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South Indian Inscriptions


 

Pallva Inscriptions

Nos.26 to 50

No. 26.

(A. R. No. 368 of 1908).

Vayalur, Chingleput Taluk, Chingleput District.

On a pillar in the gopura of the Vyaghrapurisvara Temple.

This inscription is engraved in florid Pallava-Grantha characters in the form of a helix on a cubical pillar of the Pallava type, supporting the gopura in front of the temple.  The pillar seems to have belonged to some other temple in the vicinity.  Of Pallava structural monuments in the Chingleput district, only those at Mahabalipuram and Conjeeveram are known.  The pillars at Vayalur and Tirupporur[1] suggest the existence of other such monuments in the district.

The present record purports to give the genealogy of Pallava kings from Brahma down, through fifty-four generations, to king Rajasimha.  The last verse of the inscription suggests that it was intended to perpetuate the accession of Rajasimha (Narasimha II) to the throne.

Published in Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XVIII, pages 150 and 151.

No. 27.

(A. R. No. 76 of 1909).

Tirupporur, Chingleput taluk, Chingleput District.

On two pillars in the mandapa in front of the Devayanaiyamman shrine in the Kandasvamin temple.

This record engraved in Pallava-Grantha  characters on two detached pillars, gives the birudas of a Pallava king.  From the florid variety of the alphabet[2] used and from the occurrence of the titles Atyantakama, Atiranachanda, etc., the king may be identified with Narasimha II whose identical birudas are also found engraved in the Kailasanatha temple at Conjeeveram which is definitely known to have been constructed by him.  As Tirupporur is close to Mahabalipuram, it is possible that the pillars belonged to a structural temple of the time of Narasimha II built somewhere in this locality and may have been fixed up in their present position in the Kandasvamin temple at a later date.

No. 28.

(A. R. No. 566 of 1912).

Mahabalipuram, Chingleput Taluk, Chingleput District.

On the Plinths of two Balipithas excavated in the courtyard of the shore temple.

This is a damaged record consisting of six Sanskrit verses in praise of the Pallava king Rajasimha or Narendrasimha Atyantakama who is given a number of epithets which help to identify him with Narasimha II.  The Shore Temple at Mahabalipuram and the Talapurisvara temple at Panamalai are representative of the type of architecture that prevailed in the time of Narasimha.

Published in Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XIX, pages 107 and 108.

No. 29.

(A. R. No. 616 of  1915).

Panamalai, Villupuram Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the North, West and South bases of the Talapurisvara temple on the hill.

This incomplete record in florid Pallava-Grantha characters gives the prasasti of king Rajasimha, son of Ekamalla i.e., Paramesvara I.  From the existence of this inscription and of another consisting of a single Sanskrit verse which is identical with the last verse of Kailasanatha inscription of Rajasimha (South Indian Inscriptions, Vol. I, No. 24) and with the 3rd verse of the Shore Temple inscription of the same king at Mahabalipuram (No. 28 above), it may be presumed that the temple of Talapurisvara was constructed during his reign.  A photo-litho of this record is given in the Epigraphical Report for 1916, facing page 114.

Published in Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XIX, pages 113 and 114[3].

No. 30.

(A. R. No. 618 of 1915).

On the side of a cavern in the same hill.

This is a single Sanskrit verse, which is identical with the last verse of Rajasimha’s inscription[4] round the Rajasimhesvara shrine in the Kailasanatha temple at Conjeeveram.  It is a benedictory verse wishing long rule for Rajasimha, who has the birudas : Ranajaya, Sribhara, Chitrakarmuka, Ekavira, and Sivachudamani.  A facsimile of the inscription is given on plate I facing page 112 in the Epigraphical Report for 1916.

Published in South Indian Inscriptions, Vol. I, No. 31, p. 24.

MAHENDRAVARMAN III.

No. 31.

(A. R. No. 1 of 1932-33).

Conjeeveram, Conjeveram Taluk, Chingleput District.

On a slab fixed in the northern end of the Okkapirandankulam Street.

This is a label inscription[5] in Pallava-Grantha script engraved on the lateral face of a stray granite slab fixed at the northern entrance into the Okkapirandankulam Street.  From general appearance, the slab seems to have formed the lintel of a structural temple in the village.  The inscription reads ‘Sri-Mahendravarmmesvaragriham’.  A similar label is also found in the same village in the Kailasanatha temple, engraved on the two wing-stones of the steps leading to the Mahendravarmesvara shrine, which is stated to have been built by Mahendravarman III (S.I.I. Vol. I. p. 23).  The original location of this slab may be traced to this shrine where the present lintel appears to be a later substitution or to some other shrine not far from its present position.[6]

NANDIVARMAN II.

No. 32.

(A. R. No. 537 of  1905).

Tiruvellarai, Lalgudi Taluk, Trichinopoly District.

On the third pillar in the rock-cut cave in the Pundarikaksha-Perumal Temple

This inscription which is highly damaged, is dated in the 10th year of Nandivarman.  It mentions a certain Visayanallula[n], who may be identified with the person of the same name noticed as the elder brother of Kamban Araiyan, the builder of the well at Tiruvellarai in the 4th year of Dantivarman.[7]   He also figures as the ajnapti of the Pattattalamangalam grant of Nandivarman II[8].   (No.37 below).  Hence Nandivarman of the present record may be identified with Nandivarman II Pallavamalla.

No. 33.

(A. R. No. 10 of 1911-12).

Kasakudi plates of Nandivarman : 22nd year

This copper-plate charter in Grantha and Tamil characters was found at Kasakudi near Karaikal in French India.  It is dated in the 22nd year of Nandivarman II, also known as Pallavamall, Kshatriyamalla, Nayadhira, and Sridhara, and records a gift made by the king, at the request of his minister Brahmasriraja, of the village Kodukolli, which was later, surnamed as Ekadhiramangalam[9], to a Brahmana named Jyeshtapada-Somayajin of the Bharadvaja-gotra residing at Puniya in Tondaka-rashtra.

Published in South Indian Inscriptions, Vol. II.  pp. 342 ff.

No. 34.

(A. R. No. 109 of 1932-33).

Paiyanur, Chingleput taluk and District.

On a rock near the dilapidated temple of Ettisvara.

This record is dated in the 37th year of Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman who, from the palaeography of the inscription and the high regnal year quoted in it, may be identified with Pallavamalla.  It registers an agreement made by the gana of Payinur to remove annually the silt from the big tank of the village for the interest on 6,400 kadi of paddy received by them by the standard measure por-kal, from Nagan, a merchant of Ulakkuni residing at Mamallapuram. The document is signed by Settanandi, evidently a member of the gana.  The village Paiyanur is very close to Mahabalipuram and the earliest epigraphical reference to ‘Mamallapuram’ is to be found in the present inscription.

It may be pointed out that the epithets ‘Vijaya’ and ‘Vikramavarman’ added to his name by Nandivarman, were invariably adopted by his successors.[10]

No. 35.

(A. R. No. 154 of 1921).

Kulidikki, Guidyattam Taluk, North Arcot District.

On a stone set up near the river.

This inscription is dated in the 52nd year of Vijaya-Nandivarman.  It records the death of Gangadiyaraiyar Kannadu Perungangar,  (the chief) of Karkattur, who at the instance of his uncle (mamadi), the Bana chief, fought on the occasion of the Pallava invasion against Perumanadigal (i.e. the Western Ganga king), when (the fortress of ) Penkulikkottai was destroyed.  From the high regnal year quoted in the inscription, the king may be identified with Nandivarman Pallavamalla.

Published in Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XXII, p. 110.

No. 36.

(C. P. No. 7 of 1911-12).

Tandantottam plates of Nandivikramavarman: 58th year.

This is an incomplete copperplate record from Tandantottam near Kumbhakonam in the Tanjore district, dated in the 58th year of Nandivarman (II).  It is engraved in Grantha and Tamil characters and registers the gift of the village Dayamukhaangalam, named after the donor Dayamukha, to 308 learned Brahmans with additional provision for worship in the Siva and Vishnu temples of the village and for reciting the Mahabharata in the temple hall.  The prasasti in the grant was drawn up by Paramesvara surnamed Uttara-karanika.  The seal of this record is published on plate VII for the first time now.

Published in South Indian Inscriptions, Vol. II, pp. 517 ff.

No. 37.

(C. P. No. 5 of  1922-23).

Pattattalmangalam grant of Nandivarman: 61st year.

Like the previous record, this is also engraved in Grantha and Tamil characters.  It is dated in the 61st year of Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman and registers a grant of 16 veli of land, which, together with the 24 veli granted previously, was constituted into a village under the name Pattattalmangalam and given to a number of Brahmanas at the instance of Mangala-Nadalvan, an officer of the king.  The ajnapti of the grant viz., Vijayanallulan of Alappakkam is identical with the person of the same name figuring in an inscription of Nandivarman at Tiruvellarai[11] in the Trichinopoly district.  The engraver of the grant was Sri-Dandi, son of Videlvidugu Pallavap-peruntachchan of Aimpanaichcheri in Kachchippedu.

Published in Epigraphia Indica,  Vol. XVIII, pp.  120 ff.

No. 38.

(A. R. No. 666 of  1922).

Mahabalipuram, Chingleput taluk, Chingleput District.

On two sides of a slab lying in the courtyard of the Varaha cave-temple.

This inscription is dated in the 65th year of Nandibodhuvarman (Nandippottavarman) who belonged to the Pallava-vamsa.  It registers a gift of pasture land by Idaivalanjan Kandan, one of the Nagarattar of  Mamallapuram, after purchasing it  from Kon-Kandan, son of Ilan Paduvunar, the headman of Kunrattur in Amur-kottam.  The villages of Kunrattur and Amur are near Mahabalipuram in Chingleput district.

The regnal year given in this record is the highest known date for Nandivarman (II).

Published in the Memoir of the Archaeological Survey of India, No. 26, pp. 10-11.

DANTIVARMAN

No. 39.

(A. R. No. 256 of 1908).

Vayalur, Chingleput Taluk, Chingleput District.

On a slab built into the floor of the mandapa in front of the central shrine in the vanadhisvara temple.

This inscription records a gift of 3 kadi  (of paddy) by five individuals for offerings and a lamp in the temple of Bhatara at Vayalaikka, in the 2nd year of Vijaya-Dantivikramavarman.

No. 40.

(A. R. No. 541 of 1905).

Tiruvellarai, Lalgudi Taluk, Trichinopoly District.

On the margin of a well called ‘Nalumulaikkeni’.

This inscription records the construction of a well called Marppidugu[12]-Perunkinaru at Tennur in Tiruvellarai by Kamban Araiyan, the younger brother of Visayanallulan of  Alambakkam, in the 4th year of Dantivarman.  The well is designed in the for of a svastika and it is reached by a flight of steps from each of the four directions.

Published in Epigraphia Indica, Vol.  XI, p. 157.

No. 41.

(A. R. No. 348 of 1914).

Kunnandarkoyil, Pudukkottai State.

At the north end of the rock-cut cave of the Parvatagirisvara temple.

This is dated in the 5th year of Vijaya-Dantipottaraiyar and records the construction of a tank called ‘ Vali-eri ‘ by Vali-Vadugan alias  Kalimurkka-Ilavaraiyan, a servant of Marppiduvinar alias Peradi-Araiyar.

Published[13] in the ‘Inscriptions  (Texts) of the Pudukkotttai State,’ No. 17.

No. 42.

(A. R. No. 283 of 1916).

Tondur, Gingee Taluk, South Arcot District.

On a Boulder in a field near the ‘Vinnamparai-rock’.

This inscription[14] is dated in the 6th year of  Vijaya-Dantivikramavarman and it registers a gift of 16 kalanju of gold by Vinnakovaraiyar, probably a chieftain of the locality, to provide, from th interest on the amount, offerings to the goddess Erruk-Kunranar-Bhattari for the merit of Udaradi and Nambi ……… who fell in an  encounter.  The food offered to the god was used for feeding pilgrims and the gold endowed was received by the assembly of Aruvagur in Singapura-nadu.  Certain specified members of the Varigam were nominated to see that the assembly maintained this charity properly.  The village Aruvagur, which is stated to have been situated to the east of the road, may be identified with Arugavur in the Gingee taluk.

No. 43.

(A. R. No. 262 of 1904).

Tiruchchanur, Chandragiri Taluk, Chittoor District.

On a Detached stone built into the floor at the entrance into the Padmavati Amman temple.

This record registers a gift of 30 kalanju of gold by Solanar Ulagaperumanar of Sola-nadu for burning a perpetual lamp before the god Tiruvilankoyil Perumanadigal set up in the temple of Tiruvengadattu-Perumanadigal at Tiruchchoginur in Kudavur-nadu, a subdivision of Tiruvengada-kottam, in the 51st year of Vijaya-Dantivikramavarman.  Ulagaperumanar mentioned in the inscription was evidently a Chola chief ruling Sola-nadu under the overlordship of the Pallavas.  A different Chola chief is mentioned in No. 49 below.

No. 44.

(A. R. No. 89 of 1921).

Pillaipalayam, Conjeeveram Taluk, Chingleput District.

On a slab built into the floor at the entrance into the Tirumerrali temple.

This is a fragmentary record of Dantivikramavarman.  It mentions a certain [Ka]duvetti-Muttaraiyan at whose request an endowment of 4 patti of land was made to the old temple of Vishnu called Tirumerrali at Iraiyancheri and to a matha, probably attached to it.

Reference to a Kaduvetti-Muttarasan who made a raid on Koyattur in the reign of the Bana king Vijayaditya Virachulamani Prabhumeru is noticed in a record from Punganur (No. 542 of 1906).  This chief was probably identical with the Kaduvetti-Muttaraiyan mentioned in the present inscription as he lived about this period.

Nandivarman III.

No. 45.

(A. R. No. 475 of  1925).

Pallikonda, Vellore taluk, North Arcot District.

On a pillar in the Mandapa in front of the central shrine in the Naganathesvara temple.

This is dated in the 2nd year of Nandippottaraiyar and records the construction of the mukha-mandapa by Selvavanarayan, son of Amani-Gangaraiyar, who was ruling over Vittur.  It may be noted that Pallikonda was called Vichchur[15] in ancient times.

Palaeographically, the present record may be attributed to the reign of Nandivarman III.  In a later record viz., of the 10th year of the Chola Parakesarivarman from Tiruchchatturai in the Tanjore district, figures a chief of Pangalanadu named Bhuvani-Gangaraiyan.[16]  Since Pallikonda was in Pangala-nadu, Amani (Avani) Gangaraiyar of the present inscription may have been an earlier member of the family of Pangala-nadu chiefs.

No. 46.

(A. R. No. 347 of 1914).

Kunnandarkoyil, Pudukkottai State.

At the south end of the rock-cut shrine in the Parvatagirisvara temple.

This inscription dated in the 3rd year of Nandippottaraiyar may be assigned to Nandivarman III.  It registers a gift of 200 nali of rice for feeding 100 persons on the day of Tiruvadirai, by Ganavatiman alias Pagaichchandira Visaiaraiyan of Vaduvur in Mipulai-nadu.  This inscription indicates that the limits of the Pallava Empire still continued to extend as far south as the Pudukkottiai State.

No. 47.

(A. R. No. 158 of 1919).

Kiliyanur, Tinivanam Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the south wall of the central shrine in the Vaikunthavasa-Perumal temple.

This inscription is dated in the 3rd year of  Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman who may be identified with Nandivarman III.  It states that a resident of the village Tigaittiral built the temple of Tigaittiral Vishnugriha at Kilinelur in Oyma-nadu and gave 300 sheep for maintaining a sacred lamp and 2 pieces of land (seru) made tax-free, for providing offerings to the god.  In later inscriptions the god is called Virrirunda-Perumal (A.R.  Nos.163 and 168 of 1919).

No. 48.

(A. R. Nos. 88 of 1910  and 529 of 1905).

Tiruvellarai, Lalgudi Taluk, Trichinopoly District.

On a rock in front of the Jambunathasvamin Temple.

This inscription was partially copied in 1905 and then completely in 1910 after removing a wall obstructing a portion of the record.  The middle portion of the inscription is damaged being chiseled away right through to construct a drain.  It appears to be dated in the 6th year of Pallava-Maharaja alias  Danti-Nandivarman of the Bhara[dvaja-gotra] and Brahmakshatra family.  The king’s name, in the form given here, implies that Nandivarman was the son of Dantivarman.  The inscription seems to record the praise of a certain Sellikkoman Mallavan who is described as the nephew of Parasiraman and the uncle of Marpidugu Ilangovelan Sattan.  The record is stated to have ben composed by a certain Perungavidi Sadaiyanpalli.

Pullis are marked in the record in some cases.

No. 49.

(C. P. No. 24 of  1910-11).

Velurpalaiyam Plates of Nandivarman III: 6th year.

This copper-plate record issued in the 6th year of Nandivarman  (III) registers a gift of the village Srikattuppalli, to the Siva temple built by Yajnabhatta, at the request of Chola-Maharaja Kumarankusa, for the expenses of daily worship and for a feeding house.  This Chola-Maharaja and Vijayalaya, the founders of the revived Chola line at Tanjore are taken to have belonged to one and the same family.  This is doubtful and he should probably have belonged to the family of Renandu Cholas[17].

Published in South Indian Inscriptions, Vol. II, pp. 507-510.

No. 50.

(A. R. No. 406 of  1905).

Kaverippakkam, Arkonam Taluk, North Arcot district.

At the entrance into the gopura of the Muktisvara temple.

This is a fragmentary inscription of Nandivarman dated in his 13th year.  It registers a gift of five kalanju of gold, by the daughter-in-law (marumagal) of Ayyakki Pangala-adigal, who was probably a chief of Pangala-nadu, which comprised a portion of the present North Arcot district.


[1] No. 27 below.

[2]  See plate V.

[3]  See also Indian Antiquary, Vol. XLVIII, pp. 231 ff.

[4]  S.I.I.  Vol. I.  No. 24.

[5]  See also An Rep. On S.I. Epy.  For 1932-33, p. 54.

[6]  [The inscription was first brought to my notice by the late Dr. C. Meenakshi, M.A., Ph. D. – Ed.,]

[7]  No. 40 below ; published in

[8]  Ep. Ind.  Vol. XVIII, pp. 115 ff.

[9]  Ekadhira-chaturvedimangalam referred to in a record of Rajaraja I (A.R. No. 370 of 1902) is  probably another village named after Ekadhira i.e., Pallavamalla. Of. Also Nayadhiramangalam (S.I.I. Vol. II, p. 338).

[10]  ‘Vijaya’ and Vikrama’as prefix and suffix of Pallava names occur in earier records, as in the names like Vijya-Buddhavarman and Mahendra-vikramavarman.

[11]  No. 32 above.

[12]  Marpidugu  was also the surname of the Telugu-Chola king Punyakumara (Ep. Rep.  For 1936, p. 56.)

[13]  See also Jl. Of S. I. Association,  July 1911,  p. 36.

[14]  See plate V.

[15]  A.R. No. 456 of 1925.  The villge Tiruvanakkoyil in the Chingleput district was also known as Vittur (A.R.  Nos. 284-286 of 1910).

[16]  Ep. Rep. For  1930-31, para 8.

[17]  Balliya-Chola of the family of Karikala bore the title Kumarankusa (Jl.  Ind. Hist.  Vol. XV. P. 258)

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