www.whatisindia.com

What Is India News Service
Friday, January 27, 2006


The Indian Analyst


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 

BOMBAY KARNATAKA INSCRIPTIONS

VOLUME III

Geographical Divisions | The Guttas of Guttavolal | The Kadambas of Hangal | The Pandya chiefs of Nurumbada | The Khacharas of Basavur

Geographical Divisions

The more important of the numerous geographical divisions occurring in these inscriptions may be brought together with advantage suggesting their identifications wherever possible.  For the sake of convenience they are arranged here in alphabetical order.

Arunurum-bada:

This division (of six hundred villages) is stated to have been situate in Tardavadi Thousand which has been shown by Fleet to have consisted of portions of the Bijapur District.

Banavasi Twelve thousand: It is described as the country lying between the rivers Varada and the Tungabhadra.  It was a large tract comprising portions of the Shimoga, North Kanara and Dharwar Districts.

Bagadaga Seventy: The chief town of this sub-division was Bagadegeya-kote, the present Bagalkot in the Bijapur District.

Bage Fifty: This division formed part of Taradavadi Thousand.  In it were situated Arjunige (Arjungi)[1] Kakhandage (Kakhandki) and Gandega (Devaragennur) all in the Bijapur District.  Bage has been identified with Taddalabage in this district.

Basavura Hundred and-forty: In this division were situated, among others, the following villages:-

Deyvada-Hosavuru (Devihosur), Chengapura (Sangur), Kolur, Mallavura (Mallur), Tammunge (Konanatambige), Ommoradi (Hommaradi)—all in the Haveri Taluk of the Dharwar District.  Basavura or Vyasapura which was the headquarters of this division is now represented by two neighbouring villages Chikka-Basur and Hire-Basur in the Hirekerur and Hangal taluks respectively, of the Dharwar District.

Beluhuge (or Belguhe) Seventy: The villages Guttavolal (Gittal), Nerilage (Niralgi), and Kannavalli (Kanavalli) were situated in this division.  The chief town Beluhuge is Belvagi in the Haveri Taluk.  The other villages are also in the same Taluk.

Belvola Three-hundred: This well-known division, together will Puligere Three-hundred, formed the division of Erad-arunuru (the two Six-hundreds), In it were included the following villages:-Lokkigundi (Lakkundi), Ummachige (Kota-Ummachigi), Battakere (Betegeri), all in the Gadag Taluk, Naragunda (headquarters of Naragund Petha) and Siriguppe.

Bennedaddi Seventy: This was a circle of twelve villages with Bennevur (Motebennur in the Bennevur (Benneyur) Renabennur Taluk) as headquarters.

Bennavur Twelve: Its chief town Binnavur is the modern Ranebennur.  Badad-Alur was situated in it.  Inscriptions of Gudadanaveri (Ranebennur Taluk) show that lands whose gift is recorded in them were situated at Badad-Alur.  It is therefore apparent that the two villages are identical.

Chimchila Fifty: Its chief town Chimchila is the present Chinchli in the Gadag Taluk of te Dharwar District.

Erad-aunuru: This division, as stated above, comprised Belvola Three-hundred and Puligere Three-hundred.

Edenadu Seventy:  …….

Gonka-nadu: This is identical with Velanadu comprising the  Repalle and Tenali taluks of the Guntur District in Andhra Pradesh.

Hichage-nadu: Hiriya-Kittur (Kittur in Haveri Taluk) was in this district.  Hichage, the chief town is probably the present Ichangi about five miles from Kittur.

Ittage Thirty: This is named after its headquarters Ittage, the present Itgi in the Ranebennur Taluk.  Together with Rattapalli Seventy if formed a division called Nurum-bada or Rattapalli Nurum-bada.

Innur-arum-bada: This division (of two hundred and six villages) formed part of Banavase Twelve-thousand.  Hasundi (Asundi in Ranebennur Taluk) seems to have been included in it.

Kadambalige-nadu: The headquarters of this circle, Kagenele is the present Kaginelli in the Hirekerur Taluk.

Kannavuri Twelve: Its headquarters Kannavuri is the modern Kannur in the Bijapur District.  Bijjanahalli (Basnal?) was situated in it.  This group of villages was apparently included in Karnapuri-vishya (see below)

Karnapuri-vishya: Karnapuri, from which this district derives its name is Kannur which is called Kannavuri in Kannada inscriptions.  Pauthage (Salotgi in the same District) was situated in this district.

Kasavala Savalakka: This division of one and a quarter lakh villages comprised the districts of Nizamabad and Karimnagar and parts of Warangal in Andhra Pradesh.

Kelavadi Three hundred: The chief town of this district is the present Kelvadi in the Badami Taluk of the Bijapur District.

Kisukadu Seventy: Kisuvolal, modern Pattadakal in the Badami Taluk, was headquarters of this division.

Kolanur Thirty: Kolanur, the chief town, is the modern Konnur in the Navalgund Taluk of the Dharwar District.

Kuduvannaganda Seventy: The two Rashtrakuta inscriptions in which this sub-division is mentioned, couple it with a smaller group of villages called Ittage Thirty.  In later records the Ittage circle is usually mentioned along with Rattapalli seventy and the two together are stated to have formed the bigger division of Nurumbada, (or the district of one hundred villages).  The way in which Kuduvanna-ganda Seventy and Rattapalli Seventy are associated with Ittage Thirty, would make one suspect that the sub-division of Kuduvannaganda Seventy might have later come to be known as Rattapalli Seventy.  This change was perhaps due to the importance the place gained probably towards the end of the Rashtrakuta period as the name Rattapalli would suggest.

This included parts of the Belagum District and the Terdal division in the Kundi Three-thousand: former Sangli State (now merged in Kolhapur District).

Mahalige-nadu: Mahalige, the chief town of this division is the modern village of the same name on the right bank of the Saravati about 30 miles to the north-west of Humcha in the Shimoga District of the Mysore State.

Mahisha-vishaya: In this district was situated the village of Kamachina-Muduvolal which probably is presented by the present Mudhol, the capital of the former Mudhol State (now merged in Bijapur District).

Mirinje Three-thousand: Mirinje the head quarters of this province is the modern Miraj.

Magunda Twelve: …………………

Mulugunda Twelve: The place after which this circle of villages is called, retains its name even today and it is in the Gadag Taluk of the Dharwar District.  Kani (Kanvi in Gadag Taluk) was included in it.

Nagarakhanda-nadu: This was also known as Nagarakhanda Seventy.  It comprised portions of the Hangal Taluk and adjoining areas of the Shimoga District. Tiluvalli (Hangal Taluk) was situated in this division.

Narayamgal Twelve: This group of villages had its head-quarters at Narayamgal, the modern Naregal in Ron Taluk of Dharwar District.  Ummachige (Kota Ummachigi) was in it.

Nolambavadi: This province is often called Nolambavadi Thirty-two-thousand.  It was a large tract in which are included parts of the present Shimoga, Chitaldrug, Bellary and Anantapur Districts.

Narum-bada: This division of one-hundred villages was also known as Rattapalli Nurum-bada being so named after its head-quarters Rattapalli (rattihalli in Hirekerur Taluk).  As stated above, it consisted of two smaller division, viz., Rattapalli Seventy and Ittage Thirty.

Paive (or Haive) –nadu: The area comprising parts of North kanara District went by this name.  The name Haika or Havyaka, a subject of Brahmins in North Kanara isreminiscent of this territory.

Paliyanda Four-thousand: This is also mentioned in inscriptions as Pratyandaka-Chatussaharasa and comprised  parts of Osmnabad District in Maharashtra.  Its chief town Paliyanda is the same as modern Parenda.

Pamunigal (or Hanumgal) Five0hundred: Panumgal, the chief town of this district is the present Hangal, the headquarters of the taluk of that name in the Dharwar District.  Bankapura (Bankapur) was situated in it.

Ponnavanti (Ponnavatti or Honnavatti) Twelve: This small circle of villages had its headquarters at Ponnavanti, modern Honnatti in Haveri Taluk.

Perbal Seventy: The chief town of the sub-division is now represented by Hebbal near Lakshmesvar in Dharwar District.

Purigere (or Puligere, Huligere) Three-hundred: This well-known sub-division had Purigere or Puligere (Lakshmesvar) as its headquarters.  This and Belvola Three-hundred were together called Erad-aru-nuru or the two Six-hundreds. (See Erad-aru-nuru above)

Rattapalli Seventy: The headquarters of this division was Rattapali (Rattihalli in Hirekerur Taluk.  See under Ittage above).

Santalige One-thousand: The name of this division is sometimes written as Sattalige One-thousand and in one inscription it is also called Sattalige Seventy (see below) was included in this division.  It is therefore difficult to say whether it was wrongly spelt as Sattalige in the cases above mentioned.  Or Sattalige Seventy may have, in course of time, enlarged into a bigger division of one-thousand villages and to distinguish one from the other latter might have been named Santalige One-thousand.

Sattalige, Sattiyalige Satyalge Seventy:  The following villages formed part of this division:- Pasundi (Asundi), Halugere (Halgeri), Kadirmidi (Kadaramanadalgi), Belugal  (probably Benkankonda)[2] and Bennevur (Motebennur) all in Ranebennur Taluk; Sidiyanur (Sidenur), Nagarapala (probably Nagalapur) both in Hirekerur Taluk.  No lace of the name Sattalige can be traced anywhere near these villages but the village Satenahalli (Hirekerur Taluk) which is not very far off from Sidenur and Nagalapur approaches phonetically the place-name Sattalige. 

Segunadesa: This region, usually called Sevunadesa, is considered by R.G. Bhandarkar, to have extended “from Nasik to Devagiri, the modern Daulatabad.

Tadeyur Twelve: ……….

Tambad-Arumbada: This small group of six villages had its headquarters at Tamba which is called even today by the same name in the Bijapur District.

Tardavadi Thousand: This division comprised the northern portions of the Bijapur District and its chief town Tardavadi is the modern Taddevadi on the southern bank of the river Bhima.

Toragale-nadu: This was also called Toragale Six-thousand.  Its chief town Toragle is the modern Torgal, the capital of the former princely state of that name, now merged in Belgaum District

For facilitating ready reference, a map in which some of these divisions are shown is attached.

We may now notice some of the inscriptions of literary interest.  As usual with Kannada, records, a fairly good number are in verse and some of them give the name of the composer too; and a few specify the meters in which the verses are composed.  The earliest of such authors that have come to light in this volume is Devanagayya who wrote an inscription of A.D. 1063 (No. 69) at Devihosur, in the reign of the Chalukya king Somesvara I.  Chaturmukha Rudrabhatta is stated to have composed an inscription of the time of Somesvara II (No. 79) in A.D. 1074.  The following flourished during the reign of Vikramaditya VI:  Urodeya Nagadeva who wrote an inscription in A.D. 1078 (No. 85), Mallikarjuna whose composition was corrected by Kollurave Nagavara-Kavindra, A.D. 1080 (No. 89) and Naranadeva of Visvamitra-gotra whose poetry was a recoated by eminent poets, A.D. 1109 (No. 108). 

Besides these Abhinava Pampa is regarded as the poet who wrote an inscription which is now deposited in the Bijapur Museum (No. 125).  A high sounding eulogy of the poet Subbu is contained in an inscription of Asundi (No. 133) which was written by him in A.D. 1127.  Kiriya-Mukana-Pandiata was another poet of note, who lived in this period.  He composed an inscription of Haveri (No. 136) in A.D. 1134.  The learned Sarvajna Pattavardhana was the composer of a record of the reign of Jagadekamalla II, in A.D. 1147 (No. 150).  A record of A.D. 1168 is said to have been written by a poet whose name consisted of four syllables; only the first three, i.e., Santira, of these four are preserved.  His composition was corrected by Kaviparamantma (No. 180).  A Magachandra  described as an eminent poet is mentioned in an inscription of the Kalachurya king Sovideva (No. 187).  Kalideva-Pandita of Ulihalli is credited with the authorship of an inscription of A.D. 1186 (No. 163).  No. 199 (of A.D. 1196).  He is Dedara-Dasa, apparently the same as Jedara-Dasimayya who has been placed by R. Narasimhachar in circa.  A.D. 1040. In his family, we are told, was born Somayya, a resident of Kiriy-Indi.  His son was Chilayya who resembled the ‘world-famous’ Chilalva.  This Chilayya made a gift to a temple at Kiriy-Indi in A.D. 1196.

While the earliest literary reference to Jedara-Dasimayya is traceable in a work of about A.D. 1125, the present record contains one of the earliest dated epigraphical referenced to him.

A large number of religious teachers -  mainly Saiva and Jaina – are introduced in the inscriptions of this volume.  In some case the spiritual lineage of these personages as also their eminence and erudition are described at length.  It is worthy of note that the administrative control of some of the temples and other religious institutions was vested in the hands of such holy men.  All the property, including villages and lands given by kings, nobles and others for various services in these temples were placed in charge of these acharyas.  Thus, for instance, Varunasiva-Pandita, the rajaguru of Bhuvanaikamalladeva (i.e., Somesvara II) was in A.D. 1062 conducting the administration of the twelve badas of the temple of god Indresvara of Bankapura (No. 66).  Another person who was administering all the gorava-vadas (establishments of Saiva teachers) was Sivaraja-Gurudeva, mentioned in a record of Somesvara I (No. 72)

Some other points of general interest gleaned from our inscription may also be se down here.  One inscription which is of both sculptural and conographical value in No. 308.  It not only labels the sculptural representations of Sankhanidhi, Sriyadevi and Padmanidhi but also gives the names of the sculptors who cut these images.  It is well known that Sankhanidhi and Padmanidhi are the two treasures of Kubera and the figures depicted here are their personified forms.  The importance of this inscription is enhanced by the fact that it is one of the earliest of this type, belonging as it does to A.D. 778.  The names of the sculptors who executed these beautiful figures are Mukundovaja, Anumanakusala and Budovaja.  On account of these images being labeled, a clear idea of their iconographical features can be obtained.  Likewise, many of the invocatory verses and a few others in inscriptions give iconographical details with regard to the particular deities invoked in them.  I may also notice here an inscription (no. 191) which mentions an architect who claims to have constructed one thousand (i.e. innumerable) temples.  His name was Ketoja.

The high state of development which music had reached in the 11th century A.D. can be gathered from an inscription (No. 86) of the Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI.  We learn from this record that Mokari Brmayya, who was the protégé of Yuvaraja Yayasimha, was a musician of a very high order.  A number of epithets describing his proficiency in music (both vocal and instrumental) and dancing are applied to hi.  Of particular interest among them in Battisa-raga-bahu-kala-Brahma (i.e., a very Brahma of many arts skilled in thirty-two ragas).  To know the full significance of this biruda. I wrote to Prof.  Sambamurti of Madras, the noted authority on music requesting him to help me in elucidating it.  He very kindly replied to me and I reproduce with gratitude extracts from his letter in this connection.

“I am very thankful to you for having drawn my attention to this inscription.  The epithet Battisa-raga etc., meaning skilled in 32 ragas has a special significance.  It refers to the skill in the 32 Mela Kartha ragas based on the 12 swarasthanas of the Sthayi and which are free from vivadi dosha.  You know there are 72 mela karthas but 40 of them which take one or other of the following notes, viz., Suddha Gandhara, Shatasruti Rishabha, Suddha Nishada, and Shastsruti Dhaivatha suffer from vivadi dosha.  32 of the 72 are free from vivadi dosha and these 32 melas were known from early times.  The only vivadi melas known in ancient Indian Music are Varali and Nata the 39th and 36th in the list of 72.  The biruda…simply means that he was skilled in the 32 non-vivadi mela kartha ragas.  This is an inscription of historical importance”.  Another musician of note, Birudaradeva by name, who also flourished in the time of Vikramaditya VI is referred to in an inscription of A.D. 1116 (No. 113).  He was an expert in singing in the different pitches – tara, mandra and Madhya.

From an inscription of Taila III (No. 160) we get an idea of the important position occupied by the person who was appointed by the king to control the activities connected with the minting of gold coins.  It tells us that Echisetti of Narugunda by virtue of his being regarded as the fittest individual to be placed in charge of the (royal) mind (achchu), was appointed by the king to that high post of trust and responsibility, the king conferred upon him the title of Hemakuppati, Concsequently he came to be known thenceforth as Kuppati-Echisetti.  The word kuppati denotes a portable furnace used by goldsmiths.

Among the various taxes and imposts levied during this period, two are of special significance.  They are Andhra-danda (No. 118) and Tigula-danda (No. 26), Their names would suggest that they were levied in order to make provision for repelling the periodical inroads of the Andhras and the Tigulas (Tamilians)

Of gustatory interest is the mention in a few inscriptions, of mandaka (Kan. Mandage) a highly prized delicacy even today in the Kannada country.  As an instance may be cited an inscription of A.D. 1121 (No. 118), wherein Govinda-Dandahipa, a famous general of Vikramaditya VI, is said to have made a provision for offering this dish as naivedya to the gods Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesvara, at Pauthage.

These are just a few of the outstanding bits of information gathered from these inscription Scholars specializing in different aspects of history and culture are bound to find much valuable material on closer scrutiny of these epigraphs.


[1] The names of villages in brackets are the present forms.

[2] The identification proposed here is based on the fact that in inscriptions of Benkankonda, the village is called Belugali.  This is confirmed by the allusion in an inscription of Antaravalli (Ranebennur Taluk) to a boundary dispute between the village Belugali an Halugere.  This Halugere is Halgeri near Antaravalli.  The village bordering it is Benkankonda.  So it is possible that Belugali is the present Benkankonda.

Home Page


Archives | Links | Search
About Us | Feedback | Guestbook

© 2005 Copyright What Is India Publishers (P) Ltd. All Rights Reserved.