far the most important among the later chiefs claiming Pallava descent are the
Kadava rulers Kopperunjingadeva I and Kopperunjingadeva II. They have left a large number of
inscriptions mostly in the North and South Arcot districts and in the
Chingleput district and these are included in Section II of the present volume. Though the epithet ‘Kadava’ is not found
among the several birudas assumed by Mahendravarman I, Narasimhavarman I
and Narasimhavarman II, this epithet along with Tondaiyar and Kaduvetti,
is invariably used in Tamil literature to denote the Pallavas. The relationship of the Kadavas to the main
line is revealed by an inscription in the Vaikuntha-Perumal temple at
the kings of the collateral line of the Pallavas who were descended from
Bhimavarman, the brother of Simhavishnu, are called the ‘Kadavas’. The Pallava king Hirnyavarman is stated to
have belonged to ‘Kadava-kula’
and Nandivarman Pallavamalla is praised as ‘one who was born to raise the
prestige of the Kadava family’.
the term Kadava, the surname Kaduvetti
is also used to denote the Pallavas. A
record from Nagar in
the Mysore State employs the term Kaduvetti as a synonym for all the
Pallava kings of Kanchi. The earliest
reference to the Kaduvetti is to be found in the Siragunda stone record
of about 480 A.D. The Kaduvettis are
largely mentioned in the inscriptions of the Telugu and Kanarese districts, but
their connection with the Kadavas of the Tamil country is not yet well
I is called Kadavakula-chudamani (No. 120), Kathakavamsamauktikamani (No. 126),
Pennainad-udaiyan (No. 125), Avaniyalappirandan (No. 124), Alagiya Siyan (No.
128), etc. He claims to belong to Kudal
in Tirumunaippadi, which may be identified with the present Cuddalore (Kudalur)
the head quarters of the South Arcot district.
certain Jiya-Mahipati is mentioned as the father of Kopperunjinga in No.
247. The term Jiya corresponds
to the Tamil Siyan meaning ‘a lion’ (simha ; pkt. siha)
and the name ‘Alagiyasiyan’ should
therefore be taken as referring to Jiya-Mahipati himself. As this Alagiyasiyan is also known as Kopperunjinga in No. 128,
both the father and the son should have borne the same name
(Kopperunjinga). The initial date of a
Kopperunjinga is fixed at A.D. 1243 from an inscription at Conjeeveram
and his latest regnal year is the 36th corresponding to A.D.
1279. I have elsewhere identified Manavalapperumal
who figures as a subordinate of
Kulottunga-Chola III in A.D. 1191 and 1195
with Kopperunjinga. As the interval between A.D. 1191 and 1279
is an unusually long period for the rule of a single chief, we have necessarily
to presume the existence of two chiefs
of the same name. Three stone records,
one found at Villiyanur
in French India, the second at Tiruvennainallur (No. 170) and the third at
Chidambaram (No. 215) settle the question almost conclusively.
Villiyanur record is dated in the 6th year of Avaniyalappirandar
Kopperunjingadeva and refers to the audit of temple account for the period
commencing from the 37th year of Tribhuvanaviradeva and ending with
the 11th year
of Alagiyasiyar (Jiya-Mahipati) Koppeunjingadeva. This inscription dated in the 6th
year of Kopperunjingadeva, by referring to the 11th year of Alagiya
Siyar Kopperunjingadeva would show that there was an earlier chief of the name
Kopperunjinga. The inscription from
records the re-engraving in the 11th year of Avaniyalappiranda
Kopperunjingadeva, of two inscriptions, one belonging to the reign of Rajaraja
II and the other to the 35th year of Tribhuvanaviradeva or
Kulottunga-Chola III (A.D. 1213), in the latter of which Alagiya Pallavan
Kopperunjingadeva is mentioned, thus indicating the rule of two distinct chiefs
of the name.
more definite evidence is supplied in No. 215 from Chidambaram. This inscription is dated in the 19th
year of Kopperunjingadeva and refers to a flower garden called
‘Sokkachchiyan-kamugu-tirunandavanam’ formed at Bhupalasundara-solanallur. Towards the end of this inscription it is
stated that the officer Solakon
directed the authorities of the Chidambaram temple to incise this record
on the same wall where the original gift of this garden was engraved in the 15th
year of PERIYADEVAR which is a respectful title applied in inscriptions only to a previous monarch by a ruling king or
chief. Fortunately this record of the
15th year is found on the very same wall and mentions the same
garden ‘Sokkachchiyan-Kamugu-Tirunandavanam’ and what is more important, the
record itself belongs to Sakalbhuvana-chakravartin Kopperunjinga who can be no
other than the Periyadevar mentioned in the other record. Further, this
‘Sokkachchiyan-kamugu-tirunandavanam’ which is definitely known to have been
formed in the 15th year of Periyadevar is again referred to in a
of the 3rd year of Kopperunjinga who must be identified with the
younger chief. Since both the chiefs
are thus known to have borne the same name, their records have to be
distinguished from each other only with the help of internal evidence. The astronomical details cited in their
inscriptions and the name Alagiyasiyan invariably borne by the elder chief are
also helpful in this direction.
the beginning of the 13th century A.D. the Chola empire became so
weak that it had to seek foreign aid to maintain its power. Thus we find the Hoysala king Vira-Ballala
Vira-Naasimha and Somesvara, the Kakatiya Ganapati, the Telugu chief Tikka and
later, the Pandya ruler Jatavarman Sundar-Pandya, each styling himself ‘the
Establisher of the Chola kingdom’.
Kopperunjinga I who was related to the Chola King by ties o marriage and
was an officer under Kulottunga-Chola III till about A.D. 1213
was not slow to take advantage of the situation. He strengthened his position and garrisoned Sendamangalam in the present Tirukkoyilur taluk of the South Arcot district, which was
thus converted into a military stronghold. His ambition to rise to power first brought
him into conflict with the Yadava chief Vira-Narasingadeva,
another subordinate of the Chola king Rajaraja III, with whom he fought a
battle at Uratti in A.D. 1222-23.
Closely following upon this fight he must have had another engagement
with the Hoysala king Vira-Narasimha in A.D. 1224, which evidently made the latter assume the
title ‘Establisher of the Chola country’ and ‘the destroyer o the demon Kadavaraya’. Prior to this engagement the Hoysala king
claims to have overrun the land defeating the Magada chief and the Pandya King
and even to have planted a pillar of victory at Ramesvaram by Saka 1145 (A.D.
1223-24). The devastation of the Kadava territory is
explicitly referred to in a record from Tiruvadatturai in the South Arcot district which may be
dated in A.D. 1226 and in an unpublished record of Hoysala Somesvara, dated in
the cyclic year Durmukhi (i.e.,) A.D. 1236-37.
A.D. 1229, Narasimha is said to have been ruling from Kanchipuram
which was the eastern limit of his possessions. Further, in a record from Kundur in the
Mysore State, he calls himself Kanchi-Kanchana and Kadavakula-kalantaka and some of his troops are said to have been
stationed in this town. By A.D. 1232,
he claims to have established the Chola king more than once on his throne as
can be seen by the wording in the Tiruvendipuram record, viz., ‘unless
(I shall) have maintained (my) reputation of being the Establisher of the Chola
country’. In an inscription of the next
year (i.e. A.D. 1233) he is stated to have been in residence at Panchala
in the Chola country. Kopperunjinga’s
ambition should thus have received a check, but he was able to defeat the Chola
king Rajaraja III in a battle at Tellaru in the North Arcot district and
to imprison him with his ministers at Sendamangalam in A.D. 1231-32. The Kadava version of this conquest is found
in No. 128, while the Chola account of the same event is recorded in an inscription
in the South Arcot district, wherein the rebel Perunjinga is said to have been
helped by Parakrama-Bahu of Ilam (Ceylon).
The battle at Tellaru may be considered as a turning point in the
fortunes of Kopperunjingadeva s it exposed the weakness of the Chola power
while it brought prestige to the small principality set up by him in open
defiance of the Chola crown. The Kadava
chief evidently signalized this victory by assuming the title Sakalabhuvanachakravartin,
perhaps as a set-off against the biruda Tribhuvanachakravartin of
Rajaraja III and the distinctive epithet ‘Solanai-sirai-yittu-vaittu
Sonadu-konda Alagiyasiyan’, and by issuing records quoting his own regnal
years. In the next stage of his career
Kopperunjinga should have been engaged in consolidating his principality
against great odds. A number of Hoysala generals are mentioned
in the inscriptions from Conjeeveram between the 14th and 24th
years of Rajaraja III, i.e., till about A.D. 1240.
Machaladevi, the daughter of Bhutaya-Nayaka of Dorasamudra was a donor to the
temple of Attiyur-Alvar at Kanchi. Vallaya, the pradhani of Somesvara,
was also a donor at Kanchi
in A.D. 1238. There were also Hoysala
generals at Tirumalavadi
and at Karuvur in
another portion of the Chola territory.
Vira-Somesvara himself is stated to have been camping at sendamangalam
in the course of his campaign against the Kadava in the year Durmukhi
corresponding to A.D. 1236.
march of Hoysala generals into the Chola country was evidently intended to
check the aggression of Kopperunjinga, but the latter, however, soon rose
against the ‘warlike Kannadar who knew no retreat’
and fought a sanguinary battle at Perambalur in the Trichinopoly district, where he is stated to have killed
the Hoysala generals Kesava, Harihara-Dandanayaka and others and to have seized
their women and property. This battle
is mentioned in No. 124 from Vriddhachalam which is dated in the 10th
year corresponding to A.D. 1241-42 and states that Perunjinga presented to the
temple an ornament for the god in expiation of his sins. Closely connected with this fight was
perhaps the imprisonment of the Hoysalas – evidently generals – claimed by this
chief in No. 129 from Akkur.
This inscription recounts his several deeds of munificence during his
pilgrimage to various sacred places on the southern bank of the river Kaveri in
Solamandalam. He also raised a
fortification near Tiruvenkadu
on the north bank of this river as a check against the Hoysala aggression. This precaution was probably necessitated by
the invasion of this region in A.D. 1241 by the Hoysala general
of Kopperunjinga I are not many since his principality was only in the making
during the major part of his life, when he was actively engaged in conflict
with other powers. The provenance of
his records indicates the extent of his territory. Such titles as Kachchip-Pallavan (No. 125), Kanchipuri-kanta
(No. 120), Mallai-vendan (No.
128) and Mallapuri-Vallabha (No. 120) assumed by him seem to reveal his
ambition to establish connection with the ancient Pallava cities. He was a patron of Taml literature and a
great devotee of god Nataraja at Chidambaram where he constructed the southern
of the temple (No. 119).
son and successor Kopperunjinga II  is represented by a large number of
inscriptions (Nos. 131 – 260) which are included in the present volume. The political situation in the country seems
to have been favorable for the rapid expansion of his power. His contemporary on the Hoysala throne was
Somesvara whose inscriptions
between A.D. 1242 and 1256 are conspicuously absent in the Tamil country, thus
indicating the withdrawal of one obstacle which stood in the way of Kadava
power. Rajendra-Chola III ascended the
Chola throne in A.D. 1246, probably with Kadava support as suggested in No.
247, and the Pandyas under Maravarman Sundara-Pandya II (A.D. 1238 – 1255) were
too weak to follow any aggressive policy.
initial date of
this chief has been fixed between 11th February and 30th
July, 1243 A.D. His latest inscription
dated in the 36th regnal year would carry his rule to A.D.
1279. Sendamangalam continued to be the
seat of the new Kadava principality.
The title Sakalabhuvanachakravartin assumed by the elder
Perunjinga, was also adopted by the younger chief along with other surnames
such as Maharajasimha, Khadgamalla, Kadava, Pallava, Alappirandan and Avaniyalappirandan.
inscriptions are found mostly in the South Arcot and Chingleput districts and
the northern portion of Tanjore, and a few have also been secured from the
North Arcot and Chittoor districts.
There is a record of his at Tripurantakam in the Kurnool district and
three others at Draksharama in the Godavari district. Roughly his dominion may be said to have extended from
Conjeeveram in the north to Tiruvidaimarudur near Kumbakonam in the South. The territory to the north of Conjeeveram
was in the possession of Vijaya-Gandagopala (accn. A.D. 1250). Curiously
enough we find inscriptions
of both these chiefs in the same region in the years A.D. 1254, 1258, 1263,
etc., which would show that the boundary line between their respective
territories was not clearly defined.
The political relationship of Kopperunjinga II with the contemporary
Chola king Rajendra-Chola III deserves study in view of the fact that their
immediate predecessors were bitter opponents of each other. Their inscriptions do not reveal any
continuity of hostilities, but on the other hand, in No. 247 from
Tripurantakam, Kopperunjinga claims to have helped to the throne a Chola prince
‘who was shuddering with fear’. The
Chola king was a devotee of the god at Chidambaram
situated in the territory of Kopperunjinga, while the latter styles himself
‘the sun to the lotus tank, viz., the Chola family’.
Further, inscriptions of both Rajendra-Chola III and Kopperunjinga belonging to
the same years are found at Tiruvannamalai
Rajendra-Chola’s territory was apparently confined to the present Tanjore
district and portions of Trichinopoly while that of Kopperunjinga, comprised
the South Arcot, Chingleput and North Arcot districts. Stray inscriptions of Rajendra-Chola are,
however, found at Udayagiri
(Nellore district), Lepaka
(Cuddapah district) and Tripurantakam
(Kurnool district), in the last of which is also found Perunjinga’s record
noted above. It would not have been
possible for the Chola king to assert his sovereignty so far north with a
hostile Kopperunjinga in the south, and hence it may be presumed that they
acted together as allies probably against a common enemy the Kakatiya king.
inscriptions are found at Draksharama
and Tripurantakam, both o which lay in the Kakatiya territory. The Draksharama inscription is dated in saka
1184 (A.D. 1261 – 62) and the Kadava chief called therein Maharajasimha is
stated to have instituted a Kathaka-mahotsava for the god Bhimanatha in
honour of the Kakatipati and also to have presented to the same deity a kalpavitapa,
a simhasana, a swing, a makara-torana, etc., all made of
gold. The ovrlordship of Ganapati is
signified in this record by Kopperunjinga
calling himself ‘the executor of the commands of Ganapati-Maharaja’ (Ganapati-Maharajasyajnam
pravartayata), while it is ignored in the inscription at Tripurantakam (No.
247) which may probably be ascribed to the weakness of the Kakatiya power
subsequent to the death of Ganapati in A.D. 1261.
Tripurantakam inscription mentioned above, which is engraved in Grantha
characters deserves special study as it is found outside the Kadava
territory. It records no donation to
the local temple and its purely eulogistic character is emphasized by two other
versions of the same inscription being incised in the temple, one in Telugu and
the other in Nagari. Kopperunjinga who
is herein called the son of Jiya-Mahipati by Silvati, claims to have celebrated
the tularohana ceremony and to
have constructed the eastern gopura of the Nataraja temple at
Chidambaram with the booty obtained by conquering his enemy kings. The record also mentions the benefactions of
the chief to the temples at Draksharama, Madura and Kalahasti and to those of
Ekamranatha at Conjeeveram and Svetajambu at Jambukesvara. To important statements made in this record
explain Kopperunjinga’s relationship with the Cholas and the Pandyas. He claims, as stated already, to have raised
a Chola prince to the throne in the south, meaning evidently Rajendra-Chola III
and also to have acted as a sutradhara in the installation of Pandyaraya, thus indicating his role as a
supporter of the Pandya ruler also, who at this period was Jatavarman
original hostility to the Pandya king is indicated by the titles Kathakakarikula-Pakala
assumed by Jatavarman Sundara-Pandya I.
In his prasasti beginning
with the words ‘ Pumalar valar,’ this Pandya king claims to have
declined the tribute sent by the Pallava chieftain, but after capturing him and
besieging the flourishing city of Sendamangalam,
to have restored him to his kingdom. A
necklace of emeralds seized from the Kadava chief is said to have been
presented by Sundara-Pandya to the Ranganatha temple at Srirangam. A verse inscription also states that
Kadavar-kon with his huge army ‘melted away’
before Sundara-Pandya. Kopperunjinga thus seems to have submitted
to the Pandya after a hard struggle, but his subordination probably consisted
only in the payment to tribute to the victor, since he continued to issue
records in his own name independently of the Pandya king. As Maravarman Vikrama-Pandya also claims in
his prasasti beginning with the
words ‘Samastabhuvanaikavira,’ etc.,
the titles Kathaka-vamsa-vaisvanara, Jayantamangala-puravaradhisvara, etc., he should have assisted Sundara-Pandya
in subduing Kopperunjinga. The
vassalage of the latter chief to the Pandyas is further indicated by his
payment of tribute to Jatavarman Vira-Pandya while the latter was camping at
Kopperunjinga’s relationship with other powers deserves notice. The Hoysalas, as pointed out above, were not
powerful. On the other hand, the Kadava
chief styles himself Karnata-bhupa-mana-mardin 
and claims to have ‘removed the ornaments of the queens of the Karnata kings’,
robbed the Karnata country of its wealth, weighed himself against the booty
thus obtained and to have utilized it in constructing the west face of the eastern
gopura at Chidambaram. The defeat
of the chiefs Vira and Vijaya-Gandagopala claimed by Kopperunjinga must be due
to the help rendered by the Pandya ruler Jatavarman Sundara-Pandya who is also
said to have killed a Gandagopala and to lhave entrusted the latter’s
territory to his brother, evidently Vijaya-Gandagopala. Some of the Sambuvaraya chiefs also
adopted the titles of Kopperunjinga, such as Alappirandan,
Siyan Pallavandan or Pallavan,
etc., which seems to suggest an affinity between the two families, the exact
nature of which has to be established by future researches.
successful career may be ascribed to his resources in men and money. His large reserves of gold, elephants and
horses are referred to in the inscriptions of Jatavarman Sundara-Pandya
commencing with the words Pumalar valar. His capital Sendamangalam is also stated in the same prasasti
to have been protected by strong fortification. He was served by a faithful band of warriors, chief among whom
were Sola-Kon alias
Perumal-Pillai of Arasur, the latter’s younger brother Venadudaiyan
and Pillaiyar Nilagangaraiyar. Sola-Kon served in the region round about
the modern Chidambaram till about A.D. 1261-62 when his brother Venadudaiyan
succeeded him. Nilagangaraiyar was in
charge of the present Chingleput and the surrounding country. Some of the other officers of Kopperujinga
were Ponparappina Vanakovaraiyar (No. 235), Siya-Ganga ‘the lord of
Kuvalalapura’ (No. 202), Rajarajadevan Ammaiyan Valavarayan (No. 189),
Rajarajadevan Vannenjan (No. 191), Aniyan Muvendaraiyan (No. 142) and the Samantamudali
being a great general and warrior, the Kadava chief was also known for his
piety. His acts of beneficence to the
several temples have already been mentioned above. Further, he constructed many mandapas, opened up new
roads, founded villages and made other benefactions which are remembered in
names of temples, gardens, etc., such as ‘Alappirandisvaram-Udaiyar’,
‘Alagiya-Pallavan-sandi,’ and ‘Kopperunjigan-teru’. The huge temple-fort at Sendamangalam, now
in ruins with vestiges of rampart walls, moat, palace buildings and bathing
pools spread all over the place, is a silent testimony t this day, of the glory
of this small but important Kadava principality which flourished in the 13th
S.I.I., Vol. IV, No. 135.
ibid., p. 11, sec. D, 1. 1.
Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 25n.
Ep. Car., Vol. VIII, Nagar 35.
Ep. Car., Vol. VI, CM. 50.
The divisions and villages included in
Tirumunaippadi are tabulated for reference on pp. 177 and 178. There were several villages by name Kudal ;
the Kudal of Kopperunjinga in Kil-Amur-nadu was different from the Kudal in
Vesalippadi-nadu of Virasekharan alias Adigaiman (A.R. No. 312 of
1902) and the Kudal in Puramalai-nadu of Karkatamarayan (A.R. Nos. 660
and 669 of 1905).
See also S.I.I. Vol. VIII, No. 90.
S.I.I., Vol. VIII, No. 329 and S.I.I.,
Vol. VII, No. 942.
Ep. Ind.., Vol. XXIV, No. 6.
The late Rai Bahadur Venkayya intuitively
suggested the existence of these two chiefs as early as 1906. Sewell in The Historical Inscriptions of
Southern India accepted, but with reservation) the lead given by his
predecessor. This position is also
accepted in the new edition of the Mysore Gazetteer (Vol. II, Part II,
p. 1221), but a wrong step is taken in taking Solakon, Kadava-Kumaran and
Nilagangaraiyar as the three sons of Kopperunjinga II. Recently an opinion has been expressed
against the theory of two Kopperunjingas and postulating only one chief in the
period from A.D. 1229 – 1278. The
evidences cited above are decisive on the point and go against this opinion.
A.R. No. 186 of 1936 – 37.
The figure 11 given in the record is not
explicitly stated as the 11th year, but it must be taken as
such, for auditing of account is always made from year to year, i.e., for whole
years and not till a particular date in a month.
This is only one inscription, though in Ep.
Rep. For 1921 it is split up into two records and numbered as 486 and 487
of that year.
A.R. No. 1 of 1936-37 is also helpful
in this direction. This inscription
dated in the 24th year of Rajaraja III, corresponding to A.D. 1240,
refers to the seven-storeyed gopura at Chidambaram. The reference must evidently be to the
southern gopura mentioned in No.
119, because the other gopuras
at Chidambaram rose subsequent to A.D. 1240.
In this connection it may also be pointed out that in
the Kulottungasolan-Ula, Kulottunga-Chola II is said to have constructed
gopuras with seven tiers at
Chidambaram. Evidently these do not
seem to refer to the outer gopuras on the four sides of the temple,
since other kings claim their construction.
There are no inscriptions of Kulottunga-Chola II in any of the outer gopuras
The word Periyadevar is used in about a score of
inscriptions. Clear distinction is made
between Devar and Periyadevar
in inscriptions. The ruling king
or chief is referred to as Devar
and his predecessor, as Periyadevar. Kulottunga-Chola III and Rajendra-Chola III refer respectively to
Rajadhiraja II and Tribhuvanaviradeva as Periyadever (A.R. Nos.
490 and 1922 and 216 of 1908), while Kopperunjinga refers to previous monarchs
simply as Kulottunga-Chola and Tribhuvanaviradeva without any respectful
qualifying epithets (A.R. Nos. 95 of 1900 and 186 of 1936-37).
S.I.I. Vol. VIII, No. 53.
J.I.H., Vol. VI, p. 198 ff.
A.R. Nos. 63 of 1919 and 487 of
1921. His relationship to the Chola is
recorded in a verse inscription from Karandai referring to the Tellaru battle
and to the imprisonment of the Chola king (A.R. No. 140 of 1939-40).
Sendamangalam has been erroneously
identified with the village of the same name in the Tindivanam taluk of the
South Arcot district (S.I.I., Vol. VIII, No. 314). This village is close to Tirunamanallur and
the fortress here with its rampart walls and moat, is in a dilapidated
condition now. Some of the fields in
the vicinity are to this day known as Alappirandan, Mogan, Kadavan,
A.R. No. 73 of 1903 ; Ep. Ind.,
Vol. XXIV, NO. 6.
Bom. Gaz., Vol. I, Pt. II, p. 507.
Even as early as A.D. 1217, Vira-Narasimha proceeded to Srirangam,
evidently to support the Chola sovereign (J.I.H. Vol. VI, p. 205).
Ep. Car., Vol. XI, DG.
25. Narasimha had also the titles
‘Kadavaraya-mada-marala-megharava’ (a thunder to the goose, the pride of
Kadavaraya) (Vol. V. Ak. 82) ; ‘an axe at the root of the Kadava kng’
(Vol. IV, NG. 98 ; Vol. III, Md. 121), ‘Kadava-Kulakalantaka’ (Ep.
Car. Vol. IX, KN. 87) and ‘Kadavaraya-disapatta’ (ibid).
Ep. Car. Vol. XI, p. 20. The confusion created in the Chola country
about this time is indicated in a record of Rajaraja III from Talachchangadu (A.R.
No. 213 of 1925) which refers to the loss of old registers and documents during
the disturbed state of the country in the 5th, 11th and
15th years of the king.
From Pandharpur (B.K. No. 91 of
Ep. Car., Vol. XII, TP. 42.
Ep. Car., Vol. IV, part II, pp. 21 and 22.
Ep. Car., Vol. IX, KN. 87.
Ep. Car., Vol. V, CN. 211 (B).
Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 168.
Ep. Car., Vol. VII, Channagiri
52. This may be identified with the
village Panchalam, a railway station on the Chingle put-Villupuram line.
Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 167ff. The
Hoysala-Kadava conflict is also referred to in the Gadyakarnamrita of
sakalavidyachakravarti Kalakalabha, composed under the patronage of the Hoysala
king Vira-Narasimha who is stated therein to have defeated the combined army of
the Pandyas and the Kadava after a ninety days’ battle at Srirangam.
Jagadobbaganda Goppayya-Dandanayaka, Madayya-Dandanayaka, Polalvi-Dandanayaka,
another Goppayya-Dandanayaka, his brother Mallaya-Dandanayaka and
Kesava-Dandanayaka are mentioned in the records of Conjeeveram (A.R. Nos.
408, 404, 616, 369, 615, 611 and 612 of 1919)
Ep. Car., Vol. V, AK. 123. The name of this place has been incorrectly
read as Mangalada-Koppa. The passage
ought ot be read as ‘dig-vijayam-madi Sendamangalada-Koppadalu Prithvirajyam,’
Ep. Ind., Vol. XXIII, p. 181.
Kopperunjinga is here styled
Alagiya-Pallavan and Virapratapa, but a recent author has taken Virapratapa as
a different person and confused him with Dandanayaka Vichana, a general of
Yadava Singhana, from the fact that he claims to have set up a pillar of
victory in the neighbourhood of the river Kaveri (Quar Jl. of the Myth. Soc.
Vol. XXX, pp. 381 ff.)
A.R. No. 514 of 1918. In the Ep.
Rep. The raising of the fortification is assigned to the Hoysalas, but this
A.R. No. 501 of 1904. This inscription is dated in the 29 + 1st
year of Rajaraja III and refers to an invasion of the general Singana-Dandanayaka
in the 21st year of the king as a consequence of which worship in
the temple of Tirukkodikkulagar was stopped, which was now revived with the
assistance of one Uttama-Nambi.
The Pandya emblems of two fish and a goad
found in relief on the beams and jambs of the gopura indicate that the work on this edifice was
commenced by a Pandya king though completed by Kopperunjingadeva.
In the Cambridge History of India
(Vol. III, p. 482) Kopperunjinga has been identified with ‘the son and
successor of the Pallava chieftain who was responsible for turning the
Ceylonese out of the Pandya territory in the ‘War of the Pandya
Succession.’ There is, however, no
evidence to support this view. The two
generals who took a leading part in this war, viz., Tiruchchirrambalam-udaiyan
Peruma-Nambi alias Pallavarayar and Vedavanam-udaiyan Ammaiyappan Annan
Pallavarajan belonged respectively to Kulattur (Chingleput district) and
Palaiyanur (near Madras), whereas Kopperunjinga was a native of Kudal in
Tirumunaippadi in the South Arcot district.
Arch. Sur. Rep. For 1909-10, p. 156.
Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 165.
They are found at Conjeeveram,
Tiruvadisulam, Tirumalisai (Chingleput district) and at Tirupparkadal in the
North Arcot district.
Ep. Rep. For 1923, para. 45.
A.R. Nos. 498 of 1902, dated in the 5th
year of Rajendra-Chola and 460 and 488-B of 1902, dated in the 8th
and 9th years of Kopperunjinga.
A.R. No. 482 of 1921, dated in the 2nd
year of Rajendra-Chola and No. 449 of 1921 dated in the 4th year of
Nellore Inscriptions : U. 48.
S.I.I., Vol. IV, Nos. 1341, 1342 and
The fact of his reverses in the north is
indicated by the Kakatiya general Ambadeva’s claim to have defeated a Kadavaraya which must refer to this chief (A.R.
Nos. 173 and 268 of 1905).
A record in the Hyberabad State (Tel.
Ins. No. 12) mentions Rudramba as sovereign as early as A.D. 1258. The weakness of the Kakatiya power will be
evident from the existence of the inscriptions of Rajendra-Chola III (A.R.
No. 201 of 1905), Kota Ganapatideva (A.R. No. 218 of 1905),
Vijaya-Gandagopala (A.R. No. 272 of 1905) and Alada Pemmayadeva-Maharaja
(A.R. No. 217 of 1905) at Tripurantakam alone without mentioning the
overlord of the region.
S.I.I., Vol. VIII, No. 436.
Ep. Ind., Vol. III, p. 14.
Ep. Rep. For 1915, para. 36.
S.I.I., Vol. IV, No. 1342-b.
Tirupati Ins., Vol. I, p. 80, No.
A.R. Nos. 106 of 1912, 487 of 1921
and 393 of 1922.
Mr. K. V. Subrahmanya Ayyar considers that Sola-Kon and Venadudaiyan were the
son of Kopperunjinga (S.I.I., Vol. VIII, Intr.). He is evidently inclined to this view
because these two persons were also known as Perumalpillai (S.I.I., Vol. VIII, Nos. 48 and 94). The word ‘Perumalpillai’ is used as a proper
name and it should not be split up to mean ‘the son of Perumal.’ If this meaning was really intended we
should expect some such phrase as nam-maganar or devar-maganar. Another objection to this view is that Sola-Kon hailed from
Arasur, whereas Kopperunjinga belonged to Kudal. Moreover Sola-Kon is nowhere called Alappirandan, Kadava or
Pallava, but is, on the other hand, definitely referred to as devar-mudali, i.e., an officer of the chief, and in some
cases merely by the term Pillai (Nos. 401 of 1903 and 432 of 1924).
It has to be noted that this officer figures
in a record of Rajaraja III, dated in
the 30th year, at Tiruvannamalai (S.I.I., Vol. VIII, No. 94) where he is called
Vena[vu]daiyan, while in other records, he is uniformly known as Venadudaiyan.
Mentioned in an unpublished inscription from
Anganur in the South Arcot district.