The Indian Analyst

South Indian Inscriptions






Table of Contents

Text of the Inscriptions 

Part - I

Part - II

Part - III

Part - IV

Part - V

Other Inscription 

Chola Inscription

Telugu Inscriptions from Andra Pradesh

Pallava Inscriptions

Pandya Inscriptions

Telugu Inscriptions of the Vijayanagara Dynasty

Inscriptions Collected During 1903-1904

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27





Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India


South Indian Inscriptions, Volume 2

Tamil Inscriptions

part - i



No.20 On the south Wall, first and second tiers

This inscription records that, on the 242nd day of the 19th year of this reign, Rajendra-Choladeva granted a yearly allowance of paddy to a Saiva priest of the Rajarajesvara temple. He issued this order from his palace at Gangaikonda-Sorapuram.[1]

The most important part of the inscription is the end of its historical introduction, which adds a number of names of places, which the king had conquered between his 12th and 19th year, to those mentioned in two Tirumalai inscriptions of the 12th year.[2] Among these additional names of localities I can identify none but the last, viz., Kadaram (line 11), whose king, called Samgramavijayottungavarman, was attacked by sea and caught (II. 8 f). This king must have been a successor of Maravijayaottungavarman, the son of Chudamanivarman and king of Kataha or Kidaram, who is mentioned in the large Leyden grant[3] as a vassal of Rajaraja. Kidaram is now the headquarters of a talluqa of the Ramnad Zamindari in the Madura district.[4] The remaining names of localities, which I am unable to identify, must probably be looked for in the same neighbourhood, as the inscription seems to imply that they were all taken from the king of Kadaram, together with Kadaram itself, which is the last item in the list.

In the beginning of each line of the second tier of this inscription, a few letters are lost. Most of these can be supplied with certainty from other inscriptions of Rajendra-Chola. Those letters, which are lost at the beginning of lines 9 to 11, are taken from an undated inscription of the Kailasanatha temple at Uttaramallur. The Bilvanathesvara temple at Tiruvallam contains inscriptions of the 21st, 26th and [3] 1st years of Rajendra-Chola.[5] Owing to their imperfect preservation, these were of very little use for the restoration of the text. As the historical passage at their beginning adds nothing new to that of the subjoined inscription, they serve at least to prove, that Rajendra-Chola did not make any further conquests after the 19th year of his reign.


Hail! Prosperity! On the two-hundred-and-forty-second day of the 19th year (of the reign) of Ko-Parakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Rajendra-Soradeva, who, — in (his) life of high prosperity, (during which he) rejoiced that, while Fortune, having become constant, was increasing, the goddess of the great earth, the goddess of victory in battle, and the matchless goddess of fame had become his great queens, — conquered with (his) great and warlike army Idaiturai-nadu; Vanavasi, whose warriors (were protected by) walls of continuous forests; Kollippakkai, whose walls were surrounded by sulli (trees); Mannaikkadakkam of unapproachable strength; the crown of the king of Iram, (who was as impetuous as) the sea in fighting; [6] the exceedingly beautiful crown of the queen of the king of that (country); the crown of Sundara and the pearl-necklace of Indra, which the king of the South had previously given up to that (king of Iram); the whole Ira-mandalam on the transparent sea; the crown praised by many and the garland of the sun, family-treasures, which the arrow-shooting (king of) Kerala rightfully wore; many ancient islands, whose old and great guard was the sea, which resounds with conches; the crown of pure gold, worthy of Lakshmi, which Parasurama, having considered the fortifications of Sandimattivu impregnable, had deposited (there), when, raging with anger, (he) bound the kings twenty-one times; the seven and a half lakshas of Iratta-padi, (which was) strong by nature, (through the conquest of which) immeasurable fame arose,[7] (and which he took from) Jayasimha, who, out of fear (and) full of vengeance, turned his back at Muyangi and hid himself; the principal great mountains, (which contained) the nine treasures; Sakkara-kottam, whose warriors were brave;[8] Madura-mandalam, whose forts (bore) banners (which touched) the clouds; the fertile Namanaikkonai, which was full of groves;[9] Panchappalli, whose warriors were hot with rage;[10] Masuni-desam, whose paddy-fields were green;[11] a large heap of family-treasures, together with many (other treasures), (which he carried away) after having seized Indiradan[12] of the old race of the moon together with (his) family, in a fight which took place in a hall (at) Adinagar, (a city) which was famous for its unceasing abundance; Odda-vishayam, which was difficult to approach, (and which he subdued in) close fights; the good Kosalai-nadu, where Brahmanas assembled; Tandabutti (i.e., Danda-bhukti), in whose gardens bees abounded, (and which he acquired) after having destroyed Dharmapala (in) a hot battle; Takkanaladam (i.e., Dakshina-Lata), whose fame reached (all) directions, (and which he occupied) after having attacked Ranasura, (whose) strength departed,[13] Vangala-desam, where the rain did not cease, (and from which) Govindachandra, (whose) fortune diminished, fled; elephants of rare strength and treasures of women, (which he seized) after having been pleased to frighten on a hot battle-field Mahipala, who was deprived (even) of his slippers, bracelets and ear-rings;[14] Uttiraladam (i.e., Uttara-Lata) on the vast sea of pearls; the Ganga, whose waters sprinkled tirthas, which were full flowers;[15] and (who), — having dispatched many ships in the midst of the rolling sea and having caught Samgramavijayottungavarman, the king of Kadaram, along with (his) vehicles, (viz.) rutting elephants, (which were as impetuous as) the sea in fighting, — (took) the large heap of treasures,[16] which (that king) had rightfully accumulated; the (arch called) Vidyadhara-torana at the “war-gate” of the extensive city of the enemy; the “jewel-gate,’ adorned with great splendour; the “gate of large jewels;” Vijayam, of great fame; Pannai, watered by the river; the ancient Malaiyur (with) a fort situated on a high hill; Mayirudingam, surrounded by the deep sea (as) a moat; Ilangasogam (i.e., Lankasoka), undaunted (in) fierce battles; Mappappalam, having abundant high waters

as defense; Mevilimbangam, having fine walls as defence; Valaippanduru, possessing (both) cultivated land (?) and jungle; Talaittakkolam, praised by great men (versed in) the sciences; Madamalingam, firm in great and fierce battles; Ilamuri-desam, whose fierce strength was subdued by a vehement (attack); Manakkavaram, whose flower-gardens (resembled) the girdle (of the mymph) of the southern region; and Kadaram, of fierce strength, which was protected by the neighboring sea; — having been pleased to make gifts in the college (kalluri), which surrounds the king’s flower-garden (aram) on the northern side of the royal hall (tiru-maligai) of Mudikonda-Soran within the palace (koyil) at Gangaikonda-Sorapuram, the lord Sri-Rajendra-Sora-deva vouchsafed to order, that two thousand kalam of paddy, fully measured by the marakkal (preserved) in the temple of this god (and) called (after) Adavallan, should be supplied every year, as long as the moon and the sun endure, to the treasury in the city, to be enjoyed (bhoga) by the priests (acharya) of the temple of the lord Sri-Rajaraja-Isvara, (viz.) by our lord, the [Sai]vacharya Sarvasiva-pandita,[17] and by those who shall deserve it among the pupils (sishya) of this lord and the pupils of his pupils (prasishya), who are natives of Aryadesa, Madhyadesa or Gaudadesa. (The above order) was written by the royal minister (who writes the king’s) orders,[18] Sembiyan Virupparaiyan, (and) engraved on stone, as heard from the mouth of the king. Let the saiva-acharyas of this (spiritual) line (vamsa) protect this charity (dharma)!

[1] This place is situated in the Udaiyarpalaiyam talluqa of the Trichinopoly district; see Mr. Sewell’s Lists of Antiquities, Vol. I, p. 264.

[2] Vol. I, Nos.67 and 68.

[3] Lines 81 f. and 117. an unnamed king of Kidaram is refered to as a vassal of Kulottunga-Choladeva in the small Leyden grant; see Dr. Burgess’s Archaeological Survey of Southern India, Vol. IV, p. 224, text line 5 f. and p. 225, text line 10.

[4] Mr. Sewell’s Lists of Antiquities, Vol. I, p. 299.

[5] Nos.7, 13 and 17 of my Progress Report for October 1889 to January 1890, Madras G.O., 11th March 1890, No. 189, Public.

[6] Like the Tirumalai inscriptions, this inscription reads porukadal while Nos. 9 to 19 have poruthadar.

[7] Instead of pukalodu the reading of Nos. 10 to 19, this inscription has pukalodum like the Tirumalai inscriptions.

[8] In Vol. I, p. 99 vikramaveerar was taken as a proper name. From the analogy of other items in the list of conquests, I now consider it more probable that a general descriptive epithet is intended.

[9] The Tirumalai inscriptions read “Namanaikkonam, which was surrounded by dense groves.”

[10] The Tirumalai inscriptions read venjilaiveerar which I took to be a proper name, but now prefer to translate by “whose warriors possessed cruel bows;” compare note 3, above.

[11] Pasadai comes to the same as pasudai, the reading of the Tirumalai inscriptions.

[12] This doubtful name might be a corruption of Indraratha. If the reading of the Tirumalai inscriptions, kulathiratharanai instead of kulathirathanai should turn out to be the correct one, the king’s name would be either Dhiratara or Iradaran (?)

[13] Instead of muranusa a Chidambaram inscription reads muranara, which comes to the same.

[14] The readings of the Tirumalai inscriptions, thodaukadarsangu kottan and sanguvodan, seem to be mere corruptions of the reading in the text.

[15] Instead of malar, ‘a flower,’ the Tirumalai inscriptions read manal ‘sand’.

[16] Nethi seems to be used for nithi; compare page 95, note 1.

[17] As Sarva and Isana are synonymous, this person is perhaps identical with the guru Isanasiva-pandita, who is mentioned in No. 9, paragraphs 1 and 2.

[18] Tiru-mantri olai is an abbreviation for tiru-mantri olai erudum which occurs in the inscription No. 27, paragraph 1. In the large Leyden grant, the words nam olai yazhuthum, ‘who writes our orders,’ and mandira-olai are prefixed to the name of one and the same person at two different places (lines 123 and 161 f.)