The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Contents

Preface

Introduction

Topographical Index

Dynastic Index

Text of the Inscriptions 

Chola

Pandya

Vijayanagara

Nayakas of Madurai

Nayakas of Tanjavur

Pallava

Rashtrakuta

Kakatiya and Feudatory

Pottapi-Chodas

Chera

Setupati

Kongu

Kodumbalur

Unidentified Pandya or Chola

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

INSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING THE YEAR 1906-07

Aditya II Karikala

No. 51 (Page No 30)

(A. R. No. 51 of. 1907)

Tiruvisalur, Kumbhakonam  Taluk, Tanjavur District

Sivayoganatha temple--- on the same wall

Aditya II Karikala : year 5 : A.D. 969-70 

This is dated in the 5th year of Parakesarivarman ‘who took the head of the Pandya ‘ i.e. of Vira-pandya. This is the Chola king Aditya II Karikala the elder brother of Rajaraj I, whose earliest inscription mentioning this exploit is dated in his 2nd year (A.R. No. 472 of 1908), which should have corresponded with the 20th and last year of reign of his adversary. As this has been fixed at A.D.966 Aditya’s accession should have place in A.D. 965 (Ep.ind. Vol. XXV, p. 37). Leyden Grant and the Tiruvalangudu plates it is known that Aditya distinguished himself even as a boy in his father Sundara-chola’s battles against the Pandya. He must have been appointed co-regent by the latter even in his life-time, but was not destined to live long. The date given in the present inscription is the latest regnal year known for him so far. 

The record registers a gift of 15 kalaju of gold made by one singan Kesavan of Nelveli in Punrir-kurram for burning a perceptual lamp in the temple of Tiruvisalur Prrumanadigal, with 4 ulakku of ghee per day accruing as interest on the amount endowed. A similar gift was also made by his wife (mamagal) Raman Perral for another lamp.

No. 214 (Page No 156)

(A. R. No. 214 of 1907)

Tiruvidaimarudur, Kumbhakonam Taluk, Tanjavur District

Mahalingasvami temple – on the same wall

Aditya II Karikala : year 4

Parakesarivarman “who took the head of the Pandya” 

Published in S.I.I., Vol. XIII, No. 203.

No. 249  (Page No 171)

(A. R. No. 249 of 1907)

Tiruvidaimarudur, Kumbhakonam Taluk, Tanjavur District

Mahalingasvami temple – on the same wall

Aditya II Karikala : date lost. 

This belongs to the reign of Parakesarivarman ‘who took the head of the Pandya’,  and records the gift of a quarter (veli) of land for the maintenance of a garden by one Tiruvenkattu-Pichchan named Parantaka Muvendevelar, who also figures in No. 260 of 1907 ascribed to the reign of Parantaka II Sundara – Chola, where he is said to have endowed a flower garden to the temple.

No. 255 (Page No 174)

(A. R. No. 255 of 1907)

Tiruvidaimarudur, Kumbhakonam Taluk, Tanjavur District

Mahalingasvami temple – on the same wall

Aditya II Karikala  :   year 4+1  : 969 A.D. 

This is a damaged and incomplete inscription of Parakesarivarman ‘who took the head of the Pandya’. This records some provision made by a resident of Uttarangudi with the Sabha of Tiraimur for the maintenance of a Pandari in the temple. A Pandari is a Saiva devotee dedicated for the service in the temple like preparing flower-garlands to the deities, singing devotional hymns etc. 

No. 256

(A. R . No. 256 of 1907)

Tiruvidaimarudur, Kumbhakonam Taluk, Tanjavur District

Mahalingasvami temple – on the same wall

Aditya II Karikala  :  year 3+1  : 968 A.D. 

This, like the inscription above, is also of the same king who is said to have “defeated Vira-Pandya and taken off his head”.  The inscription stops with the mention of Parantaka-Muvendavelar who was the Supervisor of the temple at the time.

Sundara-Chola

No.40 (Page No 19)

(A. R. No. 40 of. 1907)

Tiruvisalur, Kumbhakonam  Taluk, Tanjavur District

Sivayoganatha temple--- on the same wall

Sundara-Chola : year 5 

Published in S.I.I., Vol. III, No.121

No. 139 (Page No 111)

(A. R. No. 139 of 1907)

Kodumbalur, Kulattur Taluk, Tiruchirappalli District

Muchukundesvara temple—on the base of the same mandapa 

This is a mere fragment of an inscription mentioning Udaiyar Madhurantakan Sundarasolan. Reference is made to a woman servant of the royal palace by name Kallichchi Uttama cha . . . . . . . . and one Pudi Pattalakan Nakka . . . . . and also to two classes of smiths of Kodumbalur.

 Uttama-Chola

No.28 (Page No 14)

(A. R. No. 28 of. 1907)

Tiruvisalur, Kumbhakonam  Taluk, Tanjavur District

Sivayoganatha temple--- on the same wall

Parak.Gandaraditya Madhurantaka  

Published  in S.I.I., Vol. III, No.148 

No. 265 (Page No 182)

(A. R. No. 265 of 1907)

Tiruvidaimarudur, Kumbhakonam Taluk, Tanjavur District

Mahalingasvami temple – on the same wall

[Uttama-chola] alias Parakesarivarman : year Kaliyuga 408(3); 13th year : 982 A.D.

Published in S.I.I. Vol. XIX. No. 138.

No. 357 (Page No 248)

(A. R. No. 357 of 1907)

Aduturai, Papanasam Taluk, Tanjavur District

Apatsahayesvara temple – on the south wall

Parakesari Uttama-Chola :  year 16 :  984-85 A.D. 

Published in S.I.I., Vol. III, No. 144.

Rajaraja I  

No.2 (Page No 2)

R. No. 2 of. 1907)

Tiruvisalur, Kumbhakonam  Taluk, Tanjavur District

Sivayoganatha temple--- on the same wall

Rajendra-chola I : year 13 : 997- 98  A.D. 

This is engraved below No.1 ,and is in faulty and later characters. It is dated in the 13th year of Rararajakesarivarman (Rajaraj I) the victor of Kandalur-salai, and records a gift of 10 kasu as endowment for the daily supply of an  alakku of ghee for burning a lamp in the temple, made by a lady named Atimadurai a resident of I lachchikkudi alias Virapuram in Malalai-nadu on the northern bank. 

No 3

(A. R. No. 3 of. 1907)

Tiruvisalur, Kumbhakonam  Taluk, Tanjavur District

Sivayoganatha temple--- on the same wall

Rajendra-chola I : year 10 :994-95  A.D. 

This records a gift of 20 kasu made by Nakkan Ilakkuvanan the head man of Nenmalipakkam and resident of Perumbakkam in Aga-nadu a subdivision of Vilupparaiya-nadu, for burning a lamp in the temple of Tiruvisalur_Perumal at Avaninarayana-chaturvedimangalam, a devadan and bramahadeya on the northern bank.

Avaninarayana was a title of the Pallava king Nandivaraman III after whom this village was evidently named. It continued to be known by this name in later inscriptions thought perhaps a change was attempted as in No. 1 above.

No.19 (Page No 10)

(A. R. No. 19 of. 1907)

Tiruvisalur, Kumbhakonam  Taluk, Tanjavur District

Sivayoganatha temple--- on the west wall of the central shrine

Rajaraja I : year 5 :989-90  A.D. 

This is an inscription of Rajarajakesarivarman (Rajaraja I ) dated in his 5th year of reign. The details of date Dhanus, sundya Mula, Pratipad, would give the English equivalent as A.D. 989, December 1; f.d.t.27. The thiti  was su.1. This registers an endowment of 100 Ilakkasu made by his queen Batta Danatongiyar to the temple of Paramasvami at Tiruvisalur in Amaninarayana-chaturvedimangalam to provide (with the interest on the amount ) for the principal daily offerings to god and to feed therewith five Brahmhanas in the temple, and for the supply of paddy for the maintenance of some others (number not clear ) well versed in the Vedas, vedartha  and Mantra. The details of the gift are lost in the damaged portions of the record.

No.41 (Page No 19)

(A. R. No. 41 of. 1907)

Tiruvisalur, Kumbhakonam  Taluk, Tanjavur District

Sivayoganatha temple--- on the same wall of the mandapa in front of the central shrine

Rajaraja I : year 10 : 994-95 A.D. 

This is dated in the 10th year of Rajakesarivarman (Rajaraja I) ‘the victor of Kandalur-salai’, and records an endowment of 140 kasu by one Tali Pulichchanan of Kappalur in [Ura]tturkkuurram for feeding two Brahmanas every day in the temple of Tiruvisalur-Perumal (With the offering made to god ), for anointing the images of the deity with scent (sandal ? ) and for waving incense before the god, and for burning a perpetual lamp. With this amount 40 kuli of land is said to have been purchased (by the temple authorities as permanent investment).

No.42 (Page No 20)

(A. R. No. 42 of. 1907)

Tiruvisalur, Kumbhakonam  Taluk, Tanjavur District

Sivayoganatha temple--- on the same wall

Rajaraja I : year 29 : 1013-14  A.D. 

A slight deviation is found in the historical introduction in that it adds the “Twelve Thousand Islands”  to the usual list of the king’s conquests. The reference is evidently to the Maldives which are said to have been known by that name in ancient tradition, and which the king should have conquered late in his reign. (Prof. K.A.N. Sastri’s The Colas’. Vol. I, p.220).

The inscription registers an agreement given by the mahasabha of vemgarrur alias Solamattanda-chaturvedimangalam a Brahmadeya in Manni-nadu, to the temple of Tiruvisalur-Mahadeva. A sum of 458 kasu  was endowment to the temple and deposited with the assembly by queen Dantisaktivitankiyar alias lokamahadeviyar on the occasion of the performance of tulabhara  by the king and of hiranyagarbha by herself in the temple. As interest on this amount they undertook to measure out annually 229 kalam of paddy at the rate of 1 tuni and 1 padakku on every kasu per year, and with this paddy the ur-variyam and kudumbu committees of the year were to meet the daily requirements of akkaradalai offering to the god, of which the details are given as follows: 

Items required                                             Equivalent in paddy 

Rice – 2 nali                                               One kurini and 2 nali 

Tupparuppu(dol)—1 nali         ….                      5 nali 

Cow’s milk – 4 nali    ….    …..   …..                     1 padakku 

Ghee –1 ulakku              ….   …..                     1 kuruni 

Sugar – 12 ½  palam       ….  ….                       1 kuruni and 2 nali 

Plantain fruits –20 (?) ….   ….  …..                       6 nali 

Arecanut       10}

Betel leaves … 40}    ….    …..  ….                        2 nali and 1 nali  

Earthen pot             ….     ….,  ….                       1 nali, 1 uri and 2 ¾  sevidu 

Firewood                 ….     ….  …..                       1 nali 

Remuneration to person preparing the offering …     1 nali 

No.43 (Page No 22)

(A. R. No. 43 of. 1907)

Tiruvisalur, Kumbhakonam  Taluk, Tanjavur District

Sivayoganatha temple--- on the same wall of the mandapa in front of the central shrine

Rajaraja I : year 24 : 1008-09 A.D. 

This record the purchase of a quarter (veli ?) of land situated to the south of the temple by the temple by the temple authorities, which was set apart for the daily supply of four nali of rice (or paddy ? ) for offering to the god Pichchadevar (Bhikshaatana) during the two services. 

No.44 (Page No 23)

(A. R. No. 44 of. 1907)

Tiruvisalur, Kumbhakonam  Taluk, Tanjavur District

Sivayoganatha temple--- on the same wall

Rajaraja I : year 26 : 1010-11 A.D. 

This refers to the quarter veli of land previously apart by the temple ties for offerings to god Pichchadevar in the temple, and records an addition of a ma  and hali of land and ten kasu besides, Obtained as gift for providing for offering and for burning a lamp during three services to the god instead of the old two. The transaction of the temple, it may be noted , are said to be carried on by Chandesvara acting as agent on behalf of the god. Reference is made to the revenue survey by which probably the addition of the land was possible.

No. 79 (Page No 50)

(A. R. No. 79 of 1907 )

Ambasamudram, Amgasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District

Tirumalanathasvami temple --- on the south wall of the mandapa in front of the central shrine

This is a damaged and unfinished Vatteluttu inscription containing only a portion of the historical introduction of the Chola Rajaraja I.

No. 175 (Page No 138)

(A. R. No. 174 of 1907)

Tiruppalatturai, Tiruchirappalli Taluk, Tiruchirappalli District

Adimulesvara temple—on the north wall of the central shrine

Rajaraja I : year 21 : 1005-06 A.D. 

This registers a sale of two plots of land one measuring 3 ma and 3 kani in extent and the other a quarter (veli) by the Perunguri-sabha of Uttamasili-chaturvedi-mangalam a brahmadeya in Vilanadu a division of Pandikulasani-valanadu to the temple of Mahadeva-Bhattara at Tiruppatturai for 97 kalanju equivalent to 900 pon. The former is said to have formed part of a bigger land which had been endowed to the temple on a previous occasion by one Kurukadi-kilar and which the sabha had purchased from the temple.  Portion of it was resold to the temple in the 20th year of the king and the remaining part now.

No. 197 (Page No 150)

(A. R. No. 197 of 1907)

Tiruvidaimarudur, Kumbhakonam Taluk, Tanjavur District

Mahalingasvami temple – on the same wall

Rajaraja I : year 10 : 994-95 A.D. 

This registers the gift of a golden forehead plate weighing six kalanju and a gold flower of three kalanju to the temple by one Hridayasivar of Tirupputtur. 

No. 254 (Page No 173)

(A. R. No. 254 of 1907)

Tiruvidaimarudur, Kumbhakonam Taluk, Tanjavur District

Mahalingasvami temple – on the same wall

Rajaraja I  :   year 10 :  985-6 A.D 

This is dated on the 218th day of the 10th year of the king. It registers the gift made to the temple, of a golden image of Umasahita weighing 1172 kalanju, together with the pedestal land aureola, by the senior queen Panchavan-Mahadeiyar. Refers to one Kulalur-udaiyar as the Supervisor of the temple at the time.

No. 278 (Page No 191)

(A. R. No. 278 of 1907)

Tiruvidaimarudur, Kumbhakonam Taluk, Tanjavur District

Mahalingasvami temple – on a pillar of the same mandapa

Rajaraja I :  year 9  :   993-94 A.D. 

This records a gift of a gold tali (marriage string) set with a double row of gems weighing 9½  kalanju, a necklace of 27 pearls and a pair of pearl sidukku to the image of the goddess Uma-Bhataraki by Vanakovaraiyan Porkali, a maid servant of queen Panchavanmadevi residing at Kodandarama-velam (quarter ?) at Tanjavur, during the administration (of the temple) of Kulalurudaiyar. 

No. 342

(A. R. No. 342 of 1907)

Tiruvisalur, Kumbhakonam Taluk, Tanjavur District

Sivayoganatha temple – on the same wall

Rajaraja I :  year  6  :  990-91 A.D. 

This is much damaged. It seems to record some gift made to ‘Paramasvami who was pleased to have his happy abode’ at Tiruviyalur, by one Alinjillaiyyan of the Kodandaramat-tanichchevagam of the king, which probably means a body of selected retainers.

No. 356 (Page No 233)

(A. R. No. 356 of 1907)

Aduturai, Papanasam Taluk, Tanjavur District

Apatsahayesvara temple – on the south wall of the central shrine

Rajaraja I :  year 9 :  993-94 A.D. 

This records a gift of land 10 sey (ma?) in extent, after purchasing it from the temple itself, of Mahadeva at Tirukkurangaduturai in Tiraimur-nadu, by Sattan Aruvattaran a member of the Pirantaka-terinja-Kaikkolar (regiment of the king?) for burning one perpetual lamp and nine ordinary lamps during the service in the temple, on behalf of four ladies (probably close relations of the donor) attached to the royal palace (Kodandavelam) at Tanjavur.

No. 362 (Page No 250)

(A. R. No. 362 of 1907)

Aduturai, Papanasam Taluk, Tanjavur District

Apatsahayesvara temple – on the north wall of the central shrine

Rajaraja I :  year  9 :  993-94 A.D. 

Some stones seem to be missing in the body of the record and the portion at the end is damaged. The inscription status that after bringing under cultivation some fallow lands by (order of) Pirantakan Madevadigal alias Sembiyan-Madeviyar the mother of Madurantakadeva alias Sri Uttama-Chola they were gifted away to the temple to meet the expenses of maintaining a lamp during the night in the temple of the repairs and renovation to the temple and provision for the grant of a living to a musician of the temple by name Sattan Kuttan alias Pattagal-Pattan.

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