The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Contents

Preface

Introduction

Table of Contents

Text of the Inscriptions 

Part - I

Part - II

Part - III

Part - IV

Part - V

Other Inscription 

Chola Inscription

Telugu Inscriptions from Andra Pradesh

Pallava Inscriptions

Pandya Inscriptions

Telugu Inscriptions of the Vijayanagara Dynasty

Inscriptions Collected During 1903-1904

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

South Indian Inscriptions, Volume 2

Tamil Inscriptions

part - v

PALLAVA COPPER-PLATE GRANTS

No. 99. TANDANTOTTAM PLATES OF VIJAYA-NANDIVIKRAMAVARMAN

Tandantottam (i.e. Tandantottam, No. 134 of the Madras Survey map of the Kumbakonam taluk) is a village 6 miles east of Kumbakonam in the Tanjore district of the Madras Presidency. The existence of the plates was brought to the notice of the late RaiBahadur V. Venkayya, m.a., by Mr. Narayanaswami Aiyar, Sub-Inspector of Police, Madras City. It is stated that they “were found with many other idols, while digging a foundation in the premises of a Siva temple in the village of Thandantottam, Kumbakonam taluk of Tanjore district, about 100 years ago. No one knew what it is and how they happened to be there.”

The plates are 14 in number, each measuring about 11 ¼” by 3 ¾ “. When they were produced before Mr. Venkayya the plates were strung on a ring, which did not appear to have been previously cut.[1] The ring is somewhat oval with diameters measuring 6 ½” and 7 ¾”. Its ends are secured at the bottom of a circular seal 3” in diameter. The seal bears in relief a couchant Pallava bull facing the proper right. Along the margin of the seal is a Grantha legend, which is illegible. The ring on which the plates are strung was cut by me with the permission of Mr. Narayanaswami Aiyar in order to change out the plates and prepare ink-impressions.

The two sides of the first plate, the first side of the second plate and the first five lines of its second side are in Sanskrit verse, engraved in the Grantha alphabet and the rest, in the Tamil language and characters. The inscription must originally have consisted of many more plates, two or three of which at least are missing at the beginning. These would have supplied a genealogy of the Pallava kings similar to that of the Velurpalaiyam plates of Vijaya-Nandivarman published above. The concluding words of some of the plates in the middle do not fit in with the opening words of the succeeding plates. Consequently, it is presumed that a few plates[2] of the grant portion are also lost. This presumption is confirmed by the fact that while the number of the donees according to the Sanskrit portion has to be 308, the number actually registered is only 244, even including those whose names seem to have been added subsequently in comparatively later characters, or at least in a different hand.

The first plate of the preserved portion begins by referring to a king who conquered the South and stating that a certain Hiranyavarman was born “again” for the “welfare of the worlds” (jagatam hitaya V. 1). His son was Nandivarman who perhaps held the biruda Ekadhira the next six verses are taken up with the praise of Nandivarman. Two historical facts referred to in this part of the inscription are interesting. One of them is that Nandivarman took away from the Ganga king a neck-ornament, which contained in it the gem called Ugroday (V. 6). The name of this Ganga king, however, is not furnished. The other is that Nandivarman was the owner of an elephant named Pattavardhana (V. 7). With the permission of the king, a certain Dayamukha caused a village to be granted to 308 Brahmanas and called it Dayamukha mangala after his own name (V. 9). The executor (ajnapti) o the grant was evidently the very same person Dayamukha entitled Kumara, who is stated to have been the king’s treasurer (V. 10). The composer of the eulogy (prasasti) was Paramesvara Uttarakaranika son of Param-Ottarakaranika (V. 14).

The Tamil portion is dated in the 58th year of Kovijaya-Nandivikramavarman and registers a gift of land (converted into a village[3]) lying to the west of Tandattottam (i.e. Tandantottam) in Tenkarai-Naraiyur-nadu, a district of the Chola country, to a number of Brahmanas of Nalgur[4]

To judge from the high regnal year, the Tandattottam plates must belong to the reign of that Pallava king Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman whose Tiruvallam rock inscription is dated in his 62nd year i.e., 4 years later than our plates. At the same time the alphabet of the plates and the name of the king lead us to infer that the Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman who issued these plates may be identical with Vijya-Nandivarman III, the donor of the Velurpalaiyam plates. If the inscription were preserved in full, this question would not have been left to surmise and conjecture. The father of Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman is here stated to have been Hiranyavarman; while, the father of Vijaya-Nandivarman, according to the Velurpalaiyam plates, was Dantivarman. If the proposed identity of Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman with Vijaya-Nandivarman is accepted, the apparent discrepancy in the name of the father could be explained. The statement that Hiranyavarman “was born again,” evidently indicates a second king of that name and we may suppose that Dantivarman, the father of Vijya-Nandivikramavaram, was also called Hiranyavarman like his grandfather Hiranyavarman I the father of Nandivarman Pallavamalla. If the foregoing surmises are confirmed by future researches, the Tandantottam grant would be 52 years later than the Velurpalaiyam plates of the same king.

The donees whose enumeration occupies more than eleven plates of the inscription number 244. They belong to various gotras and sutras. To judge from their titles (such as chaturvedin, Trivedin, Somayajin, Vasantayajin, Shadangavid, Bhatta, Kramavid, Sarvakratuyajin, Dasapuriya[5], Agnichit and Vajapeyin) most of them must have been learned men as stated in verse 9. The largest number of shares assigned to a single individual is 12 and such a recipient was Attona-Shadangavi-Somayajin (No. 109) whose gotra and sutra are lost on one of the missing plates. The composer of the inscription, viz., Uttarakaranika alias Ayyan Paramesvara of the Rathitara-gotra and Paviriya-sutra (No. 128) received two shares. Among the other donees, Tiruvadigal (evidently the name of the local Vishnu temple or of the Saiva devotees, as stated on page (41) of the introduction) got 5 shares while Mahadeva (the Siva temple) was assigned 2 shares.One share was allotted to the reciter of the Bharata; and the three (madhyastha) got one share each. A share was assigned for “pouring water” and for “lighting fire” in arbitrators the hall (ambalam).

Perhaps this was the hall where the village assembly used to meet. Apparently the Bharata was also recited in this same hall. The donees seem to lhave belonged to diffeent parts of the country. The names of their native villages indicate that a pretty large number of them must have been originally residents of the Telugu country. Tanukkil, Karambichchedu, Irakkandoru, Irungandi, Nambur, Karanjai[6], Pinukkipparu[7], Velparu Popparu, Vangipparu, Attambaru, Mudiparu (or Mudaparu), Viripparu, Arasapparu, Karipparu, Nuttilapparu and Ponnambaru are apparently names of villages, which were probably situated in the Telugu country. Kumirur, Kattukkuri, Manarkal, Mandiram, Priyalur, Padagam, Parkulam, Angarai, Kalattur, Vennainallur, Perumbudur, Kaynirkulam, Iykkattukkoyil, Siruparuvur, Puliyur (in Miralai-nadu), Aruvagur and Taramanallur (in Aruva-nadu) are distinctly Tamil names. The donees whose native villages may be presumed to have been situated in the Telugu country need not necessarily have immigrated into the Chola country at the time of the grant. They might have been settled there sometime before. In any case it is clear that there was a large colony of Telugu Brahmanas in the heart of the Chola country during the first half of the 9th century A.D. The Telugu birudas of the Pallava king Mahendravarman fund in the Trichinopoly cave inscription, testify to the influence of the Telugu people in the Chola country already in the 7th century A.D. It is worthy of note that a large number of the village names are now held as titles by some well-known Sri-Vaishnava families – Dvadaikomapuram (Vedagomapura), Vangipparu (Vangippura), Uruppittur (Urupputtur), Karambichchedu (Karambichchettu), Srimalai (Tirumalai), Pattangi, Viravalli (Viravalli), Mudumbe, Tanukkil, Kumandur, Puttur, Settalur and Kundur being some. Manarkal has evidently lent its name to one of the later Vaishnava acharyas of the 12th century, named Manakkal-Nambi.

TRANSLATION

(Verse 1.) (Once) again, for the good of the world was born Hiranyavarman of stirring prowess who made (his) enemies settle in forests and was the asylum of those who eagerly desired protection.

(V. 2) From him was born the wise (and) prosperous king called Nandivarman who was the home of prowess (and) conqueror of the hoards of (his) enemies, whose victorious elephants reached almost the shores of the four oceans, whose fame extended to the (four) quarters and who was praised in battle for (his knowledge in) the use of all weapons.

(V. 3) The only (one) of name raja that did not bow to him was the dead-rayed (moon) and the (only) country in this world, which did not pay him tribute, was (that) where no men exist (i.e. the heaven where the undying gods live). And while this (king), comparable to Indra was ruling the earth, there was (nothing) unapproachable by the people (except, perhaps,) the way leading to hell.[8]

(V. 4) [9]He is the lord of the circle of good people as Hari (is the possessor of the powerful weapon chaktra); him the wise cling to as (gods) to Sakra (i.e., Indra); by him the earth[10] has become coupled with a husband; to whom faultless good deeds are most welcome; at whom the sole hero on the battle-field[11] the enemy-kings take fright; of whom the fame fills the ten quarters; and in whom Sri (i.e., Lakshmi) dwells permanently abandoning (her) vice of fickleness.

(V. 5.) While this (king) was ruling the earth, anxiety (or great rush) (was seen) only in the wind; tendency towards inconstancy (or existence of the creeper chapala), in the forest; decay of the learned (or the waning of the moon), in the dark-fortnight; increase of serpents (or abundance of clouds) at the end of summer; merciless attack (or the grasping of swords), in soldiers; dishonorable living (or the riding on aerial cars), in the pictures of gods; and the enemies of good Brahmanas (or able snake-charmers), in dissolute persons (or serpents).[12]

(V. 6.) He were on (his) breast, as (if it were) the lord of serpents, the bed of Achyuta (dwelling) near his heart, a necklace, which he had snatched away from the Ganga (king and in which was) the gem called Ugrodaya (like the) Kaustubha.

(V. 7.) To his lot (also) fell an excellent elephant named Pattavardhana which (in appearance) was like the (manifest) arrogance of its master, like victory in body, like a high mountain moving about, (and) from whose temples the ornament (of red paint) was wiped away by the excess of flowing rut sipped by the swarm of bees whirling about restlessly.[13]

(V. 8.) Wise men (and gods) praise him as Hari (himself); because indeed he offers protection to (all) living beings (as Hari preserves within his own self the rudiments of life); loves truth (as Hari loves his consort Satya); is victorious (Jishnu); firm (Achyuta); glorious (as Hari is united with Sri i.e., Lakshmi) and is, among men (possessed) of a lovely body (as Hari is an embodiment of Death of the demon Naraka).

(V. 9.) The pious man whose name was Dayamukha having informed this (king) according to rule, got that village which received the surname Dayamukhamangala, granted to three hundred and eight learned Brahmanas who had studied the three Vedas and the Smritis.

(V. 10.) That same respectable wise man named Kumara who (has stood) the test of honesty (upadha) who is pure in (enjoying) religious merit (dharma), wealth (artha) and desires (kama) who is the receptacle of upright conduct, pride less and devoted solely to the service of (his) master, whose wealth is shared by (all) good men, who seeks refuge in virtue, is free to (all his) relations and is clever in discharging the duties of a treasurer, was the ajnapti of this (grant).

(V. 11.) He that grants land even though it be (in extent) as big as the hoof of a cow and he that robs (it) without caring for the disastrous end, shall both of them dwell, indeed, till the moon and the stars last, (the first, however,) in the home of the gods and (the second) in dreadful hell.

(V. 12.) The king says – I have sought shelter in religious merit. (Every) head –jewel among kings who has taken the vow to maintain sovereignty on the surface of the earth, shall protect this deed (of mine) without disturbing (its) scheme. May his pair of feet dwell on his (my) head, which never knew of bowing down to others excepting to the pair of the worshipful feet of Mukunda (Vishnu).

(V. 13.) May the sacred cows whose every limb is purifying (and) whose purity is indeed demonstrated (materially), as it were, in the form of the (white) milk which they yield, grant your desires ! And may the revered gods on earth (viz., Brahmanas), whose weapons are (their) words[14] and who by the offerings (which they make) during sacrifices please even the nectar-fed (gods) who dwell in heaven, protect you!

(V. 14.) This eulogy (prasasti) was drawn up by Paramesvara surnamed Uttarakaranika son of Param-Ottarakaranika, the self-chosen lord of Poetry.

(LI. 26 to 38) In the fifty-eighth year (of the reign) of the king Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman: — The inhabitants of Tenkarani Naraiyur-nadu in Sora-nadu witnessing,— the forest and (other) waste lands lying to the west of Tandattottam situated in their district, . . . . . . . . . . None shall be permitted to make . . . . . . . . . . or cut channels (kurranvay) only, and water taken (from it) irrigation. No (tax) of any kind such as (duty on) oil-presses and looms ulaviyakkuli[15], the fee (in money) on marriages, urettu fee on potters, tattukkayam[16], duty[17] on toddy-drawers and shepherds, (fee on) stalls, brokerage-fee, tirumugakkanam[18], uppukkochcheyyai[19], good cow, good bull, vattinari (fee on baskets of grain brought to the market), areca-nuts (exposed for sale) in shops, pudanari[20] and others which the king could take and enjoy, shall be paid (to the king). The Brahmana donees of this village alone shall enjoy (the income specified above). Damanagam may be planted; mansions and large edifices may be built of burnt bricks; reservoirs and wells may be sunk; cocoanut trees may be planted in groves; (and) large oil-presses may be used. The cocoanut and palmyra trees (grown) within the boundaries of this village shall not be climbed by the toddy-drawers (iravar). (The names of) good Brahmanas of Nalgur that received the brahmadeya with all immunities including the above (were): -

List of Donees

No.

Gotra

Sutra

Residence or House-name

Name of donee

Number of shares

1

Kasyapa

Apastamba

Karanjai

Vattavan Kumarakova-chaturvedi -Somayajin

1

2

Kasyapa

Apastamba

Karanjai

Vattavan Narayana-Rudra- Chaturvedi -Somayajin

1

3

Kasyapa

Apastamba

Karanjai

Vattavan Vishnudasa- Chaturvedin

1

4

Kasyapa

Apastamba

Kundur

Channaya-Chaturvedin

1

5

Kasyapa

Apastamba

Kundur

Akkochcha-Chaturvedin

1

6

Kasyapa

Apastamba

Kundur

Narayana-Vasantayajin

1

7

Kasyapa

Apastamba

Kundur

Kumaradi-Shadangavid

1

8

Kasyapa

Apastamba

Kundur

Vennaya-Shadangavid

1

9

Kasyapa

Apastamba

Kundur

Tattakutti-Shadangavid

1

10

Kasyapa

Apastamba

Kundur

Tattakutti-Bhatta

1

11

Kasyapa

Apastamba

Kundur

Uruttirakanda (Rudraskanda)- chaturvedin.

1

12

Kasyapa

Apastamba

Attambaru

Damana-Chaturvedin

1

13

Kasyapa

Apastamba

Karipparu

Narayana-Chaturvedin

1

14

Kasyapa

Apastamba

Vangipparu

Donama-Trivedin

1

15

Kasyapa

Apastamba

Uviyur

Vinjakumara- Shadangavid

1

16

Kasyapa

Apastamba

Amuttanur

Kovadi-Chaturvedin

1

17

Kasyapa

Apastamba

Uruppittur

Kondama-Kramavid

1

18

Kasyapa

Apastamba

Karambichchedu

Kumaradi-Trivedin

1

19

Kasyapa

Apastamba

Cheruppalli

Narayana-Shadangavid

1

20

Kasyapa

Asvalayana

Pariyalur

Suryadatta-Bhatta

2

21

Kasyapa

Chhandoga

Padagam

Matirupudi(Matribhuti)- Shadangavit-Somayajin

1

22

Kasyapa

Vaseni

Nugunjudu

Kundasarman

4

23

Kasyapa

Paviriya

Nimbey

Vadugasarma-Trivedin

1

24

Kasyapa

Chhandoga

Koranji

Kandakumara (Skandakumara)- Chaturvedin

1

25

Gautama

Hiranyakesi

Parkulam

Nagakumara-chaturvedi- Bhatta-Somayajin

2

26

Gautama

Hiranyakesi

Kaynirkulam

Kumarakanna (Kumarakrishna) -Chaturvedin

1

27

Gautama

Pravachana

Kurukotti

Kandakumara-Kramavid

1

28

Gautama

Pravachana

Kurukotti

Uruttir-Chaturvedin

1

29

Gautama

Apastamba

Nellur

Channaya-Trivedi-Bhatta

1

30

Gautama

Apastamba

Parandur

Achchuvana-Chaturvedin

1

31

Gautama

Apastamba

Angarai

Kumarakula-Chaturvedin

1

32

Gautama

Apastamba

Angarai

Kannakumara- Chaturvedin

1

33

Gautama

Apastamba

Karambichchedu

Kanadaya-Shadangavid

1

34

Gautama

Apastamba

Irayur

Attuvachcha- Chaturvedin

1

35

Gautama

Apastamba

Vangipparu

Damodara-Chaturvedin

1

36

Gautama

Apastamba

Akki

Tattasarma- Shadangavid

1

37

Atreya

Apastamba

Vangipparu

Tukkasarma-Trivedin

1

38

Atreya

Apastamba

Vangipparu

Harisvami-Chaturvedin

1

39

Atreya

Apastamba

Dvedaikomapuram

Manikkutta-Chaturvedin

1

40

Atreya

Apastamba

Dvedaikomapuram

Narayana-Uruda)Rudra) –Chaturvedin

1

41

Atreya

Apastamba

Mudiparu

Damodara-Chaturvedi -Bhatta

1

42

Atreya

Apastamba

Parandur

Kumarasetta (Kumarajyeshtha)— Chaturvedin

1

43

Atreya

Apastamba

Vangipparu

Kandama— Chaturvedin

1

44

Atreya

Apastamba

Mudaparu

Narayana— Chaturvedin

1

45

Atreya

Apastamba

Karanjai

Devasarma-  Shadangavid

1

46

Atreya

Apastamba

Uhali

Vinnaya-Chaturvedi- Bhatta

1

47

Atreya

Apastamba

Vangipparu

Damodara-Trivedin

1

48

Atreya

Apastamba

Uhali

Narayana-Chaturvedi- Bhatta

1

49

   ?

?

?

[Bha*]vaskanda- Shadangavid

1

50

Atreya

Apastamba

Uhali

Svamisarma- Shadangavid

1

51

Atreya

Apastamba

Uhali  

Vishnudatta-Bhatta

1

52

Atreya

Apastamba

Padagam

Svamideva— Shadangavid

1

53

Atreya

Hiranyakesi  

Kalattur

Sukumara-Chaturvedin

1

54

Atreya

Apastamba  

Kakkaimira

Bhavadasa-Dasapuriya

1

55

Agnivesya

Apastamba  

Viripparu  

Vinjakumara- Chaturvedin

1

56

Agnivesya

Pravachana

Irayur  

Kundisami-Trivedin

1

57

Bharadvaja  

Chhandoga

Vennainallur

Agnikonda— Shadangavid

1

58

Bharadvaja  

Chhandoga

Pattangi

Kulamandai— Shadangavid

1

59

Bharadvaja  

Chhandoga

Pattangi

Attari— Shadangavid  

1

60

Bharadvaja  

Chhandoga

Padagam

Rudranandi-Bhatta- Somayajin

2

61

Bharadvaja  

Apastamba  

Popparu

Vishnu-Chaturvedin

1

62

Bharadvaja  

Apastamba  

Kundur

Kandakumara- Chaturvedi -Bhatta

1

63

Bharadvaja  

Apastamba  

Karambichchedu

Akkorra-Chaturvedi- Bhatta

1

64

Bharadvaja  

Apastamba  

Uviyur  

Narayana-Chaturvedin

1

65

Bharadvaja  

Apastamba  

Karanjai

Bhavaskanda- Shadangavid

1

66

Bharadvaja  

Apastamba  

Parandur

Yajnamadhava- Chaturvedin

1

67

Bharadvaja  

Apastamba  

Uviyur  

Urudakumara- Chaturvedin

1

68

Bharadvaja

Apastamba

Chandur

Annamanji—  Chaturvedin

1

69

Bharadvaja

Apastamba

Pinukkipparu

Vishnudasa— Chaturvedin  

1

70

Bharadvaja

Apastamba

Kuravasiri  

Bhavamadhava- Chaturvedi-Somayajin

1

71

Bharadvaja

Apastamba

Kumirur

Tevadi— Chaturvedin

1

72

Bharadvaja

Apastamba

Tannkkil  

Akkula-Chaturvedi- Bhatta

1

73

Bharadvaja

Apastamba

Popparu

Mandaya-Chaturvedi -Somayajin  

1

74

Bharadvaja

Apastamba

Kattukkuri  

Kulasarma— Chaturvedin

1

75

Bharadvaja

Apastamba

Uviyur

Vishnukumara- Chaturvedi-Bhatta

1

76

Bharadvaja

Apastamba

Tanukkil

Vishnukumara-Trivedin

1

77

Bharadvaja

Apastamba

Kattukkuri  

Brahmadatta-Trivedin

1

78

Bharadvaja

Apastamba

Ponnambaru

Narayana— Chaturvedin

1

79

Bharadvaja

Apastamba

Ponnambaru

Donaya-Trivedin

1

80

Bharadvaja

Apastamba

Karambichchedu

Urudakumara-Trivedin

1

81

Bharadvaja

Apastamba

Magasirai

Tonamandai— Chaturvedin

1

82

Bharadvaja

Apastamba

Karanjai  

Vriddhama— Chaturvedin

1

83

Bharadvaja

Apastamba

Kuravasiri  

Vinnakanda (Vishnukanda)— Chaturvedin  

1

84

Bharadvaja

Apastamba

Vangipparu

Kandakumara— Chaturvedin  

1

85

Bharadvaja

Apastamba

Karachchirai

Channaya-Trivedi- Somayajin

1

86

Bharadvaja

Apastamba

Kurovi

Vennaya— Chaturvedin

1

87

Bharadvaja

Apastamba

Kumirur  

Kamaya— Chaturvedin  

1

88

Bharadvaja

Apastamba

Uttukkur

Nagavishnu-Kramavid

1

89

Bharadvaja

Apastamba

Magasirai

Tonamandai— Chaturvedin

1

90

Bharadvaja

Apastamba

Karambichchedu  

. . . . . — Chaturvedin

1

91

Bharadvaja

Pravachana

Manarkal

Sarvakratuyaji- Tattankumaran

3

92

Bharadvaja

Pravachana

Manarkal

Tattanjattan

2

93

Bharadvaja

Pravachana

Karambichchedu

Appudi— Chaturvedin

1

94

Bharadvaja

Pravachana

Irayur  

Narayana-Bhatta

1

95

Bharadvaja

Pravachana

Irayur  

Sottai-Madhava-Bhatta

1

96

Bharadvaja

Pravachana

Settalur  

Attari-Trivedin

1

97

Bharadvaja

Paviriya

Anuppur  

Bhavarudra— Chaturvedin  

1

98

Bharadvaja

Bharadvaja  

Mirangalur  

Narayana-Bhatta

1

99

Bharadvaja

Bharadvaja  

Kanjikkuri

Irattama-Trivedin

1

100

Bharadvaja

Kalarachcha (or Kalarcha)

Mandiram

Bhavadaya-Trivedin

1

101

Vatsa

Apastamba

Nambur

Vennasarma- Chaturvedi-Bhatta

1

102

Vatsa

Apastamba

Kulaputti

Vennaya— Chaturvedin

1

103

Vatsa

Apastamba

Nambur

Bhavasvami— Chaturvedin

1

104

Vatsa

Apastamba

Kulaputti

Attaya— Chaturvedin

1

105

Vatsa

Apastamba

Nambur

Yajna-Madha[va]- Chaturvedi-Bhatta

1

106

Vatsa

Apastamba

?

?

?

107

?

?

Cheruppalli

Donama-Kramavid and his son Kumaradi-Kramavid

1

108

Vatsa

Apastamba

Karambichchedu

Devabhuti—Chaturvedin

1

109

Vatsa

Apastamba

Ayiyakki

Attona-Shadangavit- Somayajin

12

110

Vatsa

Apastamba

Mudumbe

Channakumar- Chaturvedi-Bhatta

1

111

Vatsa

Apastamba

Karanjai

Vennaya-Chaturvedin

1

112

Vatsa

Chhandoga

Mudumbe

Akkanda— Chaturvedin

1

113

Vatsa

Chhandoga

Pipparai

Akkanda— Chaturvedin

1

114

Vatsa

Chhandoga

Mudumbe

Kulasarma-Kramavid

1

115

Vatsa

Pravachana

Kundur

Damodara— Chaturvedin

1

116

Vatsa

Pravachana

Vellaiyur

Vishnubhuti— Chaturvedin

1

117

Mudgala

Apastamba

Irakkandoru

Kadamba-Bhatta

1

118

Mudgala

Apastamba

Uruppittur

Bhavaskanda— Chaturvedin

1

119

Mudgala

Apastamba

Irakkandoru

Yajnya— Chaturvedin

1

120

Mudgala

Apastamba

Irakkandoru

Kalasarma-Trivedin

1

121

Mudgala

Apastamba

Irakkandoru

Bhavasvami-Trivedin

1

122

Mudgala

Apastamba

Parandur

Erama-Trivedin

1

123

Mudgala

Pravachana

Ayyakki

Settaya— Chaturvedin

1

124

Sunaka

Apastamba

Maniyur

Posan-Pavvi-Kramavid

1

125

Rathitara

Apastamba

Orikonrai

Kumarapudi(Kumarabhuti) — Chaturvedin

1

126

Rathitara

Apastamba

Kuravasiri

Channakumara— Chaturvedin

1

127

Rathitara

Apastamba

Kuravasiri

Attikutti— Chaturvedin

1

128

Rathitara

Paviriya

Merramana- mangalam

Uttarakaranika alias Ayyan Paramesvara

2

129

Garga

Apastamba

Karambichchedu

Madhava-Trivedin

1

130

Garga

Apastamba

Kunjappayal

Harisvami— Chaturvedin

1

131

Garga

Apastamba

Kunjappayal

Kandana— Chaturvedin

1

132

Garga

Apastamba

Marralur

Channaya— Chaturvedin

1

133

Garga

Apastamba

Kunjappevil

Bhavasarma-Chaturvedi -Bhatta

1

134

Garga

Paviriya

Vangipparu

Damodara-Bhatta

1

135

Vadhula

Apastamba

Karambichchedu

Kandadai Vasudeva— Chaturvedin

1

136

Vadhula

Apastamba

Karanjai

Mandaiya— Chaturvedin

1

137

Vadhula

Apastamba

Karambichchedu

Kandadai Vasudeva-Chaturvedi- Bhatta-Agnichitta- Sarvakratuyajin

3

138

Vadhula

Apastamba

Karambichchedu

Suyajna-Kesava— Chaturvedin-Bhatta

1

139

Vadhula

Apastamba

Karambichchedu

Narayana— Chaturvedin

1

140

Vadhula

Apastamba

Kundur

Channaya-Trivedin

1

141

Lohita

Pravachana

Karambichchedu

Agnisarma— Chaturvedin

1

142

Lohita

Pravachana

Karambichchedu

Tindakumara— Chaturvedin

1

143

Lohita

Pravachana

Karambichchedu

Damodara-[Chaturvedin]

?

144

?

?

Srimalai

Agnirudra-Chaturvedi- Bhatta

1

145

Lohita

Pravachana

Vangipparu

Sendakumara- Shadangavid

1

146

Bhargava

Pravachana

Manarkal

Aytangi Sankaran Sendan

1

147

Kausika

Apastamba

Irattakkuri

Kesava— Chaturvedin

1

148

Kausika

Apastamba

Velvatti

Nakonda-Chaturvedi- Somayajin

1

149

Kausika

Apastamba

Karanjai

Jayantarudra-Chaturvedin

1

150

Kausika

Apastamba

Parandur

Rudrasarma-Dasapuriya

1

151

Kausika

Apastamba

Settalur

Suyajina-Bhavasena- Trivedi-Bhatta-Somayajin

1

152

Kausika

Apastamba

Kottungombura

Urudakutti-Dasapuriya

1

153

Kausika

Apastamba

Kuravasiri

Vishnukumara-Bhatta- Somayajin

1

154

Kausika

Apastamba

Karanjai

Koradi— Chaturvedin

1

155

Kausika

Apastamba

Kumandur

Tryambaka-Shadangavid

1

156

Kausika

Apastamba

Velvatti

Agnichitta—Chaturvedin

1

157

Kausika

Apastamba

Velvatti

Kumaramandai-Trivedin

1

158

Kausika

Chhandoga

Ekambur

Narayana-Shadangavid

1

159

Kausika

Chhandoga

Arasapparu

Donama-Shadangavid

1

160

Kausika

Bharadvaja

Parandur

Devakumara-Kramavid

1

161

Kausika

Kalarachcha (or Kaarcha)

Peruvali

Kovadi-Chaturvedi-Bhatta

1

162

Kausika

Pravachana

Pavakkuri

Tindamada-Chaturvedi -Somayajin

1

163

Kausika

Pravachana

Pavakkuri

Samikutti—Chaturvedin

1

164

Kausika

Hiranyakesi

Perumbandur

Narayana-Bhatta

1

165

Salavata

Apastamba

Velparu

Turkkama—Chaturvedin

1

166

Salavata

Apastamba

Velparu

Kandakumara— Chaturvedin

1

167

Kutsa

Apastamba

Odimukkil

Madhava—Chaturvedin

1

168

Vasishtha

Apastamba

Kuravasiri

Attikumara-Chaturvedi -Bhatta

1

169

Vasishtha

Apastamba

Viravalli

Achohatti-Trivedin

1

170

Vasishtha

Apastamba

Vangipparu

Divakara-Kramavid

1

171

Vasishtha

Apastamba

Ettukkur

Kanavurutta)Ganarudra) -Trivedin

1

172

Savarni

Chhandoga

Padagam

Narayana-Bhatta

1

173

Savarni

Chhandoga

Padagam

Sonikutti— Chaturvedin

1

174

Parasara

Apastamba

Kallakkur

Pappudi— Chaturvedin

1

175

Parasara

Apastamba

Ongalur

Akkumara— Chaturvedin

1

176

Parasara

Pravachana

Vangipparu

Achchenda-Trivedin

1

177

Varakhya

Apastamba

Puniyam

Settasarman

1

178

Kapi

Apastamba

Parandur

Mahesvara-Chaturvedi -Bhatta

1

179

Kapi

Pravachana

Perumbudur

Kumaradatta-Trivedin

1

180

Dhumrayana

Apastamba

Uruppittur

Channaya-Trivedin

1

181

Paurukutsa

Pravachana

Kotti

Agnisarma— Chaturvedin

1

182

Gautama

Apastamba

Karambichchedu

Nandikutti-Trivedin

1

183

Kasyapa

Apastamba

Karanjai

Kandapudi(Skandabhuti) -Dasapuriya

1

184

Samkriti

Pravachana

Irangandi

Kumarasarma-Shadangavid

1

185

Harita

Apastamba

Kakkaimira

Yajnasarma-Chaturvedi- Bhatta

1

186

….

….

….

Tiruvadigal (i.e. Vishnu)

5

187

….

….

….

Mahadeva (i.e. Siva)

2

188

….

….

….

Reader of the [Maha]bharata

1

189

….

….

….

Drummers (tattarikotti)

1

...

….

….

….

The three arbitrators together (received) three shares.

See below Nos. 202 to 204.

190

….

….

....

Those who supply water for the hall (ambalam) and kindle fire (in it).

1

191

….

….

Puliyur in Miralai-nadu

Rishi-Vaikhanasa- Satyagarbha-Bhatta

1

...

...

....

....

The doctor received two shares

See below No. 207

192

Vadhula

Apastamba

Karambichchedu

Kandadai-Vasudeva- Chaturvedi-Bhatta- Agnichitta- Sarvakratu-Vajapeyin

1

193

Vatsa

Apastamba

Nuttilapparu

Mandaiya-Chaturvedi- Somayajin

1

194

Vatsa

Apastamba

Vangipparu

Bhavarudra-Chaturvedin

1

195

Bharadvaja

Pravachana

Irayur

Narayanadatta-Bhatta

1

196

Bharadvaja

Apastamba

Karachchirai

Channaya-Chaturvedin

1

197

Mathara

Hiranyakesi

Kommarai

Svamidatta-Bhatta

1

198

Kasyapa

Chhandoga

Padagam

Kanmada-Shadangavid

1

199

Garga

Apastamba

Kunjappevil

Nakkadona-Chaturvedin

1

200

Padarani

Pravachana

Talaichchengadu

Kalaiyan Soman

1

201

Bharadvaja

Pravachana

Payyur

Paduvuran Divakaran Sami

1

....

...

...

...

The three shares of the arbitrators (mentioned above) were thus distributed: 

1

202

Perumbulle

Virakandan

1

203

Perumbulle

Rishabhanandi

1

204

Padagam

Agarimangalam

Gunadaran and

Tirup[pida]vur Sa[mi]

1

205

206

Aruvagur in Aruva-nadu

Rishi-Vaikhanasa- Sankaranarayana-Bhatta

1

207

Iykkattukoyil

Paramesvaran received the two shares set apart for the doctors (mentioned above).

2

208

Damanallur in Aruva-nadu

Rishi-Vaikhanasa- Narayana-Bhatta

1

209

Savarni

Siruparuvur

Tuvedi (Dvivedi)-Kadampalai; under the orders of the assembly (perumakkal).

1

210

Vatsa

Pravachana

Kukkanur

Vittasarma-Kramavid

1

211

For (the maintenance of) the (head) sluice and the reservoir.

3

212

Atreya

Agnivesya

Puttur

Somasi-Kari

2

213

Atreya

Agnivesya

Puttur

Somasi-[Ta*]ttanSomasi- [Ta*]ttan

2

Total

244

 


[1] As in the sequel it will appear that many plates both in the beginning and in the middle are missing the ring must have been cut open on some previous occasion and re-soldered.

[2] The breaks noted at the foot of the text are five in number. The first of these is at the beginning of the Sanskrit portion. The second (I. 29) could not have counted more than one plate. The three others (II. 78, 126 and 158) must have consisted each of a single plate which contained on them the 64 missing names of the donees.

[3] Evidently the Dayamukhamangala mentioned in V. 9.

[4] This village is not found on the map of the Kumbakonam taluk. If by Nalgur is meant Nallur, which is 6 miles west of Kumbakonam, we have to suppose that the 308 donees were residents of that village. The word may also mean poor; but the idea of granting a village to Brahmanas, purely on account of their poverty is rather rare

[5] Dasapuriya means ‘belonging to or an emigrant from, Dasapura’ a village identified with Mandasor in Malwa. Two grants f the Gurjara chief Dadda IV Prasantaraga which are referred to about the middle of the 7th century A.D. (Ep. Ind. Vol. V. p. 38 f.) mention a donee who laws an emigrant from Dasapura. The spurious grant of Dharasena II of date Saka-Samvat 400, also mentions a corporation of the Chaturvedins of Dasapura.

[6] Karanjai also spelt Kiranji (Ep. Ind., Vol. VI., p. 228) may be the same as Kranja, Kaza (ibid. p. 114), a village in the Guntur taluk of the Guntur district.

[7] Paru stands for parru (genitive parti) often found as an ending of village names in the Telugu districts. It is possible that paru is a mistake for the Sanskrit pura or a variant of the vernacular padu.

[8] Thee is a pun intended here in the words raja (which means both ‘king’ and ‘moon’) and amartya. In the second half of the verse the poet wants to say that the people were not allowed to go to hell (i.e., to commit sin) but were free to achieve every other object of life.

[9] A rhetorical effect is aimed at by the use in their order of the seven cases of the pronoun yat, which refers to the king.

[10] The two well-known consorts of Vishnu are the goddesses Lakshmi and the Earth.

[11] The actual words used for ‘sole hero’ are eka-dhira. It is not impossible that Ekadhira was a surname of Nandivarman III. From the Kasakudi plates we learn that Ekadhira was a surname of Nandivarman Pallavamalla or of his minister Udayachandra. Ekadhiramangalam, the new name given to Kodukolli in these plates, corresponds to Ekadhira-chaturvedimangalam, a village somewhere near Tirunamanallur in the South Arcot district (Ep. Ind. Vol. VII., p. 133)

[12] The purport of the verse is that anxiety, inconstancy, decay of learning, etc., were not found in his kingdom. This is expressed by the poet when he says, with pun, that they were existing elsewhere but not in his kingdom.

[13] The Saiva saint Sundaramurti-Nayanar in his Tiruppadiyam on adamullaivayil refers to a rutting elephant which the god of that place is said to have controlled by binding it with a twig and thereby conferring immeasurable joy on the Tondaiman, i.e., the Pallava king. It is not impossible that in the verb abhajat, which also means ‘worshipped’, we may have to understand a parallel if not the identical incident mentioned in the sacred hymn. The age of Sundaramurti-Nayanar culd not have been long distant from that of Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman III.

[14] This complimentary attribute to the Brahmanas also occurs in Bhavabhuti’s Uttaramacharita, in the passage etc. The sense conveyed, however, may not be ironical as it is in the passage quoted.

[15] This term occurs in the Kasakudi plates of Nandivarman as ulliyakkuli (above, p. 352, text-line 122) and is translated ‘the hire of the well-diggers’.

[16] This may correspond to tattar-pattam of the large Leyden plates ad be translated ‘fee on goldsmiths.

[17] Putchi is a term not found in dictionaries. This obsolete word seems to denote a duty or tax Idaipputchi occurs as Idaippattam in the large Leyden plates.

[18] This term which is perhaps the more correct form of tirumukkanam must denote a fee levied for remunerating the man who brings orders (tirumugam) from the king.

[19] This word may be divided into uppu ko and seygai which perhaps means the royalty paid for manufacturing salt.

[20] The Velurpalaiyam plates give the form pudari while, according to the printed text of the large Leyden plates, the term occurs as pita-nari. The meaning is not clear.