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Saturday, March 03, 2007


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 

Pallva Inscriptions

Nos.126 to 150

No. 126.

(A. R. No. 182 of 1919).

Tribhuvani, Pondicherry, French India.

On the south wall of the Varadaraja-perumal temple.

This inscription records in Tamil and Sanskrit the benefactions of the chief Sakalabhuvanachakravartti Kadavan Avanialappirandan Kopperunjinga.  He is called Bhupalanodbhava[1] Kathakavamsa-mauktika-mani  and the conqueror of the Andhra and the Krnata kings.  The record states that the chief constructed a temple for Heramba Ganapati on the banks of the tank at Tribhuvanamadevi and that he repaired the embankments, sluices and irrigation channels of the tank, which had breached in several places.

Since the inscription refers to the conquest of the Chola (country), Madhyamamahi (i.e., Nadu-nadu) and Tundiradesa (i.e., Tondai-mandalam) by the chief, he may be identified with Kopperujinga I.

Heramba-Ganapati is generally represented with five elephant heads, 10 arms and as riding on a lion.  [An early sculpture of this deity is found in a rock-cut temple at Tirupparankunram near Madura – Ed.]

No. 127.

(A. R. No. 178 of 1921).

Morijona, near Rangampettai, Gudiyattam Taluk, North Arcot District.

On a rock to the south of the village.

This inscription consists of a single Tamil verse in the Kattalaikkalitturai metre praising Pallavandar alias Virarviran-Kadavarayar, ‘who conquered Tondai-mandalam’ and who was the son of Kudal-Alappirandar.  The same verse is also found as the third verse in the Atti record of Pallavandar alias Kadavarayar (No. 125 above) and thus establishes that both the Atti and Morijona inscriptions belong to the same chief.

No. 128.

(A. R. No. 418 of 1922).

Vailur, Wandiwash Taluk, North Arcot District.

On a rock above a natural reservoir to the south of the village.

This inscription consists of 5 Tamil verses addressed to Sakalabhuvanachakravarttin Kopperunjingadeva, surnamed Alagiyasiyan who is said, in the preliminary prose passage, to have defeated the Chola king at Tellaru and to have taken possession of his country after depriving his adversary of all his royal insignia and imprisoning him with his ministers.  In the body of the record, Kopperunjingadeva is called Avaninarayana, patron of Tamil, Kadava, Tondaimannavan, Nripatunga, Tribhuvanatti-Rajakkal-Tambiran, Mallaivendan, etc.  The verses extol his prowess, fame, victory over the Cholas, Pandyas and the Kannadas and his abiding devotion to the god at Chidambaram.

Tellaru may be identified with the village of the same name in the Wandiwash taluk of the North Arcot district.  In one record[2], this village is included in Simhaporuda-valanadu (i.e.,) the Valanadu where Simha, probably Kopperunjinga, fought.

Published in Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XXIII, pp. 180-81.

No. 129.

(A. R. No. 229 of 1925).

Akkur, Mayavaram Taluk, Tanjore District.

On the east side of the base of the mandapa in front of the Tanto Risvara temple.

This inscription states that Kopperunjingadeva who is called Alagiya-Pallavar alias Virapratapar, after imprisoning the Hoysalas and levying tribute from the Pandyas, proceeded to the Chola country along the southern bank of the Kaveri.  Proceeding due east, he worshipped at all the sacred shrines, repaired temples and remitted all the taxes on temple lands.  While camping during this march at a village, probably Akkur itself, in Jayangondasola-valanadu, he found that the tenants had ‘migrated as far as the Ganges’ leaving the lands waste.  Sympathising with their position, he remitted the arrears of taxes due from them, restored their original holdings and invited the emigrants to settle on their original lands.

The present inscription is probably connected with No. 124 above.  Since the defeat of the Hoysalas is also referred to here, this record may be assigned to Kopperunjinga 1.  The defeat on the Pandyas claimed in this record could not have taken place after the accession of the powerful Pandya sovereign Jatavarman Sundara-Pandya I in A.D. 1251.

It may be pointed out here that Kopperunjinga’s fortifications built on the north bank of the river Kaveri against his enemies the Hoysalas are referred to in a record from Tiruvenkadu.[3]

No. 130.

(A. R. No. 187 of 1932-33).

Tirukkalukkunram, Chingleput Taluk and District.

In the Gopura (right side) leading to the second prakara of the Bhaktavatsalaesvara temple.

This is a fragmentary verse inscription identical with the first verse in No. 125 above from Atti in praise of Pallavandar  alias  Kadavarayar, (the son of) Elisaimogan Alappirandan of Kudal.

KOPPERUNJINGADEVA II.

No. 131.

(A. R. No. 69 of 1918).

Vriddhachalam, Vriddhachalam Taluk, South Arcot District.

In the second gopura (right of entrance) of the Vriddhagirisvara temple.

This inscription records a provision made in the 2nd year of Sakalabhuvanachchakravarttigal Kopperunjingadeva for burning a perpetual lamp before the god at Tirumudukunram in Paruvur-kurram, a subdivision of Merka-nadu Irungolappadi-nadu situated in Virudarajabhayankara-valanadu, by Adaippu Tirukkarturai-Udaiyan Kunramuttaraiyan, son of Nerkuppai-Nadalvan Gunamudaiyan, one of the Pallis having the hereditary right of watchman ship in the temple.

The initial date of this chief is fixed in A.D. 1243[4] by a record from Conjeeveram[5], which equates the Saka year 1182 (A.D. 1260) with his 18th year.  The astronomical details given in the record correspond to A.D. 1244, November 13, Sunday.   The chief may, therefore, be identified with Kopperunjingadeva II.

No. 132.

(A. R. No. 411 of 1918).

Tiruppangur, Shiyali Taluk, Tanjore District.

On the east wall of the first prakara in Sivalokanathasvamin temple.

The subjoined record is also dated in the 2nd year of Sakalabhuvanachakravartin Kopperunjingadeva.  It registers a gift of land, after purchase, from a certain Aravamudu-Bhattan by Siyarurdevan Adichchadevan of Kuruchchi in Kiliyur-nadu, a subdivision of Pandikulasani-valanadu for the early morning service, sacred bath on Saturdays, unguents, garlands and offerings to the god Sivalokamudaiya-Nayanar at Tiruppungur in Tiruvali-nadu, a subdivision of Rajadhiraja-valanadu.

The astronomical details given in the record correspond to A.D. 1245, February 16, Thursday, with the emendation ba. 4 for ba. 14.

No. 133.

(A. R. No. 409 of 1921).

Tiruvadi, Cuddalore Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the inner wall of the second gopura (right of entrance) in the Tiruvirattanesvara temple.

This record is also dated in the 2nd year of the chief.  It registers a gift of 32 cows and a bull by Korraman Malaiyan Palandiyarayan of Palaiyur alias Rajendrasolanallur in Palaiyur-nadu, a subdivision of Urrukkattur-kottam, which was a district in Jayangondasola-valanadu, for burning a perpetual lamp in the temple of Tiruvirattanamudaiya-Nayanar at Tiruvadigai.

The village Palaiyur may be identified with Palur in the Chingleput taluk.

No. 134.

(A. R. No. 62 of 1919).

Munnur, Tindivanam Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the east wall of the mandapa in front of the central shrine in the Adavallesvara temple.

In this record which is dated in the 3rd year, Alagiyapallavan Virarayan  alias Kachchiyarayan confirms the gifts of the devadana  villages and lands granted as madappuram, by Aiyyadevar, for worship and repairs, to the temple of Adavalla-Nayanar at Munnur alias Rajanarayana-chaturvedimangalam.

Aiyyadevar mentioned here seems to refer to Kopperunjinga’s father Manavalapperumal, also known as Alagiyapallavan alias Kadavarayan and mentioned in a record from the same village[6] dated in the 33rd year of Tribhuvanaviradeva.

Alagiyapallavan Virarayan alias Kachchiyarayan was probably an officer under Kopperunjinga, if not the latter’s brother.  His name suggests that he was the son of Alagiyapallavan i.e., Kopperunjingadeva (I).

No. 135.

(A. R. No. 488 of 1921).

Tiruvennainallur, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the west wall of the central shrine in the Vaikuntha Perumal temple.

A grant of 475 kuli  of garden land is recorded in this inscription, dated in the 3rd year, by Tiruchchirrambalamudaiyan Sundarapandya-Brahmarayan of Solakulantaka-chaturvedimangalam, a brahmadeya in Paganur-kurram, a subdivision of Pandimandalam, for offerings to the god Vaikunthatt-Emberuman at Tiruvennainallur, a brahmadeya in Tirumunaippadi Tiruvennainallur-nadu in Rajaraja-valanadu, on the 7th day of the festival in the months of Ani (May-June) and Purattadi (August – September).

The village Solakulantaka-chaturvedimangalam is evidently called so after the surname Solantaka[7] or Solakulantaka of the early Pandya king Vira-Pandya or Jatavarman Srivallabha (Ep.  Rep. For 1910 para. 31).  This village may be identified with Tenkarai in Nilakkottai taluk of the Madura district.

The inscription mentions also a grain measure called Adigainayakan-marakkal, probably named after the deity at Tiruvadigai.

The astronomical details cited in the record are not regular.

No. 136.

(A. R. No. 53 of 1930-31).

Tirukkodikaval, Kumbakonam Taluk, Tanjore District.

On the east wall of the first prakara (outside) of the tirukkodisvara temple.

This inscription, dated in the 3rd year, registers a gift of 1 ½ ma  of land as tirunamattukkani to the god at Tirukkodika in Nallarrur-nadu, a subdivision of Virudarajabhayankara-valanadu by Pakkamudiayan Panchan Udaiyapillai of Ilamangalam in Jayangondasola-mandalam alias Singapura-nadu, after purchasing it from Kautsan Tribhuvanasundaran Dekkanamutti-Bhattan who had the Saivacharya-right in the temple and his younger brother Karpagar alias Tribhuvanasundara-Bhattan.

The details of the date given in the inscription correspond to A.D. 1244, May 17, Tuesday, which, however, did not fall in the 3rd year of the chief.  The details are also regular for A.D. 1234, May 9, Tuesday, which would fall in the reign of the elder chief.

No. 137.

(A. R. No. 113 of 1934-35).

Arakandanallur, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the south wall of the Mandapa in front of the central shrine in the Oppilamanisvara temple.

This inscription of the 3rd year  registers the gift of the village Sembiyanmadevi in Meykunra-nadu ‘on the southern bank of the Pennai’, in his nadu, by Cholatungap-Pallavaraiyan Sripaladevan Marundalvarnayan  alias Rajaraja-Sripalan of Perayil who had his parru in Kannudainallur, for early morning service, worship, offerings, lamps etc., in the temple of Opporuvarumillada-Nayanar at Tiruvaraiyaninallur.

The details of date given in the inscription correspond to A.D. 1246, March 9, Friday.

No. 138.

(A. R. No. 221 of 1934-35).

Kotta-Marudur, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On a rock near Tandarikkarai.

In this record, also the 3rd year, the chief is called Alagiya-Pallavan Kopperunjingadeva, i.e., Kopperunjingadeva, son of Alagiya-Pallavan.  The inscription states that the tank called ‘Putteri’ in Mudigondasolach-chaturvedimangalam was the gift of Nachchiyandar, wife of Nattupperumal and mother of Akalanka-Nadalvan.

No. 139.

(A. R. No. 228 of 1904).

Singavaram, Gingee Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the left wing-stone at the entrance into the central shrine in the Ranganatha temple.

The title ‘Avanialappirandan’ is added in the present inscription dated in the 4th year, to the name Sakalabhuvanachakravarttigal Kopperunjinga.  The inscription registers a gift of 30 cows for a perpetual lamp in the temple of Tiruppanrikunru-Emberuman by Ilaiyaperumal Vattarayar son of Tavancheydan Vattarayan of Karuvili.

The astronomical details given in the record correspond to A.D. 1246, August 26, Sunday; .53 ; the nakshatra Tiruvonam had, however, ended the previous day and ‘Sravishtha’ was current till .75 on this day.

No. 140.

(A. R. No. 449 of 1921).

Tiruvennainallur, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the west wall of the gopura in the Krispapurisvara temple.

This inscription, dated in the 4th year, records the gift of a cow to the temple of Atkondadeva at Tiruvennainallur, a brahmadeya in Tirumunaippadi Tiruvennainallur-nadu, a subdivision of Rajraja-valanadu, by Suppiramanniyan, son of Tirumalapadi, an agambadiyar living at Arasur.  Arasur may be identified with the village of the same name in the Tirukkoyilur taluk.

According to the astronomical details given, the date of the record is A.D. 1247, January 19, Saturday.

No. 141.

(A. R. No. 35 of 1922).

Tiruvamattur, Villupuram Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the north wall of the kitchen in the Abhiramesvara temple.

This inscription is also dated in the 4th year and it records a gift of 4 ma of land at Avviyur in Jananatha-chaturvedimangalam, a brahmadeya village in Panaiyur-nadu Mavalur-nadu, a subdivision of Rajraja-valanadu, by Udaiyar Aniyan Muvendaraiyan for the maintenance of the matha called ‘Andar Pichchar Piraisudi Andar-tirumatha alias Tiruvedam Alagiyan-tirumatha’ which was situated to the north of the temple of Atkondadevar at Tiruvennainallur.

The village Avviyur may b identified with Aviyur in the Gingee taluk of the South Arcot district.

No. 142.

(A. R. No. 51 of 1922).

On the west wall of the second prakara of the same temple.

The title ‘Avaniyalappiranda’ is also found in the present record dated in the 4th year.  It states that Aniyan Muvendaraiyan from whom Kunrameduttan Vanadhirajan had purchased lands in Kulattur alias Solaganganallur, Korravilli and Tennavamahadevi, for providing worship and offerings to the god Subrahmanya-Pillaiyar set up in the temple of Alagiya-Nayanar at Tiruvamattur by Udaiyan Vairadhirajan, remitted certain taxes such as padi-kaval, kasayam etc., for the welfare of Kopperunjinga (devar).

Kulattur and Tennavamahadevi may be identified with the villages of the same name in the Villupuram taluk.  Korravilli seems to have changed its name and is not easily identifiable.

No. 143.

(A. R. No. 52 of 1922).

On the same wall.

This inscription is engraved in continuation of the previous number and so must be taken as a record of Kopperunjingadeva, incised in the same 4th year.  It records a gift of 5 ma of land, made tax-free, as tiruvilakkuppuram for lights  in the temple of [Subrahmanya]-Pillaiyar and in the matha of Andar Tiruvunayakan-matha, by Alagiyasiyan Muvendarayan, son of Aniyan Muvendaraiyan mentioned in the previous inscription.

No. 144.

(A. R. No. 97 of 1934-35).

Vriddhachalam, Vriddhachalam Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the north wall of the kitchen in the Vriddhagirisvara temple.

This inscription, dated in the 4th year, registers a gift of 96 sheep by Alappirandan-kon suttalvan for burning a sacred perpetual lamp before the god at Tirumudukunram in Paruvur-kurram, a subdivision of Merka-nadu Irungolappadi in Virudarajabhayankara-valanaldu.

The astronomical details given point to A.D. 1247, August 26, Monday (Not Sunday) as the date of the record.

No. 145.

(A. R. No. 114 of 1934-35).

Arakandanallur, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the west wall of the Mandapa in front of the central shrine in the Oppilamanisvara temple.

This record of the 4th year registers the gift of a vessel (kalasappanai) for the sacred bath of the god, by Nallarkunallan Kuttan, a Kaikkola of Tirukkovalur.

No. 146.

(A. R. No. 164 of 1918).

Brahmadesam, Villupuram Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the south wall of the verandah of the first prakara in the Brahmapurisvara temple.

This inscription of the 5th year records the gift of 33 cattle including cows, calves and a bull by Nilagangan Ammurikundan Solangadevan of Amur for burning a perpetual lamp in the temple of Brahmisvaramudaiya-Nayanar at Rajaraja-chaturvedimangalam, an independent brahmadeya village in Panaiyur-nadu, a subdivision of Rajraja-valanaldu.  It will be evident from this record that Brahmadesam was surnamed Rajaraja-chaturvedimangalam.

No. 147.

(A. R. No. 323 of 1921).

Tirukkoyilur, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the north wall of the second prakara in the Trivikrama-Perumal temple.

It is stated in this record of Sakalabhuvanachakravarttin Avanialappirandan alias Kopperunjingadeva, dated in the 5th year, that the kaniyalar of the temple of Tiruvidaikali-Emberuman at Tirukkovalur agreed to burn a twilight lamp in the temple in return for six cows received by them from certain shepherds residing at Melaip-Panippakkam in Idaiyarru-nadu, a subdivision of Tirumunaippadi.

For the cows received the kaniyalar undertook to supply, by the ulagalandannali, 1 nali and 1 uri of ghee monthly to the temple.

The astronomical details given in the record correspond to A.D. 1247, December 29, Sunday.

No. 148.

(A. R. No. 530 of 1922).

Tirukkannapuram, Nannilam Taluk, Tanjore District.

On the east wall of the second prakara in the Sauriraja-Perumal temple.

This is an incomplete record of Perunjingadeva dated in the 5th year and is called a mulasadhanam[8] of the chief.  It records a sale of land in Sembiyan Kurudaiyadi, situated in Panaiyur-nadu, a subdivision of Kulottungasola-valanadu to Udaiyan Tirunanasambandan Alagiyan Rajadivakara-Muvendiravelan of Viliyur in Avur-kurram, a subdivision of Nittavnoda-valanadu by Araiyan Purridankondan Devapprumal, the headman of Kurudaiyadi in Tanjavur-kurram, a subdivision of Pandikulasani-valanadu.  As the record is incomplete further details as to the purpose of the transaction are not clear.

The details of date given in the inscription are not regular.

No. 149.

(A. R. No. 296 of 1913).

Chidambaram, Chidambaram Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the north wall of the third prakara in the Nataraja temple.

This inscription gives an insight into the management of the temple affairs.  It is dated in the 6th year of Sakalabhuvanachakravartti Avaniyalappirandar  alias Kopperunjingadeva. The temple at Chidambaram was at this time managed by a committee consisting of the following members and groups, viz., Jayatungap-Pallavaraiyar, Tillaiambalap-Pallavaraiyar, Mahesvara-kankaniseyvar, Srikaryanseyvar, Samudayancheyvar, Koyilanayakancheyar, Tirumaligaikkuruseyvar and the accountants.

It registers a grant of land made by Sottai-Nayaka alias Kumara-Bhatta of Irayur residing in Ponmeyndasola-chaturvedimangalam for a flower garden called ‘Tirunilai-Alagiya’ for supplying flowers to the god and the goddess Tirukkamakkottamudaiya Periyanachchiyar with an additional plot by purchase from Ponnandi, wife of Ulaichchanan Madevan Tiruchchirrambalamudaiyan of Perumbarrappuliyur, as tirunamattukkani, for the maintenance of the person looking after this garden.

The village ponmeyndasola-chaturvedimangalam must have been so named after the title of Kulottunga-Chola II.[9]  The inscription purports to be an order of Solakon.

No. 150.

(A.R. No. 448 of 1921).

Tiruvennainallur, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the south wall of the mandapa in front of the central shrine in the Kripapurisvara temple.

This inscription, dated in the 6th year, states that a bell, incense brazier, chain-lamp and a plate (for waving light) made by converting a small copper pot, were presented to the god Atkondadeva at Tiruvennainallur by Tirumalaiy-Alagiyan alias  Viragalviran-Pallavaraiyan,[10] son of Araudaiyar, a devaradiyar of the temple.


[1]  This surname is also assumed by Nilagangaraiyar, an officer under Kopperunjinga (A.R. No. 41 of 1893 and Ep. Ind.  Vol. VII, p. 166).

[2]  A. R. No. 382 of 1925.

[3] A. R . No. 514 of 1918.

[4]  Ep. Ind. Vol. VII, p. 165.

[5]  A. R.  No. 38 of 1890.

[6]  A. R.  No. 63 of 1919.

[7]  Ep. Rep.  For 1915, page 101.

[8]  Compare such terms as sadhanam, olai, tirumandira-olai, niyogam, tirumugam or srimukha tittu and sattimugam used  in inscriptions.

[9]  Ep. Rep. For 1927, p. 81.

[10]  See No. 122 above and S.I.I.,  Vol.  VIII, No. 348.

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