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Saturday, March 03, 2007


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 

APPENDIX B

CHOLA

Kadavaraya and Kopperunjingadeva mentioned in other records.[1]

Parakesarivaraman alias Tribhuvanachakravartin Kulottunga-Chola (II)

1 Erubur (S.A[2].): 12th year, Vrischika, su. 12, Wednesday, Revati, corresponding to A.D. 1144, Nov. 8, Wednesday.

Commences with the introduction ‘pumevu-valar’ etc. Registers a gift of 4 ma of land for tirumantira-ponagam during the early morning service in the temple of the god Sirutirukkoyiludaiya-Mahadeva in the village, by Toranavallapperayan, a servant and tenant of Kadavarayan, residing at Urumur alias Vikramasola-chaturvedimagalam, a brahmadeya in Merka-nadu, a subdivision of Virudaraja-bhayankara-valanadu.

(No. 390 of 1913)

Parakesarivarman alias Tribhuvanachakravartin Rajaraja (II)

2 Gramam (S.A.): 3rd year.

Built in at the end. Registers a remission of the tax perum-padikaval on the lands belonging to the god Tiruarruttali-Aludaiyar by Mogan Alappirandan alias Anapayak-Kadavarayan who held the padikaval right of Mudiyur-nadu in Tirumunaippadi.

(No. 181 of 1906)

3 Elavanasur (S.A.): 6th year.

Commences with the introduction ‘pumaruviya tirumadum’ etc. Registers a remission of taxes including perum-padikaval and siru-padikaval on Parundal alias Malayavisadiranallur and other devadana villages, by Alappirandan Mogan alias Naludikkumvenra Rajarajak-Kadavarayan of Kudal for taking out in procession the god Urbagankondaruliya-Mahadeva at Iraiyanaraiyur alias Solakerala-chaturvedimangalam, on the day of ‘Tiruvonam’ in the month of Purattadi.

(No. 166 of 1906)

4 Elavanasur (S.A.): 6th year.

Begins with the same introduction. States that Alappirandan Mogan alias Naludikkumvenran Rajarajak-Kadavarayan mentioned above constructed a trumaligai in the temple of Urbagankondaruliya-Mahadeva at Iraiyanaraiyur alias Solakerala-chaturvedimangalam, a brahmadeya in Paranur-kurram, a subdivision of Miladu alias Jananatha-valanaldu.

(No. 170 of 1906)

5 Srimushnam (S.A.): 6th year.

Registers remission of padikaval and other levies due to the donor from the devadana lands, for worship to the god at Tirumuttam in Vilandai-kurram, a subdivision of Merka-nadu Irungolappadi in Virudarajabhayankara-valanadu by Alappirandan Elisaimogan alias Kulottungasolak-Kadavarayan, a Palli having the kani-right in Urumur alias Solapandya-chaturvedimangalam alias Erumbur, for the merit of himself and his family (See also A.R. No. 137 of 1900).

(No. 232 of 1916).

Tribhuvanachakravartin Kulottunga-Chola (III)

6 Tiruvennainallur (S.A.): 3rd year.

States that the entrance to the gopura (of the Kripapurisvara temple in the village) was erected by Mogan Alappirandan Arasanarayanan alias Kadvarayan of Kudal.

(No. 477 of 1921).

7 Tiruvennainallur (S.A.): King is called Virarajendra-Chola: 3rd year.

Records a gift of 8 cows by Mindan Periyan alias Arasanarayanap-Pallavaraiyan, an agambadik-kottu-mudali of Kadavarayar and a resident of Sendamangalam, for supplying milk daily for the sacred bath of the god Udaiyar Atkondadevar at Tiruvennainallur.

(No. 479 of 1921).

8 Elavanasur (S.A.): 5th year, Karkataka.

Starts with the preamble ‘puyal vayttu valam peruga’ etc. Records the remission of taxes kilirai, antarayam, tari-irai, tattarappattam etc. payable by the settis, vaniyar, panisaimakkal and others residing in the village of Iraiyanaraiyur, by Arasanarayanan Elisaimogan alias Jananatha-Kachchiyarayan of Kudal, for offerings, worship etc. to the god Urbagankondaruliya-Nayanar at Iraiyanaraiyur alias Solakerala-chaturvedimangalam, a brahmadeya in Paranur-kurram, a subdivision of Miladu alias Jananatha-valanadu.

(No. 157 of 1906).

9 Siddhalingamadam (S.A.): King is called Virarajendra-Chola: 6th year.

Built in at the bottom. Mentions Elisaimogan alias Jananatha-Kachchiyarayan, son of Alappirandan Arasanarayanan of Kudal. Seems to record a gift of taxes.

(No. 413 of 1909).

10 Tiruvadi (S.A.): 8th year, Tula, ba. 6, Tuesday, corresponding to A.D. 1185, October 15, Tuesday.

States that Arasanarayanan alias Alappirandan Kadavarayan of Kudal presented to the god Tiruvirattanamudaiyar at Tiruvadi one neck lace set with 2,080 precious stones containing diamonds, rubies, pearls, emeralds and gold, weighing altogether 425 ½ kalanju.

(No. 391 of 1921).

11 Tiruvennainallur (S.A.): 8th year.

Records gift of a silver pot weighing 50 ½ kalanju for the sacred bath of the god Atkondadeva at Tiruvennainallur by the same Arasanarayanan.

(No. 467 of 1921).

12 Tiruvadi (S.A.): 10th year.

Records gift of 32 cows and 1 bull by Gangadaraiyan Tiruvan alias Kalingarayan of Ilaiyangudi, a samanta-mudali of Udaiyar Kadavarayar, for the sacred milk bath of the god Tiruvirattanamudaiya-Nayanar at Adhirajamangalyapuram in Tirumunaippadi Kil Amur-nadu, a subdivision of Rajaraja-valanadu.

(No. 386 of 1921).

13 Madam (N.A.[3]): 11th year, Margali.

Registers a political compact formed on oath, by Arasanarayanan Alappirandan alias Kadavarayan with Sengeni Virasolan Attimallan alias Kulottungasola-Sambuvarayar against Alappirandar alias Edirilisola-Sambuvarayar.

(No. 254 of 1919).

14 Tiruvamattur (S.A.): 13th year, Chittirai.

Records the nilami-tittu given by Kovan alias Rajaraja-Nilagangaraiyan promising, in consideration of his parru situated to the east of ‘Rajalrajan-peruvali’,to assist only Rajaraja-Sambuvarayar, Rajaraja-Muvendaraiyar, Jananatha-Muvendaraiyar and Ulaguyyakkondasola-Kadavarayar and none others.

(No. 56 of 1922).

15 Munnur (S.A.): King is called Tribhuvanachakravartin Tribhuvanaviradeva, ‘who, having taken Madura, Ilam, Karuvur and the crowned head of the Pandya, was pleased to perform the anointment of heroes and of victors’: 33rd year.

Registers the confirmation, by Alappiradan Alagiya-Pallavan alias Kadavarayan of Kudal, of the gifts of devadana lands made by his grandfather to Adavalla-Nayanar at Munnur alias Rajanarayana-chaturvedimangalam. This Alagiya-Pallavan may be identified with Jiya-Mahipati, the father of Kopperunjinga II.

(No. 63 of 1919)

Tirubhuvanachakravartin Rajaraja (III)

16 Yogimallavaram (CT[4]): 7th year.

Registers an agreement made by 3 Sivabrahmanas of the temple to provide offerings during the midnight and early morning services of the god Tiruppaladisvaramudaiya-Nayanar at Tiruchchuganur in Tirukkudavur-naldu, a subdivision of Tiruvengada-kottam, a district in Jayangondasola-mandalam for the land received by them from Vira-Narasingadeva alias Yadavarayar for the merit of Narayana-pillai who fell in a battle at Uratti fought between the donor and Kadavaraya. It is stated that Vira-Narasingadeva was the nephew of Brokkan alias Pandiyadaraiyar, son of Udaiyar, who was the son of Parasamayakolari Andar who looked after the management of the temple.

(No. 271 of 1904).

17 Amur (S.A.): 10th year.

Registers a gift of the tax padikaval, etc., on 3 ¾ veli of land belonging to the temple, for offerings to the god Tiruvagattisvaramudaiya-Mahadeva at Anmur in Mel-Anmur-nadu, a subdivision of Tirumunaippadi, by Tiraiyan Mogan alias Alappirandan alias Tirunirrut-Tondaiman. This land was originally endowed to the temple by Chediyarayar and Kulottungasolak-Kadavarayar.

(No. 307 of 1910).

18 Tiruvadatturai (S.A.): 10th year.

States that as the Hoysala king Narasimhadeva destroyed the country and the temples (!) and took away the images of gods, Udaiyanayakan alias Tevaramalagiyan Vanarajan, a mudali of Nayanar Vanakovaraiyar, set up in the temple of Tiruvaratturai-udaiya-Nayanar, the images of Atkondanayaka and his consort with a prabha and of Vadavur-perumal. Since Narasimhadeva’s rule extended from A.D. 1220 to 1239, this record may be assigned to Rajaraja III. The Hoysala invasion was evidently directed against Kopperunjingadeva I.

(No. 228 of 1929).

19 Tiruvennainallur (S.A.): 16th year.

Stones lost in the middle. Records a political compact made by Alappirandan Mogan alias Kadavarayan of Kudal with Periya-Udaiyan Iraiyuran Rajaraja-Chediyarayan, a Malaiyaman chief of Kiliyur, promising to cease his enmity with the latter. The pact for the marriage of Atkondanachchi, the daughter of the former with Akarasuran alias Kovalrayan seems to have been the cause of hostility.

(No. 480 of 1921)

20 Tiruvennainallur (S.A.): 16th year.

Stones lost in the middle. This inscription is complementary to the previous one and records the counter agreement made by Periya-Udaiyan Iraiyuran alias Rajaraja-Chediyarayan with Alappirandan Mogan alias Kadavarayan of Kudal assuring to cease all enmity and suspicion on his side. The result of the compact was that Rajaraja-Chediyarayan married his own brother’s wife, the daughter of Alappirandan Mogan.

(No. 481 of 1921).

21 Nidur (Tan.[5]): 15 + 1st year, Kumbha, ba. 8, Sunday, Mula, corresponding to A.D. 1232, February 15, Sunday.

States that on the representation made by the nattavar of three nadus, the kudumbar and the karaiyar, the great assembly met in the Pugalabharana-Vinayakap-pillaiyar temple at Rajasikhamani-chaturvedimangalam, a village in Tiruvindalurnadu, a subdivsion of Rajadhiraja-valanadu and fixed the payments to be made in cases of tenancy cultivation. Refers to the previous hardships and to the nadu of Kopperunjingadeva.

(No. 536 of 1921).

PANDYA

Jatavarman Sundara-Pandya

22 Tirumanancheri (Tan.): 11th year, Rishabha, ba. 14, Sunday, Rohini, probably corresponding to A.D. 1261, May 29, Sunday.

Commences with the introduction Samastajagadadhara, etc Damaged at the end. Refers to a grant of land made in the 11th year of Kopperunjingadeva to the temple of Tiruvedirkollppadi-Udaiyar in the Kurukkai-nadu, a subdivision of Virudarajabhayankara-valanadu, by Visvesvaradevan of Pundi, a kaniyalar of the village, who was also in charge of the temple.

(No. 25 of 1914).

23 Gramam (S.A.): 15th year and 155th day.

Begins with the same introduction. States that Vira-Pandyadeva instituted a sandi after the name of Sundara-Pandya in the temple at Gramam and that the trustees of the temple granted 7 ma of land in the village for the purpose, excluding that given in the time of Kopperunjingadeva.

(No. 197 of 1906)

24 Madambakkam (Ching.[6]): 10th year, Rishabha, su. 11, Sunday, Sodi, which work out correctly for the reigns of Jat. Sundara-Pandya II and III, viz., (1) A.D. 1287, May 25, Sunday and (2) A.D. 1314, May 26, Sunday.

States that the mahasabha of Madambakkam alias Ulaguyyavandasola-chaturvedimangalam in Nedunkunra-nadu, a subdivision of Puliyur-kottam in Jayangondasola-mandalam, took also the land granted in the 15th year of Kopperunjingadeva, since the endowment left in their charge was not sufficient for the expenses of lamps, offerings and festivals in the temple of Aludaiya-Nayanar in the village.

(No. 322 of 1911).

25 Siddhalingamadam (S.A.): 13th year, Mina, su. 6, Saturday, Rohini, corresponding to A.D. 1289, February 26, Saturday.

Records the agreement made by the Sivabrahmanas of the temple of Aludiayar at Sirringur to provide offerings to the god Audaiya-Pillaiyar set up in the temple, by a Kaikkola, from the interest on 2,000 kasu presented to the temple by Arindavan-Pallavaraiyar in the time of Kopperunjingadeva and which were now placed in their hands.

(No. 418 of 1909).

26 Tirumanancheri (Tan): date lost.

Ends of lines built in. Refers to the 11th, 12th and 13th years of Kopperunjingadeva and states that certain persons left the village without paying the taxes.

(No. 24 of 1914).

27 Kattumannarkoyil (S.A.): 11th year, Kumbha, ba. 10, Mrigasirsha corresponding to A.D. 1314, January 26, Saturday.

This inscription records a settlement of dispute among certain saivacharyas regarding the right of worship in the temple of Kulottungacholisvaram Udaiyar at Suttavallinallur. One of the parties proved its claim from the time of Kulottunga-Chola (II) ‘who covered (the temple) with gold,’ Rajarajadeva (II), Perumal Tribhuvanaviradeva, Rajaraja (III), Avani-Alappirandan Kopperunjinga, Perumal Sundara-Pandyadeva, Kulasekharadeva and Vira-Pandyadeva, down to the date of the present record.

(No. 571 of 1920).

Maravarman alias Tribhuvanachakravartain Vikrama-Pandya

28 Perumukkal (S.A.): 7th year.

Registers the gift of a saltpan called ‘Tirumalaichchokkan’ at Puttur alias Uttamasolapperalam to the temple of Valmikisvaramudaiya-Nayanar on the hill at Perumukkil by the assembly of Marakkanam in Oyma-nadu alias Vijayarajendra-valanadu, a subdivision of Jayangondasola-mandalam. This saltpan is stated to have been in the enjoyment of the temple for a long time but had lain unused since the time of Pallavan Kopperunjinga.

(No. 43 of 1905).

Perumal Srivallabha

29 Tiruvenkadu (Tan.): 33rd year.

Incomplete. Seems to register an order issued by the king and Perumal Sundara-Pandya granting additional lands as tirunamattukkani for reviving the festivals in the temple of the god Tirvenkadudaiya-Nayanar which were stopped from the time when Kopperunjingadeva raised fortifications against the Kannadiyas on the north bank of the river Kaveri till the 32nd year of the king. The royal order was given effect to by Tondaimanar.

(No. 514 of 1918).

Tribhuvanachakravartin Konerimelkondan

30 Solamadevi (Co[7]).

Records a sale of land belonging to the manradu of Kadavarayan ‘who became a traitor to the king,’ in favour of the devakanmis of the temple of Aludaiyar Kulasekhara-Isvaramudaiyar at Solamadevinallur in Karaivali-nadu. The relationship of this Kadavaraya who is here mentioned outside the Kadava territory, with the Kadavas of Kudal in Tirumunaippadi, is not clear.

(No. 232 of 1909).

31 Tiruvennainallur (S.A.): date lost

Built in by a stone wall in the middle. Records gift of taxes leviable on certain temple lands, by Alappirandan Arasanarayanan alias Kadavarayan of Kudal to the god Taduttatkondadeva at Tiruvennainallur, a brahmadeya in Tiruvennainallur-nadu, a subdivision of Tirumunaippadi in Rajaraja-valanadu, for the welfare of the donor, his brother Alappirandan Elisaimogan alias Kadavarayan, and his family. The donor is said to have been in possession of the whole of the Tirumunaippadi Tiruvennainallur-nadu.

(No. 423 of 1921).

MISCELLANEOUS

Ambadeva-Maharaja

32 Tripurantakam (Kurnool): Saka 1213, Khara.

Incomplete. Records the gift of a golden bow to the temple of Tripurantaka by a subordinate of Ambadeva-Maharaja. The latter receives a long list of birudas and is said to have been the friend of the Pandya and the Devagiri kings and also to have defeated Katavaraya, i.e., Kopperunjingadeva. Abadeva’s claim to have defeated the Kadava chief, probably refers to his exploit early in life, as S. 1213 (= A.D. 1292), the date of this record, falls beyond the period of Kopperunjinga II.

(No. 173 of 1905).

Verses

33 Laddigam (Chittoor).

A Tamil verse in praise of Vidugadalagiyan of Ten-Tagadai whose enemies were the Kadava, the Magada and the Ganga. This chief, called also Adigesan, was a feudatory of Kulottunga-Chola III. The Kadavas and the Adigaiman chiefs were opposed to each other as will be evident from No. 263 above where the Kadava chief Virasekhara claims to have devastated the Adigaima-nadu.

(No. 552 of 1906).

34 Chidambaram (S.A.)

Two verses in praise of the Pandya king Sundarattol (Sundara-Pandya), one of which refers to a fight of this king with Kadavarkon. (Same as No. 170 of 1892, published in S.I.I., Vol. IV., No. 618).

(No. 332 of 1913).

35 Chidambaram (S.A.)

Gives details of precious stones in, and the weights of several ornaments presented to, the temple at Tiruvadigai by Arasanarayanan of Kudal.

(No. 390 of 1921).

36 Tiruvennainallur (S.A.)

Records an order of Kadavarayan issued to the trustees of the temple of Srivaikuntattemperuman at Tiruvennainallur granting as tiruvidaiyattam lands in Sirupakkanallur, a hamlet of Emapperur, to the god Tiruvaykkulattalvar set up by him in the temple, for being blessed with a son.

(No. 485 of 1921).

37 Vriddhachalam (S.A.)

States that the kitchen (on the wall of which the inscription is engraved) was constructed by Arasanarayanan Elisaimogan alias Kachchiyarayan.

(No. 99 of 1934 – 35)


[1] Published records are not noticed here.

[2] The abbreviation stands for South Arcot district.

[3] The abbreviation stands for North Arcot district.

[4] The abbreviation stands for Chittoor district.

[5] The abbreviation stands for Tanjore district.

[6] The abbreviation stands for Chingleput district.

[7] The abbreviation stands for Coimbatore district.

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