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Saturday, March 03, 2007


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 

Pallva Inscriptions

Nos.201 to 225

No. 201.

(A. R. No. 307 of 1913).

Chidambaram, Chidambaram Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the north wall of the third prakara of the Nataraja temple.

This record of the 17th year refers to the gift of some land in Vadasemangaam in Tiruvindalur-nadu, a subdivision of Rajadhiraja-valanadu which Tittikka-Aduvar of Kudal purchased from Tiruchchirrambala-Muvendavelar of Karikudi for providing additional offerings during the five extra sandis to the god Dakshinamurti in the temple of Mulasthanam-Udaiyar at Chidambaram for which provision had been made in another record from the same place (No. 152 above dated in the 7th year of the chief).

The inscription was ordered to be engraved on the wall called ‘Vikramasolan-tirumaligai’ by the officer Solakon.

No. 202.

(A. R. No. 104 of 1921).

Melpadi, Chittor Taluk and District.

On the south wall of the mandapa (right of entrance)

In front of the central shrine in the Somanathesvara temple.

This inscription of the 17th year registers a remission of a number of specified taxes on the village Marudampakkam for conducting a festival to the god Cholendra singamudaiya-Nayanar by Amarabharanar alias Siyagangan, who calls himself ‘Lord of Kuvalalapura’, ‘descendant of the Ganga family’ and ‘lord of the Kaveri and Nandigiri’. This chief appears to have been a subordinate of Kopperunjingadeva and was probably identical with Amarabharanan Siyagana the patron of Pavanandi (Bhavanandi), the author of the Tamil Grammar Nannul, who figures in records of Kulottunga-Chola III, dated in the 27th and 34th years[1]; but it has to be mentioned that the interval between the latter date and that of the present epigraph is nearly 48 years, unless we assign the present inscription of Kopperunjinga I. Siyaganga was the son of Cholendrasimha and was also known as Siraimitta-perumal[2] and Uttamachola-Ganga[3].

From an inscription at Melpadi itself we know that the ancient name of the Somanathesvara temple was Cholendrasimhesvaram[4] and that it was constructed by Rajaraja I in the city of Vira-Rajasrayapuram, newly founded by him after canceling the old surname of Merpadi viz. Viranarayanapuram[5].

The village Marudabakkam may be identified with the village of the same name in the Walajapet taluk of the North Arcot district.

No. 203.

(A. R. No. 320 of 1921).

Tirukkoyilur, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the north wall of the second prakara in the Trivikrama-Perumal temple.

This inscription of the 17th year records a gift of 2,800 kasu by Sanakiyandal, wife of Kausikan Perumal of Nenmali alias Miladamahadevich-chaturvedimangalam ‘on the southern bank of the Pennai’ in Kurukkaik-kurram, a subdivision of Miladu alias Jananatha-valanadu, for providing from the interest thereon, offerings on the Uttarayana festival day every year to the god Tiruvidakkali-Nayanar at Tirukkovalur.

The date of the inscription according to the details given is A.D. 1259, December 26, Friday.

The village Nenmali mentioned in the record is evidently the same as the modern Nemali in the Tirukkoyilur taluk.

No. 204.

(A. R. No. 196 of 1930).

Kunnattur, Sriperumbudur Taluk, Chingleput District.

On the west wall of the central shrine in the Tirunagesvara temple.

In this record dated in the 17th year, it is stated that the assembly in charge of the central shrine in the temple of Tirunagisvaramudaiya-Nayanar at Kunrattur in Puliyur-kottam alias Kulottungasola-valanadu, a subdivision of Jayangondasola-mandalam, received 3 palankasu from Piraiyanivanudalar, the daughter of Ponnalvar, a servant attached to the temple and agreed to burn a twilight lamp before the imae of dakshinamurti set up by her in the temple. It may be pointed out here that in this inscription no distinction is made between the territorial divisions ‘kottam’ and ‘valanadu’.

No. 205.

(A. R. No. 314 of 1911).

Velachcheri, Saidapet Taluk, Chingleput District.

On the south wall of the central shrine in the Dandesvara temple.

This inscription records a gift of 9 panam made in the 18th year of the chief for burning a twilight lamp for 7 naligai (i.e. 2 hours and 48 minutes) daily, in the temple of Tiruttandisuramudaiya-Nayanar at Velichcheri alias Jinachintamani-chaturvedimangalam, by Marududaiyan Soran Ariyan of Kirangudi in Sola-mandalam.

The name Jina(Dina) chintamani-chaturvedimangalam came to be applied to Velachcheri from about the time of Kulottunga-Chola III, because the earlier inscriptions of the place do not mention it. The village Kirangudi may be identified with the village of the same name in the Nannilam taluk of the Tanjore district.

No. 206.

(A. R. No. 432 of 1921).

Tiruvennainallur, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the west wall of the mandapa containing the Somaskanda images in the Kripapurisvara temple.

This inscription records that the chief exempted, from his 18th year, the garden called ‘Anaikku-arasu-valangun-perumal[6]-tiruttoppu’ at Tiruvennainallur and ‘Kopperunjingan-toppur’ at Silagampatti which he had presented to the temple and also other devadana lands from payment of taxes and that he ordered the amount thus remitted to be utilized for rearing gardens (toppu) and with the balance, if any, to provide for worship and repairs in the temple of Atkondadeva at Tiruvennainallur. The epithet Anaikku-arasu-valangum-perumal, which means ‘he who gave away the kingdom for an elephant’ has not been met with before, and it is not known what incident it refers to.

The document is attested by Kopperunjinga, Tondaiman, Viluppadarayan and Kurukulattaraiyan.

No. 207.

(A. R. No. 417 of 1909).

Siddhalingamadam, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the east wall of the prakara in the Vyaghrapadesvara temple.

This record of the 19th year registers the agreement made by the Sivabrahmanas of the temple of Tiruppulippagava-Nayanar at Sirringur, a brahmadeya in Kurukkaik-kurram, a subdivision of Rajaraja-valanadu, to burn a perpetual lamp before the god for 32 cows received by them from Avanialappiranda Kopperunjingadeva.

Sirringur is the same as the present Siddhalingamadam where this inscription is found.

According to the astronomical details given, the date of the record is A.D. 1262, May 8, Monday.

No. 208.

(A. R. No. 13 of 1911).

Tirumalisai, Sriperumbudur Taluk, Chingleput District.

On the north base of the Jagannatha-Perumal temple.

This is a fragmentary record of the chief dated in the 19th year. It registers a gift, after purchase, by two bhattas of the village, of some house-sites to the god Tirumalisai-Emberuman at Tirumali[sai] alias Pukkaturaivallava-chaturvedimangalam.

No. 209.

(A. R. No. 319 of 1913).

Chidambaram, Chidambaram Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the north wall of the third prakara in the Nataraja temple.

This inscription dated in the 19th year of Sakalabhuvanachakravarttin Avanialappirandar alias Kopperunjinga, records an order of Solakon issued to the authorities of the temple at Chidambaram to engrave on the walls of their temple, the tax-free gift of the garden called ‘Valiyadimaikondan’[7] at Vikramasingapuram belonging to the god Aludaiya-Nayanar and the land granted for the maintenance of 10 servants looking after this garden, comprising in all 47 ½ ma of land in extent.

No. 210.

(A. R. No. 394 of 1918).

Shiyali, Shiyali Taluk, Tanjore District.

On the east wall of the first prakara of the Brahmpurisvara temple.

This is a damaged inscription dated in the 19th year. It records a grant of land by Devargaldevan of Gudalur in Jayangondasola-valanadu for providing offerings to the god, evidently at Shiyali.

The astronomical details of date given in the inscription correspond to A.D. 1263, January 24, Wednesday. The regnal year quoted is an expired one.

No. 211.

(A. R. No. 395 of 1918).

On the same wall.

This is also a damaged record dated in the 19th year. It is connected with the previous inscription and registers a grant of land as tirunamattukkani in Olaiyamangalam situated in Vennaiyur-nadu, a subdivision of rajadhiraja-valanadu, by a certain Singaravalamudikavittan.

Olaiyamangalam may be identified with the village Oliyamputtur in the Shiyali taluk of the Tanjore district.

No. 212.

(A. R. No. 365 of 1919).

Little Conjeeveram, Conjeeveram Taluk, Chingleput District.

On the east side of the ‘rock’ in the Arulala-Perumal temple.

This is also a record of the 19th year and it registers a gift of 96 sheep and a ram by Arunagirip-perumal, one of the sons of Pillaiyar Panchanadivana Nilagangaraiyar[8], for supplying daily, by the measure Ariyennavallanali, one nail of curds, and one ulakku of ghee for burning a perpetual lamp in the temple of Arulalap-Perumal, ‘who was pleased to stand’ at Tiruvattiyur in Kanchipuram.

The donor Arunagiripperumal also figures in the regime of Vijaya-Gandagopala[9] and Jatavarman Sundara-Pandya.[10]

The astronomical citations are correct for A.D. 1261, September 1, Thursday.

No. 213.

(A. R. No. 316 of 1921).

Tirukkoyilur, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the north wall of the second prakara in the Trivikrama-Perumal temple.

Like the previous one, this inscription also refers to an endowment for a lamp made in the 19th year of the chief. It registers a gift of 32 cows and 1 bull by Avaniyalappirandan Kopperunjinga to supply daily 1 ulakku of ghee by the measure Ulagalandan-nali for burning a perpetual lamp in the temple of Tiruvidaikkali-Nayanar at Tirukkovalur in Kurukkaik-kurram, a subdivision of Miladu alias Janantha-valanadu.

The date of the record, according to the details given, is A.D. 1261, November 28, Monday[11].

No. 214.

(A. R. No. 213 of 1929-30).

Kunnattur, Sriperumbudur Taluk, Chingleput District.

On the east wall of the Kalyana-mandapa in the Tirunagesvara temple.

This inscription dated in the 1[9]th year states that the assembly in charge of the central shrine of the Tirunagisvaramudaiya-Nayanar temple at Kunrattur in Kunrattur-nadu received 3 palan-kasu from Kannudai-Nachchiyar, daughter of a devaradiyal named Ponniyar and agreed to maintain a twilight lamp in the temple.

No. 215.

(A. R. No. 103 of 1934-35).

Chidambaram, Chidambaram Taluk, South Arcot District.

ON the north wall of the second prakara in the Nataraja temple.

This inscription is dated in the 19th year and registers an order of Solakon issued to the authorities of the temple at Chidambaram to engrave on its walls a grant of 80 ma of land given for a flower-garden called ‘Sokkachchiyan-kamugu-tirunandavanam’ in Bhupalasundarasolanallur situated in Vesalippadip-parru. According to the original grant the extent of this garden was only 63 and odd ma of land, but when measured by the ‘Sokkachchiyan-kol’, it showed an increase and actually measured 80 ma. The kadamai tax on the increased land now noticed was remitted up to the 18th year of the chief and the inscription was also ordered to be engraved on the same wall where the original gift of this garden was engraved[12] in the 15th year of Periyadevar i.e., Kopperunjinga I.

No. 216.

(A. R. No. 105 of 1934-35).

On the west wall of the third prakara in the same temple.

This damaged record dated in the 19th year, registers an order of the officer Solakon exempting fom taes the lands given for the maintenance of our gardeners looking after the garden called ‘Tiruchchirrambalamudaiyan-tirunandavanam’ which was formed by Gangoli Tiruchchirrambalamudaiyar alias Udaiyar Isvarasivar of Savarnna-gotra and belonging to the Southern Radha country in Uttarapatha, for providing garlands to the god Udaiyar Tiruchchirrambalamudaiyar and the goddess Tirukkamakkottamudaiya-Periyanachchiyar.

Radha country corresponds to a portion of the present Bengal province, which was formerly divided into two divisions, the northern and the southern. The portion to the north of the river Ajaya, including a portion of the district of Murshidabad was known as Uttara-Radha and that to the south as Dakshina-Radha[13].

No. 217.

(A. R. No. 115 of 1934-35).

Arakandanallur, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the west wall of the mandapa in front of the central shrine in the Oppilamanisvara temple.

This record, dated in the 19th year, registers a gift of 32 cows by Avanialappirandan Valvallaperumal Kopperunjinga for burning a twilight lamp in the temple of the god Opporuvarumillada-Nayanar at Tiru-Araiyaninallur in Udaikkadu ‘on the northern bank of the river Pennai’ in Vanagoppadi. The title ‘Valvallaperumal’ or its Sanskrit variant viz., Khadgamalla is found in the records at Tiruvannamalai (S.I.I. Vol. VIII, No. 69), Attur (No. 120 above), Tiruvakkarai (No. 246 below), Tirupurantakam (No. 247 below) and Tirupati (No. 73 of 1889).

The astronomical details given here are the same as in No. 213 above and point to A.D. 1261, November 28, Monday as the date of these two inscriptions.

No. 218.

(A. R. No. 356 of 1919).

Little Conjeeveram, Conjeeveram Taluk, Chingleput District.

On the east side of the ‘rock’ in the Arulala-Perumal temple.

This inscription refers to the provision made for a lamp in the 20th year of the chief. It records the agreement made by the trustees of the temple of Arulalap-Perumal to burn a perpetual lamp before the god for 15 Nellur-madai received by them from Sevvakkan, sister-in-law of Annaladevan of Nellur.

This record gives 15 Nellur-madai as equivalent to 331 Perumal-rasi[panam].

No. 219.

(A. R. No. 499 of 1921).

Tiruvennainallur, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the east wall of the mandapa in front of the central shrine in the Vaikuntha-Perumal temple.

This inscription, also dated in the 20th year, registers a gift of 4 cows each by three persons, viz., Kuravaseri Isvara-Bhattan, a resident of the agrahara Sevalai, Varadaraja-Bhattan of Perumpandur and Muvayirakkon Madiyan, a shepherd attached to the temple, for burning on the whole three twilight lamps in the temple of Vaikunthatt-Emberuman at Tiruvennainallur. The cows were left in charge of shepherds who had to supply monthly 1 nali of ghee for each lamp, as measured by the standard measure Arumolidevan-nali.

No. 220.

(A. R. No. 392 of 1928-29).

Ponnur, Wandiwash Taluk, North Arcot District.

On the door-jamb (proper right) of the central shrine in the Alagapperumal temple.

This record is damaged in the middle. It is dated in the 21st year and refers to and endowment made by Aruvandai[14] Andan Tiruchchorrutturaiyudaiyan Sorappillai of Ponnur[15] alias Alagiyasolanallur. The document is attested by Villavarayan, Adiyaman and Seliyadaraiyan, the accountant of the nadu.

No. 221.

(A. R. No. 119 of 1904).

Tiruthnagari, Cuddalore Taluk, Suth Arcot District.

On the north base of the central shrine in the Sivankuresvara temple.

This inscription of the 22nd year records the remission of a number of specified taxes on the devadana and tirunamattukkani lands and on the village Tiruttinainagar, made by the chief, in order to meet the expenses of offerings, unguents, lamps, festivals, etc., in the temple of Tiruttinainagar-Udaiyar.

No. 222.

(A. R. No. 54 of 1930-31).

Tirukkodikaval, Kumbakonam Taluk, Tanjore District.

ON the east wall (outside) of the first prakara in the Tirukkodisvara temple.

This inscription, also dated in the 22nd year, registers a remission deed (iraimuraipraman-isaivu-tittu) given by the devakanmis of the temple at Tirukkodika in Nallarrur-nadu, a subdivision of Virudarajabhayankara-valanadu, to Manuvurudaiyar Varantarum Kuttapperumal residing at Gangaikondasolapuram. The latter set up the image of Tirupperundurai-Aludaiyar in the temple and presented 200 kuli of tax-free land and 150 kasu for expenses to the temple authorities.

The date of the record, according t the details given, is A.D. 1264, October 9, Thursday, the month being Tula, which is damaged in the inscription.

No. 223.

(A. R. No. 192 of 1927-28).

Tiruvalanjuli, KUmbakonam Taluk, Tanjore District.

ON the base of the east wall of the mandapa

in front of the central shrine in the Kapardisvara temple.

A gift of land and house-sites in Padakkai Korrangudi alias Kulotltungasolanallur, lhamlet of Akhilanayaka-chaturvedimangalam, made by Somasivan of Gomadam to the temple of Tiruvalanjuli-Udaiyar is recorded in this inscription of the 24th year. The village Korrangudi may be identified with one of the three villages of the same name in the Kumbakonam taluk.

It may be pointed out here that this and the next record come from Tiruvalanjuli in the interior of the Tanjore district where inscriptions of Kopperunjingadeva are rarely found.

The details given for calculating the date of this inscription are not regular.

No. 224.

(A. R. No. 194 of 1927-28).

On the base of the north wall of the same mandapa.

This record of the 24th year, like No. 199 above from Pallavarayanpettai, deals with defaulters in payment of land revenue. It states that Tirunattamadi-Bhattan of Gomadam held lands at Korrangudi alias Kulottungasolanallur. Evidently after his death, the payment of taxes on this land, which fell into arrears, devolved upon his two sons Yajna-Bhattan and Sundarattodu-udaiyan and his wife Vanduva[r] kulalichchani. Since there was nobody to stand surety for them, they agreed to pay up the arrears by raising a loan from the treasury of Tiruvalanjuli-udaiya-Nayanar and Vellaippilaiyar and from the Malaiyalar of Malai-mandalam who seem to have established a settlement here from the West Coast. They paid only a portion of the dues, but being unable to pay the balance, left the village. The duty of collecting the arrears fell on the assembly of Akhilanayakachcheri, a devadana in Akhilanayaka-chaturvedimangalam, who, to clear the debts and realize the amount due, sold their lands and house-sites, with the sanction of the royal officer Vattarayar, as tirunamattukkani to the temple of Tiruvalanjuli-Udaiyar.

The duty of collecting arrears in land revenue invariably fell on the assembly, who, in such cases, had to apply to the king for permission to confiscate lands. A record of Rajaraja I[16] states that the period of default should be at least two full years to justify such a step.

According to the details given, the date of this inscription is A.D. 1266, August 9, Monday, the nakshatra being Anuradha, not Uttiradam as cited in the record.

The territorial division Uyyakkondar-valanadu is stated to be situated between the rivers Arisil and Kaveri, in an inscription from Tanjore.[17]

No. 225.

(A. R. No. 180 of 1929-30).

Kunnattur, Sriperumbudur Taluk, Chingleput District.

On the south wall of the central shrine in the Kandalisvara temple.

This inscription is dated in the 24 year and it states that two Sivabrahmanas of the temple of Kandanisvaramudaiya-Nayanar agreed to maintain a perpetual lamp in the temple with the money endowed by their maternal aunt.


[1] S. I. I. Vol. III, No. 62 See also A.R. Nos. 10 of 1893, 116 of 1922 and 432 of 1928-29.

[2] A. R. Nos. 88 of 1889 and 589 of 1919.

[3] A. R. Nos. 551 and 562 of 1906.

[4] S.I.I. Vol. III, pp. 22 and 29.

[5] A. R. No. 101 of 1921 and Ep. Rep. for 1921, p. 97

[6] Cf. the title ‘attukku-anai-valangun-perumal’ (A. R. No. 146 of 1923.)

[7] Cf. the name Tudand-adimai-kondan mentioned in No. 174 above.

[8] For Nilagangaraiyar, see No. 120 above.

[9] A. R. No. 4 of 1911.

[10] A. R. Nos. 306 of 1909 and 537 of 1912.

[11] No. 217 below was also issued on this day.

[12] The reference is A. R. No. 467 of 1912 issued in the reign of Kopperunjingadeva (I) and published in

 S.I.I., Vol. VIII., No.55. See also Madras University Journal, Vol. XIII, pp. 98-100.

[13] Takkanaladam (i.e.,) Dakshina-Radha was included among the conquests of the Chola king Rajendra-

Chla I [Ep. Ind. Vo. IX, p. 233]

[14] With ‘Arvandai’ compare such family names as Kadandai, Kumarandai etc.,

[15] Ponnur or Hemagrama was the native place of the Jaina teacher Helacharya who flourished before the

 10th century A.D. (Ep. Rep. for 1928-29, p. 88)

[16] S.I.I., Vol. III, No. 9 ; see also A. R. No. 61 of 1893.

[17] S.I.I., Vol. II, p. 52.

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