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Friday, January 27, 2006


The Indian Analyst


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 

BOMBAY KARNATAKA INSCRIPTIONS

VOLUME III

The Yadavas

Simghana | Kannanara, Mahadeva | Ramachandra

One outstanding feature of the records of the reign of king Simghana of this dynasty is that they fix various dated for the commencement of his rule.  In fact, they show that the initial year of his reign was reckoned from six different dates.  It is however, difficult to explain this unusual phenomenon or connect the various starting points with particular events of his reign.  For easy reference these dates are given below in tabular form: 

Nos

Regnal Year

Equivalent

Initial year

200 2 A.D. 1200  
201 3 A.D. 1201 A.D. 1198-99
203 10 A.D. 1208  
       
224 39 A.D. 1245 A.D. 1206-07
205 19 A.D. 1226 A.D. 1207-08
       
206 19 A.D. 1227  
212 22 A.D. 1230 A.D. 1208-09
213 25 A.D. 1233  
225 38 A.D. 1246  
       
207 18 A.D. 1228 A.D. 1210-11
218 26 A.D. 1236  
       
215 18 A.D. 1234 A.D. 1216-17
       

Among the notable achievements of this king are mentioned the conquest of Mandava and the destruction of the hill-fort of Bhambheri (No. 227).  Mandava is evidently Mandu in Rajasthan though the ruler whom he vanquished is not specified.  Bhambheri is modern Bhamer is West Khandesh as suggested by Prof. Mirashi.  The spelling of this place-name found in the present record further supports Prof.  Mirashi’s identification.  From another inscription (No. 230) of this reign it appears that Singhana had a queen named Jetadevi, for he is therein described as Jetadevi-manoramah.  

Coming to the reign of his successor Kannara, we are confronted with a passage in an inscription (No. 237) which seems t say that in Saka 1177 (A.D. 1255) both Kannara and his younger brother Mahadeva were ruling. The passage in question reads:

anharadeva-Mahadeva-vijaya-raiyam-uttarottaram, etc.  Unless Mahadeva is meant to stand for Maharaja  or a similar expression denoting paramountcy, it will have to be considered that both he and his brother were ruling jointly.  But this supposition goes against the known periods of these two rulers, the first of whom ruled till A.D. 1260, in which year he was succeeded by Mahadeva.  No other epigraph so far known makes any reference to their  joint rule.  However Amalananda, the author of Vedantakalpataru also makes a similar satement: Kirtya Yadava-vamsam=unnamayati Sri-Jaitradevatmaje Krishne kshmabhriti bhutalam saha-Mahadevena sambibharati.  Another inscription of Kannara, (No. 233) dated in the cyclic year Ananda (A.D. 1254) speaks of Mahamandalesvara Haripaladeva as a person of rank and authority.  If this Haripaladeva is the same as the Harpal Deo who was the son-in-law of Ramachandra of this dynasty and was captured and flayed alive in 1318, then the present record would give the earliest date known so far for him  It may also be pointed out that this record is one of the very few epigraphs that make mention of him.  

Most of the inscriptions of the reign of Ramachandra are hero-stones.  Three records, however, deserve to be noticed since they would fix an earlier date for the accession of this king than the one given by Fleet (i.e., A.D. 1271-72).  These records are dated on the 19th (No. 264) 29th (269) and 30th (No. 270) years of his reign and the equivalents of these dates would be A.D. 1287 November, 1297 December and 1298 June respectively.  They show that he counted his regnal years from some date before June 1269.  But since we know that his predecessor Mahadeca was still on the throne in A.D. 1270 May-June, the discrepancy can be reconciled only by the assumption that Ramachandra was associated with Mahadeva in the governance of the kingdom, even from A.D. 1269.  It may be observed here that No. 271 is one of the very few inscriptions of this reign issued after A.D. 1298, though Muslim chronicles carry his rule up to A.D. 1309.

No. 197

(B.K. No. 159 of 1933-34)

Bijapur, Bijapur Taluk, Bijapur District

Slab (A-37) in the Musum

Bhillama (A.D. 1190?)

This inscription is dated in the 4th year of the reign of Bhillamadeva, Saumya, Kartika su. Purnima, Monday, Samkramana, Bharani.  In the cyclic year Saumya, corresponding to A.D. 1189, the details do not work out correctly.  In the next year Sadharana, however, the details correspond regularly to A.D. 1190, October 15, Monday.  On that day the nakshatra was Bharani but there was no Samkramana. This is probably the intended date.  

It registers a grant of land and house-site made by Vaijarasa-Dandanayaka, an officer under Mahapradhana Prachanda-Dandanayaka Vayidevarasa, for repairs to the temple of Boppesvara of Tamba.  The gift was entrusted to Chandarasi and Santara I the acharyas of that temple Vaijarasa-Dandanayaka is stated to be governing the six towns (bada of Tamba)  

No. 198

(B.K. No. 131 of 1933-34)

Bijapur, Bijapur Taluk, Bijapur District

Sixth pillar in Ark-killah

Jaitugi-A.D. 1196

This inscription refers itself to the reign of Pratapachakravarti Jaitapaladeva and is dated in the 6th ear of his reign Nala, Pushya su. 4, Wednesday, Uttarayana-samkramana, corresponding regularly to A.D. 1196, December 25, Wednesday.  

It records the gift of the income derived from certain taxes, made by Senadhipati Samkarasa Dandanayaka and Karama Kesiyanayya-Nayaka who were governing Tardavadi One thousand.  The gift was made to god Nrisimba of Vijayapura (modern Bijapur), which is described as Dakshina-Varamasi.  

No. 199

(B.K. No. 157 of 1933-34)

Bijapur, Bijapur Taluk, Bijapur District

Slab (No. A-35) in the Museum

Jaitugi-A.D. 1196

This inscription refers itself to the reign of Pratapachakravarti Jaitapaladeva and is dated in Saka 1119, Nala, Pushya su, Panchami, Wednesday, Samkramana corresponding to A.D. 1196, December 25, Wednesday, f.d.t. 66.  The Saka year cited was the current year.  

It registers a grant of land and house site made by Dedara Chilayya to god Bandesa at Kiriy-Indi.  The gift land was received by him from the king, the Urodeyas, Muligas, Arunavattokkalu and Hittus and handed over to the Sain Chandrabharanabrati.  Kiriry-Indi (modern Indi) is stated to be situated in the Kampana of Muvattarumbada in Tardavadi-pradesa.

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