The Indian Analyst

North Indian Inscriptions







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Inscriptions of the Chandellas of Jejakabhukti

An Inscription of the Dynasty of Vijayapala

Inscriptions of the Yajvapalas of Narwar



Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

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Volume 22
Part 1

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Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27





Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India



[Vikrama] Year 1011

THIS inscription, which is engraved on the left jamb of the entrance of the temple of Jina Nātha at Khajurāhō[1] in the Chhatarpur District of Madhya Pradesh, was found by Alexander Cunningham in course of his archaeological tour in Vindhya Pradesh, in 1862-1865. It was very briefly noticed by him in the Annual Report of the Archeological Survey of India, Vol. II, p. 433, and was edited by Rajendralal Mitra, in 1863, in the Journal of the Bengal Asiatic Society, Vol. XXXII, pp. 273 ff., where he published his reading of the text, in Nāgarī, accompanied by an abridged translation, but without an illustration. Cunningham again referred to it in his Vol. XXI of ibid. (for 1883-84). p. 67, with a photo-lithographic illustration (Pl. xvi-J); and remarked on its date, as to be seen below. It was re-edited by F. Kielhorn, in 1888, in the Epigraphia Indica, Vol. I (1888), pp. 135 ff., with his own transcript, prepared from an impression taken by Burgess and a translation thereof., but this article is not accompanied by an illustration. The inscription is edited here from an inked impression which was kindly made over to me by the Chief Epigraphist.[2]

   The inscription consists of eleven lines, the last of which is about half of the others in length. The writing covers a space about 21∙5 cms. broad by 20 cms. high, and is in an excellent state of preservation. The size of letters varies from 1 to 1∙8 cms. The characters are Nāgarī and the letters are all clearly legible. The forms of the initial a, and of k, d, dh, and s are fully developed ; the loop of ch is triangular and clearly distinct from that of v; the initial i and the consonant are endowed with the top-stroke; r is uniformally represented by a vertical stroke with a horizontal bar attached to its middle on the left ; and the medial vowel marks too exhibit later traits in their formation. All these peculiarities tend to show that the inscription was engraved some time in the 12-13th century A.C.


   The language of the record is Sanskrit ; and excepting two stanzas, one at the beginning and the other at the end, the entire composition is in prose. There are in it a number of mistakes violating rules of grammar, which are all corrected in the text or foot-notes appended to it. The orthography does not call for remarks excepting (1) the use of v to denote b also ; (2) the occurrence of s in all the instances where ś is required ; (3) the doubling of a consonant following r ; (4) the use of an anusvāra for a nasal ; and (5) kh engraved as sh in Vaiśākha, l. 10. The sign of visarga is often wrongly omitted.

   Thepurpose of the inscription is to record the presentation of the following gardens by Pāhilla (spelt in it as Pāhila), to the temple of Jinanātha, which, though not explicitly mentioned in it, can easily be imagined from the existence of the image in the temple:─ (1) Pāhilla- vāṭikā,[3] (2) Chandra-vāṭikā, (3) Laghuchandra-Vāṭikā, (4) Śaṅkara-vāṭika, (5) Pañchāïtala-vāṭikā, (6) Āmra-vāṭikā and (7) Dhaṅga-vāḍī, i.e., Dhaṅga-vāṭikā, (ll. 5-7). The names of all these seven gardens are consecutively numbered in the record and are mentioned just after the first stanza, which is full of grammatical errors, as to be seen below, and which introduces Pāhilla as possessing good disposition,[4] endowed with qualities of tranquility and self-control, compassionate, pleasing good people and held in honour by king Dhaṅga. Following the list of donations the inscription embodies a request to the effect that the reigning house, whichever may be in power (in this region) after Pāhilla’s family comes to an end ; may guard (continue) the gifts (ll. 8-10).

[1] For the description of the temple, see A.S.I.R., Vol. II. p. 433.
[2] His. No. C-1949 of 1963-64.
[3] The spellings of names have all been corrected here. It will also be seen that the plots of gardens presented in favour of the temple are seven and not six, as stated by Rajendralal Mitra in J.B.A.S., XXXII. p. 273.
[4] Following the reading suśila, as corrected in the text.

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