www.whatisindia.com

What Is India News Service
Saturday, March 03, 2007


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 

Pallva Inscriptions

Nos.176 to 200

No. 176.

(A. R. No. 80 of 1919).

Munnur, Tindivanam Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the south wall of the west prakara (inside) in the Adavallesvara temple.

This inscription of the 12th year registers the gift of a lamp-stand of five tiers for burning 10 lamps in the temple of Udaiyar Adavalla-Nayanar at Munnur alias Rajanarayana-chaturvedimangalam, by Ambarudaiyan Madevan Kulottungasola-Muvendavelan of Ambar in Ambar-nadu, a subdivision of Uyyakkondar-valanadu in Sola-mandalam. The donor also purchased 750 kuli of land and gave it as tiruvilakkuppatti to the Sivabrahmanas of the temple who agreed to maintain the ten lamps from evening till midnight in the temple.

Before the time of Rajaraja III, the god at Munnur was known as Mulasthanamudaiya-Mahadeva (Nos. 65 and 67 of 1919). The village Ambar may be identified with Ambal in the Nannilam taluk, Tanjore district.

No. 177.

(A. R. No. 440 of 1921).

Tiruvennainallur, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the north wall of the mandapa in front of the natana-sabha in the Kripapurisvara temple.

This record, dated in the 12th year, states that Tiruvannamalai-udaiyan, son of Kavini Sambhu-Bhatta, a member of the assembly of the village, had endowed 32 cows in the 21st year of Rajarajadeva for the maintenance of a perpetual lamp in the temple of Atkondadeva and that the Sivabrahmanas of the temple now agreed to continue the charity.

The interval between the 21st year of Rajaraja III (A.D. 1237) and the present record (A.D. 1255) is nearly 18 years. It is not stated why the engraving of this inscription was delayed for such a long time.

No. 178.

(A. R. No. 119 of 1906).

Jambai, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the Gopura (right of entrance) of the Jambunatha temple.

An instance of voluntary human sacrifice for the successful completion of a building is mentioned in this inscription dated in the 13th year. It registers a tax-free gift of 150 kuli of land by the tanattar of the temple, according to the order of Gangayar, to Annamalai, the younger brother of Atkondan, who cut off his head so that the nitta (nritta)-mandapa in the temple of Tiruttantonri Aludaiya-Nayanar at Sanbai might be completed[1].

Atkondan is stated to be the younger brother of Perralvi, a devaradiyal (temple maid-servant) residing in the village

No. 179.

(A. R. No. 530 of 1920).

Kattumannarkoyil, Chidambaram Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the base of the south wall of the central shrine in the Viranarayanasvamin temple.

This inscription, dated in the 13th year, registers a sale of 60 ma of land in Viranarayananallur situated to the west of the river (?) Madhurantaka-vadavaru for 45,000 kasu to the temple of Dvarapati (also called Tuvarapati) – Emberuman by Sirilango-Bhattan alias Vikramasolap-Piramadarayan (Brahmadhirajan) of Kiranji, hamlet of Virasikhamukhachcheri in Viranarayana-chaturvedimangalam, an independent village in Virudarajabhayankara-valanadu ‘on the northern bank’.

The astronomical details point to A.D. 1255, July 30, Friday as the date of the record, but the tithi dvadasi commenced only the next day.

No. 180.

(A. R. No. 317 of 1921).

Tirukkoyilur, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the north wall of the second prakara of the Trivikrama-Perumal temple.

This inscription of the 13th year records a gift of 16 cows by Suliyamalagiyan alias Lakesvaradevan, son of Nachchi alias Tiruvengadapperumal Manikkam, a maidservant of the temple of Tiruvidaikkali-Nayanar at Tirukkovalur in Kurukkai-kurram, a subdivision of Miladu alias Jananatha-valanadu[2], for providing one alakku of ghee daily by the measure Ulagalandan-nali to the god Tiruvidaikali-Nayanar.

The astronomical details given in the record are regular for A.D. 1256, January 3, with the emendation Purva-Bhadrapada for Sravana.

No. 181.

(A. R. No. 50 of 1922).

Tiruvamattur, Villupuram Taluk, South Arcot District.

ON the west wall of the second prakara in the Abhiramesvara temple.

This inscription of the 13th year records the royal gift of gold ornaments, namely: - tiru-nerripattam, tirut-todu, tiru-varam, tiruk-karsari and tiruk-kaisari weighing in all 25 kalanju of gold by the standard weight ‘Sokkachchiyan-kal’, to the god Subrahmanya-Pillaiyar set up in the temple of Alagiya-Nayanar at Tiruvamattur by Kunrameduttan Vanadarayan Udaiyan Vayiradarayan of Padirimarudattur, for the welfare of the chief.

No. 182.

(A. R. No. 113 of 1906).

Jambai, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the gopura (right of entrance) of the Jambunatha temple.

This inscription, dated in the 14th year, registers that the trustees of the temple of Tiruttantonri Avudaiya-Nayanar at Sanbai received 10 kalam of paddy from Malaiyanudaiyan Ponparappi[nan] Kovalraya and agreed to provide offerings, etc., when taking the god in procession on the 7th day of the annual festival.

No. 183.

(A. R. No. 342 of 1908).

Tiruvadisulam, Chingleput Taluk and District.

On the east wall of the central shrine in the Jnanapurisvara temple.

This is a fragmentary inscription, dated in the 14th year, recording a gift of three cows for a twilight lamp before the god at Tiruvudai[chchuram] in Vallanadu, a subdivision of Kalattur-kottam, by a certain Nandipanman[3]. Pillaiyar Nilagangaraiyar, who is also mentioned here, appears to have been an officer under Kopperunjingadeva. A Nilagangan of Amur with the title ‘Bhupalanodhava’. Corresponding to the title Avani-alappirandar of Kopperunjingadeva figures in a record from Little Conjeeveram dated in the 22nd year of Vijaya-Gandagopala.[4] This person is probably identical with or a close relation of Nilagangaraiyar mentioned in the present record.

No. 184.

(A. R. No. 504 of 1926).

Omampuliyur, Chidambaram Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the south wall of the central shrine in the Pranava-Vyaghrapurisvara temple.

In this inscription of the 14th year is registered a gift of land as tirunamattukkani to the temple of Udaiyavan Vadataliudaiya-Nayanar by Tiruvalanjuli-Udaiyar Ichchipperrarayar of Alisupakkam, after purlchase from a Brahman lady named Alappirandal-Sani, wife of Balasriyan Tirumalirunjolai-Nambi and the daughter of Karunakara-Nambi of Perumarudur in Ulagalandasola-chaturvedimangalam, a brahmadeya in Merka-nadu, a subdivision of Viruda[rajabhayankara]-valanadu ‘on the northern bank’. Ulagalandasola-chaturvedimangalam may be identified with Omampuliyur itself.

The date of the record, according to the astronomical details given, is A.D. 1257, March 18, Sunday.

No. 185.

(A. R. No. 506 of 1926).

On the same wall.

This record, also dated in the 14th year, seems to be an incomplete copy of No. 186 following.

The details of date given here are not regular.

No. 186.

(A. R. No. 505 of 1926).

On the same wall.

In this damaged inscription, the chief’s name is lost, but the regnal year 14 is preserved It registers three transactions, viz., (1) a gift of land by Arasalvan Aravamudalvan to the temple of [Udai]yavan Vadatali-[Udaiyar] at Ulagalandasola-[chaturvedimangalam] for offerings and worship ; (2) a purchase of some land from the same person by the devakanmis of the temple from money realized by the sale of temple jewels ; and (3) a gift of another bit of land which was received from a certain Brahman to whom this person had given a loan. All these lands were now given for offerings and worship in the temple. Since this inscription appears to be identical with the previous one, the former may be attributed to Kopperunjingadeva.

No. 187.

(A. R. No. 60 of 1932-33).

Tirukkachchiyur, Chingleput Taluk and District.

On the south wall of the first prakara in the Kachchapesvara temple.

This inscription, dated in the 14th year, refers to a sale of 195 kuli of land called ‘Marundan-tirunandavanam’ to the uravar, for 7,500 kasu, made in the 26th year of Rajaraja III by Isanadeva, the manager, and the trustees of the temple of Tiruvalakkoyiludaiya-Nayanar at Tirukkachchur in Senkunra-nadu, a subdivision of Kalatturkottam, a district of Ja[ya*]ngondasola-mandalam. Mangudaiyan Tiruvaiyarudaiyan Tirumuttisuramudaiyan Amarabuyankarapperumal, an andar and a later manager of this temple in the time of Perujingadeva paid back the amount and acquired the 195 kuli to provide a flower garden for the god.

The astronomical details given in the record correspond to A.D. 1256, August 10, Thursday.

No. 188.

(A. R. No. 350 of 1919).

Little Conjeeveram, Conjeeveram Taluk, Chingleput District.

On the east side of the ‘rock’ in the Arulala-Perumal temple.

It is stated in this record of the 15th year that Katakan alias Nilagangaraiyan assigned the taxes on the village of Somangalam, except arippadikaval, for repairs to the gopura of the temple and for offerings to the god Arulalap-Perumal who was ‘pleased to stand’ at Kanchipuram, in Eyir-kottam which was a district of Jayangondasola-mandalam. The village Somangalam may be identified with the village of the same name in the Sriperumbudur taluk of the Chingleput district.

The details of date given in the record correspond to A.D. 1257, May 3, Thursday (not Friday).

No. 189.

(A. R. No. 447 of 1921).

Tiruvennainallur, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the wall of the verandah in the south prakara (behind the Aruvattumuvar images) in the Kripapurisvara temple.

This inscription, dated in the 15th year, states that, on the death of a certain Tirumalaiy-Alagiyan alias Viragalvirap-Pallavaraiyan[5], 9½ ma of dry land in Emapperuru and Tiruvennainallur belonging to him was given by Perunjinga as tirukkai-valakkam to his mudali Rajarajadevan Ammaiyan Valavarayan. This officer in his turn gave it with the consent of his lord as tiruvilakkuppuram for burning lamps in the temple at Tiruvennainallur, a brahmadeya in Tirumunaippadi Tiruvennainallur-nadu, a subdivision of Rajaraja-valanadu. A further gift of 800 kuli of land for a flower garden, probably by the same officer, is referred to in the concluding portion of the record.

The date intended was probably A.D. 1257, March 14, Wednesday; on this day, the tithi was dvadasi and not ekadasi as given in the inscription. For the previous day, however, (i.e.,) March 13, Tuesday, the details are regular.

No. 190.

(A. R. No. 700 of 1904).

Tirupparkadal, Walajapet Taluk, North Arcot District.

On the west wall of the first prakara in the Kharapurisvara temple.

In this inscription of the 16th year is recorded a sale of 700 kuli of dry land by public auction for 5 Gandagopalan-pudu-madai to Panaikilan Vadugan Vanadarajan of Kottaiyur in Vadvur-nadu, a subdivision of Venkunrak-kottam, by the sons of Muprala Amritarya Sarvamahakritu[y*]ajiyar of Pullapakkam alias Dharmasurach-chaturvedimangalam in Kasirampedu-nadu, a subdivision of Kaliyur-kottam in Jayangondasola-mandalam, which they obtained as gift from the (residents) uravar of Sakkaramudur, an independent village in Damar-kottam.

The villages Pullapakkam and Sakkaramudur may be identified with Pullampakkam and Sakkaramallur in Conjeeveram (Chingleput Dt.) and Walajapet (North Arcot Dt.) taluks respectively.

The astronomical details given point to A.D. 1259, December 29, Monday, as the date[6] of the record.

No. 191.

(A. R. No. 96 of 1906).

Jambai, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

ON the west wall of the outer mandapa in the Jambunatha temple.

This inscription, also of the 16th year, registers the agreement made by the nattavar of the territory situated to the north of the river Avinai and to the south of the Pennai, to conduct, for the welfare of the chief, a festival called Vannenjan-tirunal in the month of Purattadi (August-September) in the temple of Tiruttantonri Aludaiya-Nayanar at Sanbai, from the income in paddy assigned for the purpose by Vennenja-Nayanar. ‘Vannenja’ was evidently identical with the chief Vanakovaraiyan Rajarajadevan Vannenjan of Aragalur, a subordinate of Kopperunjingadeva.[7] The date of this record is A.D. 1258, December 9, Monday.

No. 192.

(A. R. No. 65 of 1918).

Vriddhachalam, Vriddhachalam Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the north wall of the kitchen in the Vriddhagirisvara temple

This inscription of the 16th year, records a gift of 96 sheep by Arulalan Tyagavinodan, son of Solaikkon of Jananatha-chaturvedimangalam, a brahmadeya in Viluppuram situated in Panaiyur-nadu, to provide daily 1 ulakku of ghee by the measure ‘Devasriyan-nali’ for burning a perpetual lamp before the god Tirumudukunramudaiya-Nayanar.

The astronomical details of date given correspond to A.D. 1258, May 13, Monday, substituting the tithi ‘navami’ for ‘saptami’.

No. 193.

(A. R. No. 439 of 1921).

Tiruvennainallur, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the north wall of the mandapa in front of the Natana-Sabha in the Kripapurisvara temple.

This is also dated in the 16th year and records a gift of 32 cows for burning a perpetual lamp in the temple of [Atkon]dadeva at Tiruvennainallur by Kavini Sambandapperumal alias Valenduma[vu]li-Bhattar, a member of the village assembly. Reference is also made to a gift of amp endowed by the same person sometime previously in the reign of Rajaraja III.[8]

No. 194.

(A. R. No. 455 of 1921).

On the inner wall of the gopura (right of entrance) in the same temple.

This inscription, also dated in the 16th year, registers a similar gift of 20 cows by Elisai[na*]dan Jinattaraiyan of Marudur, to provide daily 5 nali of milk, as measured by the standard measure Arumolideva-nali, for the sacred bath of the god Atkondadeva at Tiruvennainallur, a brahmadeya  in Tirumunaippadi Tiruvennainallur-nadu in Rajradhiraja-valanadu.

The village Marudur may be identified with one of the two villages of the same name in the Tirukkoyilur taluk.

According to the astronomical details, the date of the record is A.D. 1258, April 8, Monday.

No. 195.

(A. R. No. 465 of 1921).

In the same gopura, left of entrance.

This inscription, also dated in the 16th year, registers a similar gift of 32 cows and 1 bull by Solaikkon Allalan alias Tyagavinodan to the same god for the same purpose.

No. 196.

(A. R. No. 38 of 1922).

Tiruvamattur, Villupuram Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the west wall of the kitchen in the Abhiramesvara temple.

This inscription of the 16th year records a gift of 5 cows for burning a lamp in the temple of Alagiya-Nayanar at Tiruvamattur in Vavalur-nadu, a subdivision of Rajraja-va[lanadu], by Madappillai alias Alalasundaramanikkam, daughter (of a devaradiyar) of the temple.

The date of the record is A.D. 1258, July 3, the month which is lost being Karkataka.

No. 197.

(A. R. No. 255 of 1922).

Vayalaikkavur, Conjeeveram Taluk, Chingleput District.

On the south wall of the central shrine in the Vanadhisvara temple.

This is also a record of the 16th year registering an agreement made by Agastyan Andan-Bhattan Tanippannisuramudaiyar and other Sivabrahmanas of the temple of Varanavasisuram-Udaiyar at Vayalaikkavur, to maintain a twilight lamp in their temple, for 1 madai received by them from palakannan Taluvakkulaindan Tiruvilimilalai-udaiyan of Iraiyur.

No. 198.

(A. R. No. 212 of 1923).

Tiruppulivanam, Conjeeveram Taluk, Chingleput District.

On the north wall of the kitchen in the Vyaghrapurisvara temple.

It is stated in this record of the 16th year that Aiyanayan alias Viragangar, son of Pichchiyar, a devaradiyal attached to the temple of Tiruppulivanamudaiya-Nayanar at Uttarameru alias Rajedndrasola-chaturvedimangalam, an independent village in Kaliyur-kottam, a district of Jayankondasola-mandalam, presented 64 cows and 2 bulls to provide daily 1 uri of ghee by the measure Rajakesari, for maintaining two perpetual lamps in the temple.

Uttaramerur was probably called Rajendrasola-chaturvedimangalam after the Chola king Rajendra-Chola I (No. 174 of 1923). Subsequently it was also known as Gandagopala-chaturvedimangalam (No. 183 of 1923).

The details of date given are not regular.

No. 199.

(A. R. No. 432 of 1924).

Pallavarayanpettai, Mayavaram Taluk, Tanjore District.

On the west and south walls of the central shrine in the Sundaresvara temple.

This record of the 16th year gives an instance of how arrears of rent amounting to 8,000 kasu were collected in the 13th century. When the accounts of the temple of Rajaraja-Isvaram-Udaiyar at Rajraja-Kulattur in Tiruvindalur-nadu, a subdivision of Rajraja-valanadu were audited by Kayiladamudaiyan alias Solakon-Pallavaraiyar, an agambadi-mudali of Solakon, between the 23rd and 25th [days of Adi], it was found out that Amudan Sayan Damodira-Bhattan of Tiruvindalur had not paid his dues to the temple, on three bits of land enjoyed by him. The owner having died, his wife and his son Suryadeva-Bhattan were directed to pay up the arrears and they pleaded inability, but requested the authorities to protect them by attaching their ‘Arungadan’ land. Accordingly this land measuring 8½ ma in extent was, with the cognizance of her husband’s brother Sadaiyandan Tiruvirattanamudaiyan-Bhattan, set off against the arrears of tax and converted into a tirunamattukkani land of the temple. The income from this land was then allowed to be utilized for providing offerings to the god during the mid-day service and for maintaining two sacred lamps in the temple, for the welfare of Pillai Solakonar.

The temple of rajaraja-Isvaram-Udaiyar was constructed, evidently after the name of Rajaraja II, by his general Kulattulan Tiruchchirrambalamudaiyan Perumanambi alias Pallavarayar.[9]

The existence of this record in the Tanjore district indicates the extent of the dominion of Kopperunjingadeva.

In connection with the reversionary rights to properties, an inscription of the time of Rajadhiraja II (1163-1178 A.D.) states that a married woman should, on the death of her husband, become the owner of the lands, slaves, jewels and other valuables and the cattle of her deceased husband.[10]

According to the details given, the date of the record is A.D. 1259, July 27 Sunday.[11]

No. 200.

(A. R. No. 241 of 1934-35).

Virapandi, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the west wall of the central shrine in the Karivarada-Perumal temple.

This inscription of the 16th year, registers a gift of 2,000 kuli of wet and dry land as tiruvidaiyattam to the god Kariyasevaga-vinnagar-Emberuman at Kulaippalur by a certain Kariyaperumal Chediyarayan.


[1] Such instances of sacrifice are common. The Rashtrakuta king Amoghavarsha is said to have cut off and

 offered a finger of his left hand to the goddess Mahalakshmi in order to ward off a public calamity (Ep. Ind. Vol. XVIII, p. 241).

[2] Miladu alias Jananatha-valanadu roughly comprised the modern South Arcot and portion of the Salem districts. A family of chieftains called Malaiyamans with Tirukkoyilur as their capital rose to power in this region and they came to prominence by rendering help to one or the other of the principal powers of South India Ancient Tamil works like Agananuru, Purananuru, etc. and inscriptions from the time of Parantaka I (A.R. No. 279 of 1902) onwards mention these chiefs. The had marriage connections with the Cholas the the Pandyas, and they also claimed connection with the Chedi family. It may be pointed out that the rulers of the distant Sumatra and Java were known as Sailendras (Tam Malaiyaman) in about the 9th century A.D.

[3] See No. 261 below.

[4] A.R. No. 41 of 1893 ; S.I.I. Vol. IV, No. 854.

[5] See Nos. 122 and 150 above.

[6] This date falls in the 17th regnal year of the chief. The regnal year quoted in the inscription is an expired one.

[7] No. 164 above ; see also No. 234 below.

[8] See No. 177 above.

[9] A. R. No. 427 of 1924.

[10] Ep. Rep. For 1919, p. 80.

[11] The regnal year quoted in the inscription is probably an expired one.

Home Page


Archives | Links | Search
About Us | Feedback | Guestbook

© 2007 Copyright What Is India Publishers (P) Ltd. All Rights Reserved.