king. Some of
these birudas are also found in the upper cave at Trichinopoly (No. 8
rock-cut temple is described in the Memoir of the Archaeological Survey of India, No. 17,
(A. R. No. 82 of 1921).
Conjeeveram, Conjeeveram Taluk, Chingleput District.
a pillar in a ruined mandapa near the 1000-pillared Mandapa
the third prakara of the Ekamresvara temple.
the previous record this inscription also enumerates a few birudas of Mahendravarman I (plate IV.) As this inscription is found on a detached pillar, it is evident that it
must have formed part of a structural temple of the time of Mahendravarman I.,
which has now disappeared.
(A. R. No. 512-528 of 1907).
Chingleput Taluk, Chingleput District.
the Mahendravadi and Siyamangalam labels of the Pallava king Mahendravarman I,
the birudas of Narasimhavarman I are engraved in Pallava-Grantha
characters on the Dharmaraja-ratha. As
usual, the list of surnames commences with the actual name of the king
Sri-Narasimha. The birudas give
an indication of the kingâs power, wealth, valour, personal charm, ambition,
liberality etc. As the temple is called
âAtyantakama-Pallavesvaragrihamâ in a label engraved in florid characters
resembling those found in the Ganesa rock-cut temple in the same village
attributable to Paramesvaravarman I, it may be presumed that the work on this
ârathaâ was continued in the reign of Paramesvaravarman and also in that of his
son Rajasimha, considering the architectural evolution noticeable here from the
simple rock-cut cave temple of Mahendravarman Iâs time. This ratha is described in the Memoir of the Archaeological Survey of
India, No. 33, p. 25 ff.
in south Indian Inscriptions, Vol. Nos. 1-17 and Epigraphia Indica,
Vol. X, pages 5-8.
(A. R. No. 65 of 1909).
Chingleput Taluk, Chingleput District.
the second pillar in the upper verandah of the Orukal-mandapa on the hil.
is a damaged record engraved in Tamil characters, belonging to Narasingappottarasar
âwho took Vatapi (Badami)â and it mentions the god of âMulasthana on the
hill.â The Mulasthana temple, according
to a record of
Rajakesarivarman Aditya I, existed from the time of Skandasishya whose
endowment to it was confirmed by Vatapikonda Narasimhavarman. Skandasishya may be identified with
Skandasena the excavator of the cave at Vallam in the Chingleput district. The rock-cut mandapa where the present
inscription is found is described in detail in the Epigraphical Report for
1909, page 72 and in the Memoir of
the Archaeological Survey of India, No. 17, pages 19-21.
may be pointed out here that this is the third early Pallava inscription
engraved in Tamil characters, so far known the other two being those found in
the caves at Vallam in the Chingleput district,
and at Tirumayyam n the Pudukkottai State.
in the Epigraphical Report for 1932-1933, page 55
(A. R. No. 661 of 1922).
Chingleput Taluk, Chingleput District.
the top of a niche in the north wing of the verandah of the rock-cut temple of
label in Pallava-Grantha characters reads âSri-Simhavinna-pottrathirajanâ. It is engraved above a group of sculptures
representing a king seated on a cushioned stool and flanked by two standing
images of his queens. On a
consideration of the palaeography of this label, the late Mr. Krishna Sastri
concluded that the king represented here was Narasimhavishnu, âthe conqueror of
Vatapiâ. Subsequent writers have,
however, identified him with Simhavishnu, the father of Mahendravarman 1. But the name Paramesvra-Mahavaraha-Vishnugriha
applied to this cave in a record of the Chola king Rajendradeva, proves clearly
that it is connected with Paramesvaravarman I. Since a statue of Mahendravarman in a standing posture pointing to his
two queen the deity inside the newly excavated cave is also lfound here, it may
be inferred that the work on this cave was started by him. If so Paramesvaravarman after whom the cave
was called, must have completed the work started by his predecessor. The statues found in this cave may,
therefore, be taken to represent Narasimha-vishnu, âthe Conqueror of Vatapiâ
and his son Mahendravarman II.
in the Memoir of the
Archaeological Survey of India : No. 26.
(A. R. No. 662 of 1922).
the top of a niche in the south wing of the same verandah.
label, also in Pallava-Granta characters, gives the name âSri-Mahendra-Pottrathirajanâ. The niche contains the standing image of a
king accompanied by his two queens. It
has been stated above that the king may be identified with Mahendravarman II.
(A. R. No. 529 of 1907).
Chingleput Taluk, Chingleput District.
the third storey of the
Dharmaraja-ratha, west side.
is a label inscription in Pallava-Grantha characters giving the name of
the temple as Atyantakama-Pallavesvara-grihamâ. Since the script of this label approximates
closely to that of No. 20 below, but differs from that of the other labels in
the same ârathaâ, Atyatakama referred to here may be taken as a biruda
of Paramesvaravarman I. The Dharmaraja-ratha is described in the Memoir of the Archaeological Survey of
India, No. 33, pp. 25 ff.
in Epigraphia India, Vol. X, No. 18, page 8.
(A. R. No. 531 of 1907).
the âGanesaâ temple in the same village.
inscription is also engraved in the same script as the above and consists of 11
verses in Sanskrit praising the king Atyantakama who built this temple
for Siva and called it âAtyantakama-Pallavesvara-grihamâ, after his
surname. Atyantakama is here given the birudas,
Srinidhi, Sribhara, Ranajaya, Tarunankura, Kamaraga, etc., From the slesha used in the epithets Chitramaya,
Gunabhajana, Svastha, Niruttara and Paramesvara which are applicable
both to Siva and the king, the late Dr. Hultzsch concluded that the actual name
of the king was Paramesvara and that he was identical with Paramesvaravarman I.
in South Indian Inscriptions, Vol. I, No. 18 and Epigraphia Indica
Vol. X, No. 20, pp. 8-9.
(A. R. No. 532 of 1907).
the âDhamaraja-mandapaâ in the same village.
inscription is identical in contents with the previous record and proves that
the cave temple now called âDharmaraja-mandapaâ was originally a shrine
dedicated to Siva. It was called âAtyantakama-Pallavesvara-grihamâ,
after one of the surnames of Paramesvaravarman. As from the style
of its architecture, this mandapa may be assigned to Mahendravarman Iâs time;
it is probable, as also suggested by Mr. A. H. Longhurst (Memoir of the Archl. Sur. No. 33, page 10), that the present
inscription was incised later by Paramesvaravarman I who probably completed it.
in South Indian Inscriptions, Vol. I, No. 19, p. 6 and Epigraphia
Indica, Vol. X, No. 21, pages 10 and 11.
(A. R. No. 533 of 1907).
the âRamanuja-Mandapaâ in the same village.
inscription consists of he imprecatory verse found at the end of the two
previous inscriptions (Nos. 20 and 21 above) and engraved in florid characters,
similar to those used in the âGanesaâ temple. It is, therefore, possible that the rock-cut cell, which may have been
excavated during the time of the Pallava king Paramesvaravarman I or a
little earlier, was originally intended to be a temple for Siva.
in South Indian Inscriptions, Vol. I, No. 20, page 6 and Epigraphia
Indica, Vol. X, page 11.
(A. R. No. 530 of 1907).
a pillar of the rock-cut mandapa south-west of the âGopis Churnâ in the same
inscription in Pallava-Grantha characters reads âSri-Vamankusaâ. It is not known to whom this title is to be
in Epigraphia Indica, Vol. X, No. 19, p. 8.
(A. R. No. 105-107 of 1932-33).
Chingleput Taluk, Chingleput District.
following seven labels are engraved in archaic Tamil and Grantha characters on
a group of rocks, one of which, on account of a natural cavity in it, is
locally known as âNondi Virappan Kudiraitottiâ. The names Kevadaperundachchan and Kollan Semagan found in this
place indicate that the persons bearing these names belonged to the artisan
class. One of the labels also gives the
name Gunamallah. On account of their
paleographical interest, these labels, as also the one given in the previous
inscription, are included here and some of them are reproduced on plate II.
(A. R. No. 534 of 1907).
near saluvankuppam, Chingleput Taluk, Chingleput District,
the left wall of the rock-cut mandapa.
inscription which consists of seven Sanskrit verse engraved in pallava-Grantha characters, records that the cave temple was constructed by king Atiranachanda
and that it was called âAtiranachandesvaraâ after his surname. Three of the verses in the present record
are also found in Nos. 20 and 21 above and contain the birudas : Atyantakama,
Srinidhi, Kamaraga and Sribhara. Other surnames of the king were Ranajaya, Anugrasila, Kalakala,
Samara-Dhanamjaya and Samgramadhira. Since most of these epithets including Atiranachanda are
also applied to rAjasimha in his inscription at Conjeeveram,
the present record may be assigned to him. Dr. Hultzsch took Atiranachanda as a title of Nandivarman
considering the palaeography and the architectural style of the mandapa, it
seems better to take it as referring to Rajasimha.
in South Indian Inscriptions, Vol. I, No. 21, and Epigraphia Indica,
Vol. X, No. 23.
(A. R. No. 535 of 1907).
the right wall of the same rock-cut mandapa.
is a Nagari copy of the first six verses of the previous inscription.
Published in South
Indian Inscriptions, Vol. I, NO. 22 and Epigraphia Indica, Vol X,
Ind. Vol. XXIV p. 300.
[I think there was only one
Simhavarman â Ed.]
See also Journal of the Madras
University, Vol. XII, No. 1.
South Indian Inscriptions , Vol. I,
Epigraphia Indica Vol. III, pp. 277 ff.
This inscription is published with plates in
South Indian Inscriptions, Vol. II, pp. 340 ff.
The blank in 1. 3 of this page may be filled
with the letters tan-kurru.
Two other rock-cut temples at Mahabalipuram
viz, Kotikal-mandapa and the five-celled Siva temple close to it, are also of
the same style.
South Indian Inscriptions Vol. I,
Epigraphia Indica, Vol. X, p. 4.
See also Memoir of the Archaeological
Survey, No. 33, pages 46 and 47.