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Friday, January 27, 2006

The Indian Analyst


South Indian Inscriptions





The Pandya chiefs of Nurumbada | The Guttas of Guttavolal | The Kadambas of Hangal | The Khacharas of Basavur | Geographical Divisions

The Pandya chiefs of Nurumbada

Some facts relating to a few local chiefs who called themselves Pandyas and who were subordinates of the Kalachuryas and Hoysalas may be put down here.

Vijaya Pandya is introduced in a Kalachurya record of A.D. 1168 (No. 180) as administering the sub-division of Nurumbada situated in the province of Banavasi.  Another prince of this family Garunda-Pandya who is stated in two records (Nos.188 and 366) to be wielding authority over the same sub-division (Nurumbada) from Rattapalli.  In one of them he appears as a subordinate of the Kalachurya king Sovideva.  Both the records in which the figures have no date but since the date of his predecessor Vijaya-Pandya is A.D. 1168 and since one of the records of Garuda-Pandya belongs to the reign of Sovideva, the period of Garuda-Pandya would be between A.D. 1168 and 1177 the latest known date for Sovideva.

Next is chronological order comes Bhujabala-Pandya for whom we have two records.  From one of them (No. 193) dated in the cyclic year Plavanga cited as the 16th year of the reign of the Hoysala king Vira-Ballala II (A.D 1187-88), we learn that he was administering the division of Nurumbada.  The second one (No. 368) tells us that he made a gift in the cyclic year Visvavasu which may be taken to correspond to A.D. 1185-86.  This record gives us to understand that a gift was bestowed upon the family of a hero named Dasiga who died  while pursuing the army of a certain Vikaya-Pandya which crossed the river (Thungabhadra?) and raided the territory, apparently of Bujabala-Pandya.  Obviously this Vijaya-Pandya cannot be the same as the one referred to above and who was a predecessor of Bhujabala-Pandya.  But we know of a Vijaya-Pandya of Nolambavadi for whom we have dates ranging from A.D. 1178 to 1184.  There are reasons to believe that he might have been the opponent of Bhujabala-Pandya.  Bhujabala-Pandy, as already stated, was a subordinate of theHoysala king Vira-Ballala II.  And in an inscription of A.D. 1186 (No. 163), Vikramaditya II of the Gutta family is reported to have routed the armies of Hoysanesa and Pandya who were apparently allies.  Since the inscription of Bhujabala-Pandya, it is very likely that the conflict between Bhujabala-Pandya, (who was on the side of the Hoysala rulers) and Vijaya-Pandya, is not different from the encounter which the Gutta Vikramaditya had with Hoysanesa and Pandya.  Evidently Vikaya-Pandya sided with Vikramaditya.  This surmise receives support from the fact that Vikramaditya’s wife, Sovaladevi, belonged to the family of Vijaya-Pandya (No. 163).

A certain Vira-Pandya figures in an inscription of the same Gutta chief Vikramaditya II  (No. 296) which tells us that he (Vira-Pandya) had made a gift during the time of Hiriya Vikramaditya (i.e., Vikramaditya I).   This would show that Vira-Pandya flourished some time before A.D. 1188, the date of the record mentioned above; and as he had made a gift to Vikramaditya I for whom the only known date is A.D. 1162-63, they would be contemporaries.  We know that Vijay-Pandya with a date in A.D. 1148.  Though it is highly probable that the two Vira-Pandya are identical, it is not possible, with the evidence at our disposal, to be certain about this identity.

Two more Pandya chiefs appearing in this volume may be noticed in passing.  They are Jagadeva-Pandya and Vijaya-Pandya, son of Odeyarasa.  The pattabandha festivals of these two are referred to in a record of A..D. 1188 (No. 295).  From the context it would appear that Jagadeva-Pandya was earlier in point of time than Vijaya-Pandya.

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