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Saturday, March 03, 2007


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 

Pallva Inscriptions

Nos.101 to 125

No. 101.

(A. R. No. 171 of 1921).

Melpatti, Gudiyattam Taluk, North Arcot District.

On a hero-stone set up in a field to the north of the railway station.

This record dated in the 10th year of Vijaya-Kampavikramavarman states that, when the army of Pirudi-Gangaraiyar was stationed at Kavannur in Miyaru-nadu, a subdivision of Paduvur-kottam, the kavidi  ‘who took Perunagar’ and who was also a soldier of  Vanaraiyar opposed it and fell in the encounter.

Published in Epigraphia Indica  Vol. XXIII, p. 147.

No. 102.

(A. R. No. 116 of 1923).

Kilputtur, Conjeeveram Taluk, Chingleput District.

On a stone set up in the middle of the village.

This inscription, dated in the 11th year of Vijaya-Kampavarman, registers a sale of the erikkadi-right by the assembly of Kilppudur in Kaliyur-kottam to Madevanar, son of Perumbanan Sakkadi-Araiyar in return for the gold received from him.  One kadi of paddy was ordered to be levied as erikkadi  (tank duty) on each patti of cultivated land, including those given to physicians as vaidya-bhoga.

No. 103.

(A. R. No. 174 of 1912).

Tiruvorriyur, Saidapet Taluk, Chingleput District.

On a slab built into the floor of the verandah

round the central shrine in the Adhipurisvara temple.

This date of this record of Vijaya-Kampavarman  is not clear.  It might be 11, 13 or 16.  The inscription records an agreement made by the assembly (ur) of Vaikkattur ro provide offerings to the god Mahadeva at Tiruvorriyur, on the day of sankranti, for the interest on 27 kalanju of gold received by them from Pudi Arindigai, wife of Videlvidugu[Ilankove]lar of Kodumbalur[1] in Ko-nadu.  The chiefs of Kodumbalur (in the Pudukkottai state) figure largely in inscriptions as subordinates of the Cholas, but their connection with the Pallavas is not so well known.  A chief of this family is also mentioned in a mutilated record from Kilur[2], dated in the 11th year of Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman, where the donor is stated to be the wife of Sattan maravan and the daughter of Vikrama-Pudi who is probably identical with Videlvidugu Ilanko-Adiaraiyan mentioned in the same record.

No. 104.

(A. R. No. 391 of 1905).

Kaverippakkam, Arkonam Taluk, North Arcot District.

On a stone built into the floor close to the south wall

of the central shrine in the Varadaraja-Perumal temple.

The subjoined record is dated in the 17th year of Vijaya-Kampavarman and in registers a gift of 736 kalanju of gold to the assembly of Chirrambalam in Kavadippakkam alias Avaninarayana-chaturvedimangalam for feeding a person daily, by a lady called Nampiratti, the elder sister of one Tiruvanangamudi.

No. 105.

(A. R. No. 372 of 1911).

Tiruvorriyur, Saidapet Taluk, Chingleput District.

On a slab built into the floor at the entrance into the second prakara of the Adhipurisvara temple.

The construction of a temple of Niranjanesvarattu-Mahadeva at Tiruvorriyur by a certain Niranjanaguravur of the place and the gift of 20,00 kuli of land by purchase from the assembly of Manali for its upkeep, are recorded in this inscription of Vijaya-Kampavarman dated in the 19th year.  The document was drawn up by Rudrappottar Kumara-Kalan, the madhyastha of the village.  The communities Mandirattar and Kombaruttar are mentioned in II. 29 – 30.

The inscription is stated to have been engraved by Tiruvorriyur-Acharyan alias Paramesvaran, son of Samundacharya.

The pullis are marked in the inscription.

No. 106.

(A. R. No. 498 of 1908).

Mallam, Gudur Taluk, Nellore District.

On a slab set up in front of the Subrahmanya temple.

This inscription of Kampavarman,  dated in the 20th year,  is engraved above the figure of a person holding his severed head by the tuft in his left hand, while the right hand grasps a sword (Plate VI).  It registers a gift of land made by the urar of Tiruvanmur of Pattai-Pottan for the pious act of Okkondanagan Okkatindan Pattai-Pottan, probably his father, in cutting off flesh from nine parts of his body and finally his head as an offering to the goddess Bhatari, i.e., Durga.

The rituals connected with human sacrifice offered to the goddess Durga are described in the Kaika-Purana, Chapter 70.

The modern Mallam or an ancient suburb of it was known as Tiruvanmur in inscriptions.

No. 107.

(A. R. No. 227 of 1915).

Brahmadesam, Cheyyar Taluk, North Arcot District.

It is stated in this record of Vijaya-Kampavarman, dated in the 20th year, that a member of the alum-ganattar of Kavadippakkam in Paduvur-kottam made a gift of 11 kalanju of gold for supplying, from the interest on this amount, water to the village may be identified with Brahmadesam itself where the present inscription is found.  Since we find an inscription of the Ganga king Rajamalla, the grandson of Sripurusha at Vallimalai[3] not very far from Brahmadesam, Rajamalla-chaturvedimangalam, may have been called so after this Ganga king.  It may be mentioned that in the region surrounding Brahmadesam there are villages called Sripurushamangalam[4] and Ranavikrama chaturvedimangalam[5] which must have been named after the Ganga kings Sripurusha and Ranavikrama, the grandfather and father respectively of Rajamalla.  The name of the god at Brahmadesam viz., Tiruppondai-Perumanadigal is uncommon in the Tamil country and it is probably to be traced to some Ganga or Western Chalukya[6] princess.

No. 108.

(A. R. No. 345 of 1906).

Uttukkadu, Conjeeveram Taluk, Chingleput District.

On the south wall of the ruined Perumal temple.

This is dated in the 25th year of Vijaya-Kampavarman and registers the agreement made by the tirunamakkilavar of Ulaichcheri in Urrukkadu to burn three lamps and to provide offerings (to the god) for the money and land received by them from Pusali Vamanan, a resident of the village.  The name of the temple is not mentioned in the record, but from the reference made in it to the mahesvaras, it seems to have been dedicated to Siva.

No. 109.

(A. R. No. 82 of 1932-33).

Anur, Chingleput Taluk and District.

On the south wall of the mandapa in front of the central shrine in the Astrapurisvara temple.

This is a damaged and incomplete record of Kampavikra[mavarman] dated in the 25th year.  It registers an agreement made by the sabha of Aniyur to burn a perpetual lamp before the god Vambankattur-Mahadeva for the interest on 40 kalanju of gold received by them from Periya Sridhara-Kramavittan of Arivilimangalam, a member of the alum-gana, evidently of Anur.

No. 110.

(A.R. No. 283 of 1919).

Madam, Wandiwash Taluk, North Arcot District.

On the side of a boulder called Sarukkamparai About a furlong to the south of the village.

This inscription records that in the 26th year of Vijaya-Kamapavarman, Jayavallavan (Jayavallabha) a merchant of Kulattur in Tennarrur-nadu, a subdivision of Palkunrak-kottam purchased land from the urar of the village and presented it as erippatti for the maintenance of a tank, evidently at Madam.

No. 111.

(A. R. No. 144 of 1924).

Kodungalur, Wandiwash Taluk, North Arcot District.

On a slab fixed at the entrance of the Ganapati shrine.

This record is dated in the [3]2nd year of  Vijaya-Kampavarman, which is the latest known date fo the king.  It registers a sale of some land (?) by the urar of Kavidu to a certain Kadandai Nakkan Sadaiyan, a resident of that village, probably for some charity, the details of which are not clear.

Kavidu may be identified with the village of the same name in the Wandiwash taluk.

No. 112.

(A. R. No. 357 of 1909).

Olakkur, Tindivanam  Taluk, South Arcot District.

On a slab set up near the village Chavadi.

This inscription records the death of a hero named Todupatti Matiragan (probably a mahout[7]), on the day when the village[8] (i.e. Olakkur) was destroyed in the confusion caused by Kampapperumal with his elephants.  A figure of this hero advancing with a drawn sword in his right hand is also represented on the stone.

VAYIRAMEGAVARMAN

No. 118.

(A. R. No. 150 of 1916).

Poyyanur, Arkonam Taluk, North Arcot District.

On a slab built into the north wall of the Agastisvara temple.

This inscription, which is highly damaged, seems to record a gift made for providing offerings to the god Tiruvagattisvara[mudaiya-Mahadeva], by the assembly of Poygainallur in Damar-kottam, in the 2nd year of Vayiramegavarman.

The surname Vayiramegan[9] is applied to Dantivarman in the Triplicane inscription[10].  As the characters of the present and the following inscription belong to a later period than Dantivarman, the king figuring in these two records was probably different.  A certain chieftain named Vayiramegan alias Vanakovaraiyar figures in two inscriptions from Tiruvorriyur[11], with whom Vayiramegavarman of the present record may be identified.

No. 114.

(A.R. No. 152 of 1916).

Kilpulam, Arkonam Taluk, North Arcot District.

On the north, west and south walls of the Kailasanatha temple.

This record registers a gift of land made in the 2nd year of Vayiramegavarman by Mullikkudaiyan Adittanali for conducting the tiruppali (i.e., sribali) ceremony and for offerings during the three services in the temple of Tirukkulichcharattu-Alvar at Palkalam in Damar-kottam, with five persons including one for beating the gong (segandigai) and two for blowing the trumpets (kalam).  The assembly (ur) of Palkalam entrusted the endowed land to Arayanichchingan, a drummer (uvaichchan) residing in the village.

The village Palkalam may be identified with Kilpulam itself.

CHANDRADITYA

No. 115.

(A. R. No. 284 of 1916).

Melaichcheri, Gingee Taluk, South Arcot District.

On a pillar in the rock-cut cave.

This subjoined inscription, engraved in Pallava-Grantha characters, states that this rock-cut Siva temple called Sri-Sikhari-Pallavesvaram was caused to be made at Sinhapura by king Chandraditya.  This is the only record hitherto found for the king (See Plate V).  This rock-cut temple contains no sculptures or ornamentation of any kind and it may be said to correspond to ‘the Mahendra Style’ of architecture.  The palaeography of the present record also suggests that the king who bore this title or name probably flourished in the time of Mahendravarman or Narasimhavarman I at the latest.  As, however, this title does not occur among the numerous birudas found for these in any rock-cut shrine, we have to conclude that Chandraditya was a Pallava prince of this time, about whom we have at present no information.

Sinhapura is identical with Singavaram which is the name of a village close by the present name of Melaichcheri must have been given later to this hamlet with reference to the principal village Singavaram.

MISCELLANEOUS.

No. 116.

(A.R. No. 663 of 1922).

Mahabalipuram, Chingleput Taluk and District.

On the portal of the niche to the right of the Varaha cell in the Varaha cave temple.

This inscription engraved in the Pallava-Grantha  script, gives the oft-quoted verse enumerating the ten incarnations of Vishnu.

Published in Epographical Report for 1923, p. 94 and Archaeological Survey Memoir,  No. 26.

No. 117.

(A. R. No. 665 of 1922).

On the floor of the same cave temple.

This is imprecatory verse[12] engraved in Pallava-Grantha characters.  It is also found in the concluding portion of some of the inscriptions at Mahabalipuram but sometimes with the substitute Vishnuh  for Rudrah, cursing ‘those in whose hearts does not dwell Rudra (Siva), the deliverer from the walking on the evil path’.  In Mahabalipuram this verse is found at three other places, viz., the Ganesa temple and the Dharmaraja and Ramanuja mandapas.[13]  The characters employed in all these cases are of the florid variety.

Published in Epigraphia Indica, Vol. X, Nos. 20, 21 and 22 ; pp. 9 and 11, and  Archaeological Survey Memoir,  No. 26.

SECTION II

Later Pallava Chiefs

KOPPERUNJINGADEVA I

No. 118.

(A. R. No. 85 of 1918).

Vriddhachalam, Vriddhachalm Taluk, South Arcot District.

In the second gopura (left of entrance) of the Vriddhagirisvara temple.

This inscription, dated in the 3rd year of Sakalabhuvanachchakravarttigal Kopperunjingadeva, registers a gift of 32 cows for burning a perpetual lamp in the temple of Udaiyar Tirumudukunramudaiya-Nayanar by Anjada-Perumal, son of Andali, one of the agambadittana-mudalis in the service of Senganivayan Solakonar of Arasur.

Solakonar mentioned here was an important officer under Kopperunjingadeva I[14] and II, holding charge of the region round about the present town of Chidambaram in the South Arcot district.  His native place Arasur is propably identical with the village of that name in the Tirukkoyilur taluk of the same district.

The existence of two Kadava chiefs with the name Kopperunjingadeva is established in the Introduction.  Their records have to be distinguished with care from the internal evidence, astronomical details given and the surname Alagiyasiyan invariably borne by the elder chief.

In the details given for the calculation of date in the present record su is wrongly quoted for  ba., since su.  10 cannot combine with nakshatra Pusam in the month of Simha.  With this emendation there is no date in the reign of Kopperunjingadeva II for the details given, but they, however, correspond to A.D. 1234, August 21, Monday which fell in the period of Kopperunjinga I.  This record must, therefore, be ascribed to the latter chief.

No. 119.

(A. R. No. 285 of 1921).

Attur, Chingleput Taluk and District.

On the north and west walls of the Muktisvara temple.

This record is dated in the 5th year of Sakalabhuvanachchakravartin Kopperunjingadeva and it records the gift of the village Attur alias  Rajarajanallur in Arrur-nadu, a subdivision of Urrukkattuk-kottam in Jayangondasolamandalam, by Alagiyasiyan Avanialappirandan Kadavan Kopperunjingan, for  constructing, as a gopura with 7 storeys, the southern entrance called ‘Sokkachchiyantirunilai’ of the temple of Tiruchchirrambalam-Udaiyar at Perumbarrappuliyur (i.e., Chidabaram).  The Pandya emblems of a pair of fish and goad found in relief on the jambs and beams of this gopura indicate that the construction must have been started in the reign of a Pandya king.  It is stated that this inscription, besides being engraved at Arrur, was also ordered to be recorded in the temple of Tiruvegambamudaiya-Nayaar, probably Ekamranatha at Conjeeveram.  A copy of the record is found at Chidambaram wherein[15] the engraving of the present inscription at Attur is also referred to.  The document is attested by Kopperunjinga, Kurukularajan and Villavarajan.

The wording in this inscription where the chief himself figures as donor is peculiar.  This form, though not uncommon, is not often met with in inscriptions.

From the surname Alagiyasiyan and the probable reference to this gopura of seven storeys in a record[16] of the 24th year of Rajaraja II, i.e., A.D. 1240, the present inscription has to be assigned to Kopperunjingadeva I[17].

No. 120.

(A. R. No. 286 of 1921).

On the same walls.

The first portion of this record consists of a string of birudas in Sanskrit, which describes the family, character and achievements of Kopperunjingadeva.  The concluding portion is in Tamil and contains an order of the chief issued, through his officer Nilagangaraiyar, to the residents of Arrur remitting, in favour of the god Aludaiya-Nayanar, from the 5th year of the chief’s rule, the tax aripadikaval excluding kavalperu, on their village, which was hitherto collected by the king.  In the Sanskrit portion the chief is called Pallavakula-parijata, Kadavakula-chudamani, Avanipalana-jata, etc., He claims supremacy over the Chola, Pandya, Chedi, Karnata and Andhra kings.  The chief’s conflict with Gandagopala and the extent of his dominions are indicated by the titles ‘Ganda-bhandara[18]-luntaka’ Kshirapagadakshinanayaka, Kaveri-kamuka and Pennanadi-natha. The title ‘Khadgamalla’ corresponding to the Tamil ‘Valvalla’ explains the heroism, while the epithets ‘Bharatamalla’ and ‘Sahityaratnakara’ describe the cultural attainments of the chief.  His connection with Mallai i.e., Mahabalipuram and Conjeeveram is indicated by the titles Mallapuri-vallabha[19] and Kanchipuri-kanta[20].   The last verse in the Sanskrit portion gives a clue to the identification of Kopperunjinga.  This verse, conveying a double entendre, refers to the attempts of the chief to enjoy Dhatri, i.e., Earth, when it is implied that the town Kanchi was taken and Madya-(desa) i.e., Nadu-nadu was conquered.  Since the capture of Tondai-mandalam and Nadu-nadu is t be attributed to the elder Perujinga, this record may be assigned to him.

The officer Nilagangaraiyar, from the title pillaiyar applied to him, appears to have been a favourite and important officer of Kopperunjingadeva.  Three generations of Nilagangaraiyars are known, viz., (1) Kulottungasola Kannappan Nallanayanar Panchanadivanan Nilagangaraiyar (16th year of Kulottunga-Chola III[21]), (2) the officer figuring in the present inscription, and (3) his son, Panchanadivanan Arunagiriperumal Nilagangaraiyar figuring in the time of Vijaya-Gandagopala[22],  Sundara-Pandya[23] and Kopperunjingadeva II[24].  They were in power in the present Chingleput district under the Cholas and their successors and sometimes issued order in their own names.

Arikpadikaval may be explained as a tax payable in kind to the king for protection.

No. 121.

(A. R. No. 83 of 1918).

Vriddhachalam, Vriddhachalam Taluk, South Arcot District.

In the second gopura (left of entrance) of the Vriddhagirisvara temple.

This inscription of the 6th year of Kopperunjingadeva records a gift of 4 ma of garden land called ‘Alagiyapallavan-toppu.’ In Urrukkuruchchi alias Adanur in Kudal-nadu, by Alappirandan Alagiyasiyan Kopperunjigan of Kudal in Kil-Amur-nadu, a subdivision of Tirumunaippadi, for supplying arecanuts, flower-garlands, etc., to the god at Tirumudukunram in Paruvur-kurram, a subdivision of Irungolappadi in Merka-nadu, situated in Virudarajabhayankara-valanadu.

The village Adanur may be identified with one of the two villages of the same name in the Vriddhachalam taluk.  Kudal, the native place of Kopperunjingadeva, is probably identical with Kudalur i.e., Cuddalore in South Arcot District.  The garden Alagiyapallavan-toppu must have been so called after the surname of the chief.  It may be pointed out that Kopperunjinga II also bore this surname[25].

For the astronomical details given in the inscription there is only one tallying date between A.D. 1220 and 1260, viz., A.D. 1234, March 22, Wednesday.  It is doubtful whether the regnal year is correctly quoted here.

No. 122.

(A. R. No. 497 of 1921).

Tiruvennainallur, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the East wall of the mandapa in the front of the central shrine in the Vaikuntha-Perumal temple.

In this inscription, dated in the 8th year, Kopperujingadeva  is given the surname Alagiyasiyan.  It records a gift of 5 cows by Tirumalaiy-Alagiyan alias  Vira[gal*] virap-Pallavaraiyan[26], a Kaikkola-mudali of Tiruvennainallur for supplying daily milk by the measure ‘Arumolideva-nali’ to the god  Vaikunda (Vaikuntha) [p-Perumal].  This donor figures in A.D. 1237[27] and his death is referred to in No. 189 below.  From the title Alagiyasiyan given to the chief, he may be identified with the elder Kopperunjinga.

No. 123.

(A. R. No. 94 of 1934-35).

Vriddhachalam, Vriddhachalam Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the west wall of the mandapa in front of the central shrine in the Vriddhagirisvara temple.

This is dated in the 8th year of Sakalabhuvanachakravartin Kopperunjingadeva and records a gift of 128 cows by Senganiva[yan] Solakon  of Arasur and a mudali of Alappira[ndan] Alagiyasiyan Kopperunjinga, for burning 4 perpetual lamps before the god at Tirumudukunram in Paruvur-kurram, a subdivision of Merka-nadu Irungolappadi-nadu in Vadagarai Virudarajabhayankara-valanadu.

The date of the record, according to the astronomical details given, was either A.D. 1240, Jan. 11, Wednesday, or A.D. 1251, January 11, Wednesday.  In both cases the nakshtra was Makha, not Punarpusam as quoted in the inscription.  Since the donor is stated to have been a mudali of Alagiyasiyan Kopperujinga, the date of the inscription was probably A.D. 1240.

No. 124.

(A. R. No. 73 of 1918).

In the second gopura (right of entrance) of the same temple.

This important record, dated in the 10th year, is unfortunately damaged and left unfinished.  It refers to a battle that was fought at Perumbalur (probably Peramblur in the Trichinopoly district) wherein Kopperunjingadeva is said to have defeated and killed some Hoysala generals of whom the names of Kesava, Harihara and Tikkanaip-perumal are legible in the record, and also to have captured their ladies and treasures.  In expiation of this act Avanialappirandan alias Kopperunjingadeva of Kudal in KilAmur-nadu, a subdivision of Tirumunaippadi, made a gift of a gold forehead-plate called ‘Avani-alappirandan’ set with jewels for the god Tirumudukunramudaiya-Nayanar and of cows for the maintenance of sacred lamps in the temple.

The Hoysala general Kesava is probably identical with the officer of the same name figuring in a record of the 24th year of Rajaraja III at Conjeeveram[28].

In the astronomical details given, su must be a mistake for ba, for the former cannot combine with nakshatra Revati in the month of Simha.  There is no corresponding Christian date in the reign of Kopperujinga II for the details given, but they work satisfactorily for A.D. 1241, July 29, Monday.  This date falls in the reign of Kopperunjingadeva I, assuming that, as suggested elsewhere[29], this chief commenced his regnal year from A.D. 1231-32, the date of imprisonment of the Chola king Rajaraja III at Sendamangalam.  The present record would then belong to Kopperunjinga I.

No. 125.

(A. R. No. 296 of 1912).

Atti, Cheyyar Taluk, North Arcot District.

On the south wall of the Agastisvara temple.

This is a set of six verse in Tamil in Kattalaikkalitturai metre praising the greatness of Pallavandar alias Kadavarayar ‘who conquered Tondai-mandalam’ and who was the son of Kudal Alappirandan alias  Kadavarayar.  He is called Pallavan, Kadavar-kon, Kudal mannavar and one of the verses alludes to the battle at Sevur, probably identical with Mel-Sevur in the Tindivanam taluk of the South Arcot district, where he slew a large number of his enemies and ‘created mountains of dead bodies and swelling rivers of blood’.  His opponent on the battlefield at Sevur is not specified, but the result was the conquest of Tondai-nadu which included Pennai-nadu, Vada-Vengadam and Kachch ‘surrounded by the sea’.  That Pallavandar also defeated the northern powers is indicated by a verse stating that the ‘northern kings who did not come and make obeisance to the Kadava, could not find even a hill or a forest to which they could flee for refuge’.


[1]  For genealogy of the kodumbalur chiefs, see Ep.  Rep. For 1908, p. 87.

[2]  No. 295 of 1902 (S.I.I.  Vol. VII, NO. 924)

[3]  Ep. Ind.  Vol. IV, p. 141.

[4]  A. R. No. 59 of 1900.

[5] S.I.I.  Vol. III, p. 96.

[6]  It may be pointed out that the queen of the Western Chalukya king Vikramaditya IV was called Bonthadevi (Dy. Of Kan. Dist. – Fleet, p. 296 and Ep. Ind.  Vol. XII, p. 144. [cf. the name Porpondal in No. 97 above-Ed.]

[7] See S.I.I.   Vol. VIII, No. 739.

[8]  In the same village is found an inscription (No. 356 of 1909) attributable to the 6th century A.D., engraved below a seated image of a goddess flanked by a lamp and canopied by an umbrella.

[9]  The title Vayiramega was borne by three rulers. Viz., 1. Pallava Dantivarman, 2. an illegitimate son of Aparajita, and 3. Rashtrakuta Dantivarman.

[10]   Ep. Ind.,  Vol. VIII, p. 293 ff.

[11]  Nos. 87 and 88 above ; Ep. Rep. For 1913, p. 90.

[12]  A.R.  No. 533 of 1907 records the same verse.

[13]  Ep. Ind.  Vol. X, p. 8 ff.

[14]  No. 123 below.

[15]  A.R.  No. 463 of 1902.

[16]  A.R. No. 1 of 1936 – 37.

[17]  [It is interesting to note that among the boundaries is mentioned the tax-free land of a ghajika. - Ed]

[18]  [This refers perhaps to Gandapendara - Ed].

[19]  of. Mallai-vendan in No. 128 below.

[20]  of. Kanchi-Nayaka in a record from Tirupati.

[21]  A.R.  No. 2 of 1911.

[22]  A.R. No. 4 of 1911.

[23]  A.R. No. 306 of 1909.

[24]  No. 212 below.

[25]  No. 230 below.

[26]  No. 150 below.

[27]  A.R. No. 501 of 1902 dated in the 21st year of Rajaraja III.

[28]  A.R. No. 612 of 1919.

[29]  Ep. Ind.  Vol. XXIII, p. 176.

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