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Saturday, March 03, 2007


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 

PALLAVA INSCRIPTIONS

INTRODUCTION

By far the most important among the later chiefs claiming Pallava descent are the Kadava rulers Kopperunjingadeva I and Kopperunjingadeva II.  They have left a large number of inscriptions mostly in the North and South Arcot districts and in the Chingleput district and these are included in Section II of the present volume.  Though the epithet ‘Kadava’ is not found among the several birudas assumed by Mahendravarman I, Narasimhavarman I and Narasimhavarman II, this epithet along with Tondaiyar and Kaduvetti, is invariably used in Tamil literature to denote the Pallavas.  The relationship of the Kadavas to the main line is revealed by an inscription in the Vaikuntha-Perumal temple at Conjeeveram[1] where the kings of the collateral line of the Pallavas who were descended from Bhimavarman, the brother of Simhavishnu, are called the ‘Kadavas’.  The Pallava king Hirnyavarman is stated to have belonged to ‘Kadava-kula’[2] and Nandivarman Pallavamalla is praised as ‘one who was born to raise the prestige of the Kadava family’.[3]

Besides the term Kadava, the surname Kaduvetti[4] is also used to denote the Pallavas.  A record from Nagar[5] in the Mysore State employs the term Kaduvetti as a synonym for all the Pallava kings of Kanchi.  The earliest reference to the Kaduvetti is to be found in the Siragunda stone record[6] of about 480 A.D.  The Kaduvettis are largely mentioned in the inscriptions of the Telugu and Kanarese districts, but their connection with the Kadavas of the Tamil country is not yet well established.

Kopperunjingadeva I is called Kadavakula-chudamani (No. 120), Kathakavamsamauktikamani (No. 126), Pennainad-udaiyan (No. 125), Avaniyalappirandan (No. 124), Alagiya Siyan (No. 128), etc.  He claims to belong to Kudal in Tirumunaippadi, which may be identified with the present Cuddalore (Kudalur) the head quarters of the South Arcot district.[7]

A certain Jiya-Mahipati is mentioned as the father of Kopperunjinga in No. 247.  The term Jiya corresponds to the Tamil Siyan meaning ‘a lion’ (simha ; pkt. siha) and  the name ‘Alagiyasiyan’ should therefore be taken as referring to Jiya-Mahipati himself.  As this  Alagiyasiyan is also known as Kopperunjinga in No. 128,[8] both the father and the son should have borne the same name (Kopperunjinga).  The initial date of a Kopperunjinga is fixed at A.D. 1243 from an inscription at Conjeeveram[9] and his latest regnal year is the 36th corresponding to A.D. 1279.  I have elsewhere identified Manavalapperumal  who figures as a subordinate of Kulottunga-Chola III in A.D. 1191 and 1195[10] with Kopperunjinga.[11]  As the interval between A.D. 1191 and 1279 is an unusually long period for the rule of a single chief, we have necessarily to presume the existence of two chiefs[12] of the same name.  Three stone records, one found at Villiyanur[13] in French India, the second at Tiruvennainallur (No. 170) and the third at Chidambaram (No. 215) settle the question almost conclusively.

The Villiyanur record is dated in the 6th year of Avaniyalappirandar Kopperunjingadeva and refers to the audit of temple account for the period commencing from the 37th year of Tribhuvanaviradeva and ending with the 11th year[14] of Alagiyasiyar (Jiya-Mahipati) Koppeunjingadeva.  This inscription dated in the 6th year of Kopperunjingadeva, by referring to the 11th year of Alagiya Siyar Kopperunjingadeva would show that there was an earlier chief of the name Kopperunjinga.  The inscription from Tiruvennainallur[15] records the re-engraving in the 11th year of Avaniyalappiranda Kopperunjingadeva, of two inscriptions, one belonging to the reign of Rajaraja II and the other to the 35th year of Tribhuvanaviradeva or Kulottunga-Chola III (A.D. 1213), in the latter of which Alagiya Pallavan Kopperunjingadeva is mentioned, thus indicating the rule of two distinct chiefs of the name.

A more definite evidence is supplied in No. 215 from Chidambaram.[16]  This inscription is dated in the 19th year of Kopperunjingadeva and refers to a flower garden called ‘Sokkachchiyan-kamugu-tirunandavanam’ formed at Bhupalasundara-solanallur.  Towards the end of this inscription it is stated that the officer Solakon  directed the authorities of the Chidambaram temple to incise this record on the same wall where the original gift of this garden was engraved in the 15th year of PERIYADEVAR[17] which is a respectful title applied in inscriptions only  to a previous monarch by a ruling king or chief.  Fortunately this record of the 15th year is found on the very same wall and mentions the same garden ‘Sokkachchiyan-Kamugu-Tirunandavanam’ and what is more important, the record itself belongs to Sakalbhuvana-chakravartin Kopperunjinga who can be no other than the Periyadevar mentioned in the other record. Further, this ‘Sokkachchiyan-kamugu-tirunandavanam’ which is definitely known to have been formed in the 15th year of Periyadevar is again referred to in a record[18] of the 3rd year of Kopperunjinga who must be identified with the younger chief.  Since both the chiefs are thus known to have borne the same name, their records have to be distinguished from each other only with the help of internal evidence.  The astronomical details cited in their inscriptions and the name Alagiyasiyan invariably borne by the elder chief are also helpful in this direction.

About the beginning of the 13th century A.D. the Chola empire became so weak that it had to seek foreign aid to maintain its power.  Thus we find the Hoysala king Vira-Ballala II[19] Vira-Naasimha and Somesvara, the Kakatiya Ganapati, the Telugu chief Tikka and later, the Pandya ruler Jatavarman Sundar-Pandya, each styling himself ‘the Establisher of the Chola kingdom’.  Kopperunjinga I who was related to the Chola King by ties o marriage and was an officer under Kulottunga-Chola III till about A.D. 1213[20] was not slow to take advantage of the situation.  He strengthened his position and garrisoned Sendamangalam[21] in the present Tirukkoyilur taluk of the South Arcot district, which was thus converted into a military stronghold.[22]  His ambition to rise to power first brought him into conflict with the Yadava chief Vira-Narasingadeva[23], another subordinate of the Chola king Rajaraja III, with whom he fought a battle at Uratti in A.D. 1222-23.  Closely following upon this fight he must have had another engagement with the Hoysala king Vira-Narasimha in A.D. 1224,[24]  which evidently made the latter assume the title ‘Establisher of the Chola country’ and ‘the destroyer o the demon Kadavaraya’.[25]  Prior to this engagement the Hoysala king claims to have overrun the land defeating the Magada chief and the Pandya King and even to have planted a pillar of victory at Ramesvaram by Saka 1145 (A.D. 1223-24).[26]  The devastation of the Kadava territory is explicitly referred to in a record from Tiruvadatturai[27]  in the South Arcot district which may be dated in A.D. 1226 and in an unpublished record of Hoysala Somesvara, dated in the cyclic year Durmukhi (i.e.,) A.D. 1236-37.[28]

In A.D. 1229, Narasimha is said to have been ruling from Kanchipuram[29] which was the eastern limit of his possessions.[30]  Further, in a record from Kundur in the Mysore State, he calls himself Kanchi-Kanchana and Kadavakula-kalantaka[31]  and some of his troops are said to have been stationed in this town.[32]  By A.D. 1232,[33] he claims to have established the Chola king more than once on his throne as can be seen by the wording in the Tiruvendipuram record, viz., ‘unless (I shall) have maintained (my) reputation of being the Establisher of the Chola country’.  In an inscription of the next year (i.e. A.D. 1233) he is stated to have been in residence at Panchala[34] in the Chola country.  Kopperunjinga’s ambition should thus have received a check, but he was able to defeat the Chola king Rajaraja III in a battle at Tellaru in the North Arcot district and to imprison him with his ministers at Sendamangalam in A.D. 1231-32.  The Kadava version of this conquest is found in No. 128, while the Chola account of the same event is recorded in an inscription at Tiruvendipuram[35] in the South Arcot district, wherein the rebel Perunjinga is said to have been helped by Parakrama-Bahu of Ilam (Ceylon).  The battle at Tellaru may be considered as a turning point in the fortunes of Kopperunjingadeva s it exposed the weakness of the Chola power while it brought prestige to the small principality set up by him in open defiance of the Chola crown.  The Kadava chief evidently signalized this victory by assuming the title Sakalabhuvanachakravartin, perhaps as a set-off against the biruda Tribhuvanachakravartin of Rajaraja III and the distinctive epithet ‘Solanai-sirai-yittu-vaittu Sonadu-konda Alagiyasiyan’, and by issuing records quoting his own regnal years.  In the next stage of his career Kopperunjinga should have been engaged in consolidating his principality against  great odds.  A number of Hoysala generals are mentioned in the inscriptions from Conjeeveram between the 14th and 24th years of Rajaraja III, i.e., till about A.D. 1240.[36] Machaladevi, the daughter of Bhutaya-Nayaka of Dorasamudra was a donor to the temple of Attiyur-Alvar at Kanchi.[37]  Vallaya, the pradhani of Somesvara, was also a donor at Kanchi[38] in A.D. 1238.  There were also Hoysala generals at Tirumalavadi[39] and at Karuvur[40] in another portion of the Chola territory.  Vira-Somesvara himself is stated to have been camping at sendamangalam[41] in the course of his campaign against the Kadava in the year Durmukhi corresponding to A.D. 1236.

The march of Hoysala generals into the Chola country was evidently intended to check the aggression of Kopperunjinga, but the latter, however, soon rose against the ‘warlike Kannadar who knew no retreat’[42] and fought a sanguinary battle at Perambalur  in the Trichinopoly district, where he is stated to have killed the Hoysala generals Kesava, Harihara-Dandanayaka and others and to have seized their women and property.  This battle is mentioned in No. 124 from Vriddhachalam which is dated in the 10th year corresponding to A.D. 1241-42 and states that Perunjinga presented to the temple an ornament for the god in expiation of his sins.  Closely connected with this fight was perhaps the imprisonment of the Hoysalas – evidently generals – claimed by this chief in No. 129[43]  from Akkur.  This inscription recounts his several deeds of munificence during his pilgrimage to various sacred places on the southern bank of the river Kaveri in Solamandalam.  He also raised a fortification near Tiruvenkadu[44] on the north bank of this river as a check against the Hoysala aggression.  This precaution was probably necessitated by the invasion of this region in A.D. 1241 by the Hoysala general Singana-Dandanayaka.[45]

Inscriptions of Kopperunjinga I are not many since his principality was only in the making during the major part of his life, when he was actively engaged in conflict with other powers.  The provenance of his records indicates the extent of his territory.  Such titles as Kachchip-Pallavan (No. 125), Kanchipuri-kanta (No. 120), Mallai-vendan  (No. 128) and Mallapuri-Vallabha (No. 120) assumed by him seem to reveal his ambition to establish connection with the ancient Pallava cities.  He was a patron of Taml literature and a great devotee of god Nataraja at Chidambaram where he constructed the southern gopura[46] of the temple (No. 119).

His son  and successor Kopperunjinga II [47]  is represented by a large number of inscriptions (Nos. 131 – 260) which are included in the present volume.  The political situation in the country seems to have been favorable for the rapid expansion of his power.  His contemporary on the Hoysala throne was Somesvara whose inscriptions[48] between A.D. 1242 and 1256 are conspicuously absent in the Tamil country, thus indicating the withdrawal of one obstacle which stood in the way of Kadava power.  Rajendra-Chola III ascended the Chola throne in A.D. 1246, probably with Kadava support as suggested in No. 247, and the Pandyas under Maravarman Sundara-Pandya II (A.D. 1238 – 1255) were too weak to follow any aggressive policy.

The initial date[49] of this chief has been fixed between 11th February and 30th July, 1243 A.D.  His latest inscription dated in the 36th regnal year would carry his rule to A.D. 1279.  Sendamangalam continued to be the seat of the new Kadava principality.  The title Sakalabhuvanachakravartin assumed by the elder Perunjinga, was also adopted by the younger chief along with other surnames such as Maharajasimha, Khadgamalla, Kadava, Pallava, Alappirandan and  Avaniyalappirandan.

His inscriptions are found mostly in the South Arcot and Chingleput districts and the northern portion of Tanjore, and a few have also been secured from the North Arcot and Chittoor districts.  There is a record of his at Tripurantakam in the Kurnool district and three others at Draksharama in the Godavari district.  Roughly his dominion may be said to have extended from Conjeeveram in the north to Tiruvidaimarudur near Kumbakonam in the South.  The territory to the north of Conjeeveram was in the possession of Vijaya-Gandagopala (accn.  A.D. 1250).  Curiously enough we find inscriptions[50] of both these chiefs in the same region in the years A.D. 1254, 1258, 1263, etc., which would show that the boundary line between their respective territories was not clearly defined.  The political relationship of Kopperunjinga II with the contemporary Chola king Rajendra-Chola III deserves study in view of the fact that their immediate predecessors were bitter opponents of each other.  Their inscriptions do not reveal any continuity of hostilities, but on the other hand, in No. 247 from Tripurantakam, Kopperunjinga claims to have helped to the throne a Chola prince ‘who was shuddering with fear’.  The Chola king was a devotee of the god at Chidambaram[51] situated in the territory of Kopperunjinga, while the latter styles himself ‘the sun to the lotus tank, viz., the Chola family’.[52] Further, inscriptions of both Rajendra-Chola III and Kopperunjinga belonging to the same years are found at Tiruvannamalai[53] and Tiruvennainallur.[54] Rajendra-Chola’s territory was apparently confined to the present Tanjore district and portions of Trichinopoly while that of Kopperunjinga, comprised the South Arcot, Chingleput and North Arcot districts.  Stray inscriptions of Rajendra-Chola are, however, found at Udayagiri[55] and Gudur[56] (Nellore district), Lepaka[57] (Cuddapah district) and Tripurantakam[58] (Kurnool district), in the last of which is also found Perunjinga’s record noted above.  It would not have been possible for the Chola king to assert his sovereignty so far north with a hostile Kopperunjinga in the south, and hence it may be presumed that they acted together as allies probably against a common enemy the Kakatiya king.

Kopperunjinga’s inscriptions are found at Draksharama[59] and Tripurantakam, both o which lay in the Kakatiya territory.  The Draksharama inscription is dated in saka 1184 (A.D. 1261 – 62) and the Kadava chief called therein Maharajasimha is stated to have instituted a Kathaka-mahotsava for the god Bhimanatha in honour of the Kakatipati and also to have presented to the same deity a kalpavitapa, a simhasana, a swing, a makara-torana, etc., all made of gold.  The ovrlordship of Ganapati is signified in this record by Kopperunjinga[60] calling himself ‘the executor of the commands of Ganapati-Maharaja’ (Ganapati-Maharajasyajnam pravartayata), while it is ignored in the inscription at Tripurantakam (No. 247) which may probably be ascribed to the weakness of the Kakatiya power[61] subsequent to the death of Ganapati in A.D. 1261.

The Tripurantakam inscription mentioned above, which is engraved in Grantha characters deserves special study as it is found outside the Kadava territory.  It records no donation to the local temple and its purely eulogistic character is emphasized by two other versions of the same inscription being incised in the temple, one in Telugu and the other in Nagari.  Kopperunjinga who is herein called the son of Jiya-Mahipati by Silvati, claims to have celebrated the tularohana  ceremony and to have constructed the eastern gopura of the Nataraja temple at Chidambaram with the booty obtained by conquering his enemy kings.  The record also mentions the benefactions of the chief to the temples at Draksharama, Madura and Kalahasti and to those of Ekamranatha at Conjeeveram and Svetajambu at Jambukesvara.  To important statements made in this record explain Kopperunjinga’s relationship with the Cholas and the Pandyas.  He claims, as stated already, to have raised a Chola prince to the throne in the south, meaning evidently Rajendra-Chola III and also to have acted as a sutradhara  in the installation of Pandyaraya, thus indicating his role as a supporter of the Pandya ruler also, who at this period was Jatavarman Sundara-Pandya I.

Kopperunjinga’s original hostility to the Pandya king is indicated by the titles Kathakakarikula-Pakala [62] and Kathaka-nripa-pradhavamsi[63] assumed by Jatavarman Sundara-Pandya I.  In his prasasti  beginning with the words ‘ Pumalar valar,’ this Pandya king claims to have declined the tribute sent by the Pallava chieftain, but after capturing him and besieging the flourishing city of Sendamangalam,[64] to have restored him to his kingdom.  A necklace of emeralds seized from the Kadava chief is said to have been presented by Sundara-Pandya to the Ranganatha temple at Srirangam.[65]  A verse inscription also states that Kadavar-kon with his huge army ‘melted away’  before Sundara-Pandya.[66]  Kopperunjinga thus seems to have submitted to the Pandya after a hard struggle, but his subordination probably consisted only in the payment to tribute to the victor, since he continued to issue records in his own name independently of the Pandya king.  As Maravarman Vikrama-Pandya also claims in his prasasti  beginning with the words ‘Samastabhuvanaikavira,’  etc., the titles Kathaka-vamsa-vaisvanara, Jayantamangala-puravaradhisvara,  etc., he should have assisted Sundara-Pandya in subduing Kopperunjinga.  The vassalage of the latter chief to the Pandyas is further indicated by his payment of tribute to Jatavarman Vira-Pandya while the latter was camping at Chidambaram.[67]

Finally, Kopperunjinga’s relationship with other powers deserves notice.  The Hoysalas, as pointed out above, were not powerful.  On the other hand, the Kadava chief styles himself Karnata-bhupa-mana-mardin [68] and claims to have ‘removed the ornaments of the queens of the Karnata kings’,[69] robbed the Karnata country of its wealth, weighed himself against the booty thus obtained and to have utilized it in constructing the west face of the eastern gopura at Chidambaram.  The defeat[70] of the chiefs Vira and Vijaya-Gandagopala claimed by Kopperunjinga must be due to the help rendered by the Pandya ruler Jatavarman Sundara-Pandya who is also said to have killed a Gandagopala and to lhave entrusted the latter’s territory to his brother, evidently Vijaya-Gandagopala.  Some of the Sambuvaraya chiefs also adopted the titles of Kopperunjinga, such as Alappirandan,[71] Alagiyasiyan,[72] Siyan Pallavandan or Pallavan,[73] etc., which seems to suggest an affinity between the two families, the exact nature of which has to be established by future researches.

Kopperunjinga’s successful career may be ascribed to his resources in men and money.  His large reserves of gold, elephants and horses are referred to in the inscriptions of Jatavarman Sundara-Pandya commencing with the words Pumalar valar.  His capital Sendamangalam is also stated in the same prasasti to have been protected by strong fortification.  He was served by a faithful band of warriors, chief among whom were Sola-Kon[74] alias Perumal-Pillai of Arasur, the latter’s younger brother Venadudaiyan[75] and Pillaiyar  Nilagangaraiyar.  Sola-Kon served in the region round about the modern Chidambaram till about A.D. 1261-62 when his brother Venadudaiyan succeeded him.  Nilagangaraiyar was in charge of the present Chingleput and the surrounding country.  Some of the other officers of Kopperujinga were Ponparappina Vanakovaraiyar (No. 235), Siya-Ganga ‘the lord of Kuvalalapura’ (No. 202), Rajarajadevan Ammaiyan Valavarayan (No. 189), Rajarajadevan Vannenjan (No. 191), Aniyan Muvendaraiyan (No. 142) and the Samantamudali Senai Narasingapanman.[76]

Besides being a great general and warrior, the Kadava chief was also known for his piety.  His acts of beneficence to the several temples have already been mentioned above.  Further, he constructed many mandapas, opened up new roads, founded villages and made other benefactions which are remembered in names of temples, gardens, etc., such as ‘Alappirandisvaram-Udaiyar’, ‘Alagiya-Pallavantoppu,’  ‘Alagiya-Pallavan-sandi,’ and ‘Kopperunjigan-teru’.  The huge temple-fort at Sendamangalam, now in ruins with vestiges of rampart walls, moat, palace buildings and bathing pools spread all over the place, is a silent testimony t this day, of the glory of this small but important Kadava principality which flourished in the 13th century A.D.


[1]  S.I.I., Vol. IV, No. 135.

[2]  Ibid.

[3]  ibid., p. 11, sec. D, 1. 1.

[4]  Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 25n.

[5] Ep. Car., Vol. VIII, Nagar 35.

[6]  Ep. Car., Vol. VI, CM. 50.

[7]  The divisions and villages included in Tirumunaippadi are tabulated for reference on pp. 177 and 178.  There were several villages by name Kudal ; the Kudal of Kopperunjinga in Kil-Amur-nadu was different from the Kudal in Vesalippadi-nadu of Virasekharan alias Adigaiman (A.R. No. 312 of 1902) and the Kudal in Puramalai-nadu of Karkatamarayan (A.R. Nos. 660 and 669 of 1905).

[8]  See also S.I.I. Vol. VIII, No. 90.

[9]  A.R. No. 38 of 1890.

[10]  S.I.I., Vol. VIII, No. 329 and S.I.I., Vol. VII, No. 942.

[11]  Ep. Ind.., Vol. XXIV, No. 6.

[12]  The late Rai Bahadur Venkayya intuitively suggested the existence of these two chiefs as early as 1906.  Sewell in The Historical Inscriptions of Southern India accepted, but with reservation) the lead given by his predecessor.  This position is also accepted in the new edition of the Mysore Gazetteer (Vol. II, Part II, p. 1221), but a wrong step is taken in taking Solakon, Kadava-Kumaran and Nilagangaraiyar as the three sons of Kopperunjinga II.  Recently an opinion has been expressed against the theory of two Kopperunjingas and postulating only one chief in the period from A.D. 1229 – 1278.  The evidences cited above are decisive on the point and go against this opinion.

[13]  A.R. No. 186 of 1936 – 37.

[14]  The figure 11 given in the record is not explicitly stated as the 11th year, but it must be taken as such, for auditing of account is always made from year to year, i.e., for whole years and not till a particular date in a month.

[15]  This is only one inscription, though in Ep. Rep. For 1921 it is split up into two records and numbered as 486 and 487 of that year.

[16]  A.R. No. 1 of 1936-37 is also helpful in this direction.  This inscription dated in the 24th year of Rajaraja III, corresponding to A.D. 1240, refers to the seven-storeyed gopura at Chidambaram.  The reference must evidently be to the southern gopura  mentioned in No. 119, because the other gopuras  at Chidambaram rose subsequent to A.D. 1240.

In this connection it may also be pointed out that in the Kulottungasolan-Ula, Kulottunga-Chola II is said to have constructed gopuras  with seven tiers at Chidambaram.  Evidently these do not seem to refer to the outer gopuras on the four sides of the temple, since other kings claim their construction.  There are no inscriptions of Kulottunga-Chola II in any of the outer gopuras at Chidambaram.

[17]  The word Periyadevar  is used in about a score of inscriptions.  Clear distinction is made between Devar and Periyadevar  in inscriptions.  The ruling king or chief is referred to as Devar  and his predecessor, as Periyadevar.  Kulottunga-Chola III and Rajendra-Chola III refer respectively to Rajadhiraja II and Tribhuvanaviradeva as Periyadever (A.R. Nos. 490 and 1922 and 216 of 1908), while Kopperunjinga refers to previous monarchs simply as Kulottunga-Chola and Tribhuvanaviradeva without any respectful qualifying epithets (A.R. Nos. 95 of 1900 and 186 of 1936-37).

[18]  S.I.I. Vol. VIII, No. 53.

[19]  J.I.H., Vol. VI, p. 198 ff.

[20]  A.R. Nos. 63 of 1919 and 487 of 1921.  His relationship to the Chola is recorded in a verse inscription from Karandai referring to the Tellaru battle and to the imprisonment of the Chola king (A.R. No. 140 of 1939-40).

[21]  Sendamangalam has been erroneously identified with the village of the same name in the Tindivanam taluk of the South Arcot district (S.I.I., Vol. VIII, No. 314).  This village is close to Tirunamanallur and the fortress here with its rampart walls and moat, is in a dilapidated condition now.  Some of the fields in the vicinity are to this day known as Alappirandan, Mogan, Kadavan, etc.,

[22]  A.R. No. 73 of 1903 ; Ep. Ind., Vol. XXIV, NO. 6.

[23]  A.R. No. 271 of 1904.

[24]  Bom. Gaz.,  Vol. I, Pt. II, p. 507.  Even as early as A.D. 1217, Vira-Narasimha proceeded to Srirangam, evidently to support the Chola sovereign (J.I.H.  Vol. VI, p. 205).

[25]  Ep. Car., Vol. XI, DG. 25.  Narasimha had also the titles ‘Kadavaraya-mada-marala-megharava’ (a thunder to the goose, the pride of Kadavaraya) (Vol. V. Ak. 82) ; ‘an axe at the root of the Kadava kng’ (Vol. IV, NG. 98 ; Vol. III, Md. 121), ‘Kadava-Kulakalantaka’ (Ep. Car. Vol. IX, KN. 87) and ‘Kadavaraya-disapatta’ (ibid).

[26]  Ep. Car. Vol. XI, p. 20.  The confusion created in the Chola country about this time is indicated in a record of Rajaraja III from Talachchangadu (A.R. No. 213 of 1925) which refers to the loss of old registers and documents during the disturbed state of the country in the 5th, 11th and 15th years of the king.

[27]  A.R. No. 228 of 1929.

[28]  From Pandharpur (B.K. No. 91 of 1940-41)

[29]  Ep. Car.,  Vol. XII, TP. 42.

[30]  Ep. Car.,  Vol. IV, part II, pp. 21 and 22.

[31]  Ep. Car., Vol. IX, KN. 87.

[32]  Ep. Car., Vol. V, CN. 211 (B).

[33]  Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 168.

[34]  Ep. Car., Vol. VII, Channagiri 52.  This may be identified with the village Panchalam, a railway station on the Chingle put-Villupuram line.

[35]  Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 167ff. The Hoysala-Kadava conflict is also referred to in the Gadyakarnamrita of sakalavidyachakravarti Kalakalabha, composed under the patronage of the Hoysala king Vira-Narasimha who is stated therein to have defeated the combined army of the Pandyas and the Kadava after a ninety days’ battle at Srirangam.

[36]  Ammana-Dandanayaka, Dandinagopa Jagadobbaganda Goppayya-Dandanayaka, Madayya-Dandanayaka, Polalvi-Dandanayaka, another Goppayya-Dandanayaka, his brother Mallaya-Dandanayaka and Kesava-Dandanayaka are mentioned in the records of Conjeeveram (A.R. Nos. 408, 404, 616, 369, 615, 611 and 612 of 1919)

[37]  A.R.No. 349 of 1919.

[38]  A.R. No. 366 of 1919.

[39]  A.R. No. 39 of 1920.

[40]  A.R. No. 138 of 1905.

[41]  Ep. Car., Vol. V, AK. 123.  The name of this place has been incorrectly read as Mangalada-Koppa.  The passage ought ot be read as ‘dig-vijayam-madi Sendamangalada-Koppadalu Prithvirajyam,’ etc.,

[42]  Ep. Ind., Vol. XXIII, p. 181.

[43]  Kopperunjinga is here styled Alagiya-Pallavan and Virapratapa, but a recent author has taken Virapratapa as a different person and confused him with Dandanayaka Vichana, a general of Yadava Singhana, from the fact that he claims to have set up a pillar of victory in the neighbourhood of the river Kaveri (Quar Jl. of the Myth.  Soc.   Vol. XXX, pp. 381 ff.)

[44] A.R. No. 514 of 1918.  In the Ep. Rep. The raising of the fortification is assigned to the Hoysalas, but this not correct.

[45]  A.R. No. 501 of 1904.  This inscription is dated in the 29 + 1st year of Rajaraja III and refers to an invasion of the general Singana-Dandanayaka in the 21st year of the king as a consequence of which worship in the temple of Tirukkodikkulagar was stopped, which was now revived with the assistance of one Uttama-Nambi.

[46]  The Pandya emblems of two fish and a goad found in relief on the beams and jambs of the gopura  indicate that the work on this edifice was commenced by a Pandya king though completed by Kopperunjingadeva.

[47]  In the Cambridge History of India (Vol. III, p. 482) Kopperunjinga has been identified with ‘the son and successor of the Pallava chieftain who was responsible for turning the Ceylonese out of the Pandya territory in the ‘War of the Pandya Succession.’  There is, however, no evidence to support this view.  The two generals who took a leading part in this war, viz., Tiruchchirrambalam-udaiyan Peruma-Nambi alias Pallavarayar and Vedavanam-udaiyan Ammaiyappan Annan Pallavarajan belonged respectively to Kulattur (Chingleput district) and Palaiyanur (near Madras), whereas Kopperunjinga was a native of Kudal in Tirumunaippadi in the South Arcot district.

[48]  Arch. Sur. Rep.  For 1909-10, p. 156.

[49]  Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 165.

[50]  They are found at Conjeeveram, Tiruvadisulam, Tirumalisai (Chingleput district) and at Tirupparkadal in the North Arcot district.

[51]  Ep. Rep. For 1923, para. 45.

[52]  No. 247

[53]  A.R. Nos. 498 of 1902, dated in the 5th year of Rajendra-Chola and 460 and 488-B of 1902, dated in the 8th and 9th years of Kopperunjinga.

[54]  A.R. No. 482 of 1921, dated in the 2nd year of Rajendra-Chola and No. 449 of 1921 dated in the 4th year of Kopperunjinga.

[55]  Nellore Inscriptions : U. 48.

[56]  Ibid. : Gud. 39 and 85.

[57]  A.R. No. 420 of 1911.

[58]  No. 247.

[59]  S.I.I., Vol. IV, Nos. 1341, 1342 and 1342-B.

[60]  The fact of his reverses in the north is indicated by the Kakatiya general Ambadeva’s claim to have defeated a  Kadavaraya which must refer to this chief (A.R. Nos. 173 and 268 of 1905).

[61]  A record in the Hyberabad State (Tel. Ins. No. 12) mentions Rudramba as sovereign as early as A.D. 1258.  The weakness of the Kakatiya power will be evident from the existence of the inscriptions of Rajendra-Chola III (A.R. No. 201 of 1905), Kota Ganapatideva (A.R. No. 218 of 1905), Vijaya-Gandagopala (A.R. No. 272 of 1905) and Alada Pemmayadeva-Maharaja (A.R. No. 217 of 1905) at Tripurantakam alone without mentioning the overlord of the region.

[62]  S.I.I.,  Vol. VIII, No. 436.

[63]  S.I.I.  Vol. IV, NO. 630.

[64]  S.I.I.,  Vol.V, No. 459.

[65]  Ep. Ind., Vol. III, p. 14.

[66]  A.R. No. 332 of 1913.

[67]  Ep. Rep.  For 1915, para.  36.

[68]  S.I.I.,  Vol. IV, No. 1342-b.

[69]  Ibid., No. 342.

[70]  Tirupati Ins., Vol. I, p. 80, No. 226-T.T.

[71]  A.R. No. 353 of 1923.

[72]  A.R. Nos. 106 of 1912, 487 of 1921 and 393 of 1922.

[73]  A.R. Nos. 52 of 1919.

[74] Mr. K. V. Subrahmanya Ayyar considers that Sola-Kon and Venadudaiyan were the son of Kopperunjinga (S.I.I., Vol. VIII, Intr.).  He is evidently inclined to this view because these two persons were also known as Perumalpillai (S.I.I.,  Vol. VIII, Nos. 48 and 94).  The word ‘Perumalpillai’ is used as a proper name and it should not be split up to mean ‘the son of Perumal.’   If this meaning was really intended we should expect some such phrase as nam-maganar or   devar-maganar.  Another objection to this view is that Sola-Kon hailed from Arasur, whereas Kopperunjinga belonged to Kudal.  Moreover Sola-Kon is nowhere called Alappirandan, Kadava or Pallava, but is, on the other hand, definitely referred to as devar-mudali,  i.e., an officer of the chief, and in some cases merely by the term Pillai  (Nos. 401 of 1903 and 432 of 1924).

[75]  It has to be noted that this officer figures in a record of Rajaraja III, dated  in the 30th year, at Tiruvannamalai (S.I.I.,  Vol. VIII, No. 94) where he is called Vena[vu]daiyan, while in other records, he is uniformly known as Venadudaiyan.

[76]  Mentioned in an unpublished inscription from Anganur in the South Arcot district.

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