The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Contents

Preface

Text of the Inscriptions

Part I    -Sanskrit Inscription

Part II  -Tamil & Grantha Ins.

Part III -Notes & Fragments

Part IV  -Addenda

Other Inscriptions

Tamil Inscriptions

Misc. Ins. from Tamil Country

Chola Inscriptions

Kannada Inscriptions

Telugu Ins. from Andhra Pradesh

Pallava Inscriptions

Pandya Inscriptions

Ins. of Vijayanagara Dynasty

Ins. during 1903-1904

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

PART-I

SANSKRIT INSCRIPTIONS

No.39. A GRANT OF VIRA-CHODA

The original of the subjoined grant belongs to the Sir W. Elliot Collection in the British in the Museum and was lent to me for publication by Dr.Burgess.  It had been previously in the possession of the Karanam  of Chellur, a village in Cocanda Talluqa of the Godavari District.  The grant consists of five copper-plates with raised rims.  Each plate measures 5 ¾ by 10 ¼ inches.  The first plate bears writing only on its inner side, while the remaining ones are inscribed on both sides.  The preservation of the plates in fairly good ; the fifth only is somewhat damaged.  The ring, which bears the seal, has been cut.

It is 5/8 inch thick and 6 ¼ inches in diameter.  The well-preserved seal measures 2 5/8 inches diameter.  It rests on expanded lotus-flower and bears in relief on a counter-sunk surface the legend .  Over the latter, it contains a boar, which faces the right and is surrounded by two lamp stands, two Chamaras, the sun and the moon, an elephant-goad a conch.  Below the legend, there is a drum (?), an expanded lotus-flower (birds-eye view), an emblem resembling what Mr.Fleet supposes to be a nakara-torana,[1] and a svastika.

Abstracts of the present inscription have already been published by Sir W.Elliot.[2] It is the latest known document of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty and possesses considerable interests, as it contains valuable details about the connection between the Eastern Chalukyas and the Cholas and thus settles the dates of several kings of the last-mentioned dynasty.

The vamsavali of the inscription consists of four parts : -

I. (Lines 1-16.) A genealogy of the lunar race down to Udayana, commencing with whom fifty-nine emperors are supposed to have reigned at Ayodhya.

II.(Lines 16-28.) An account of five Early Chalukya kings, viz, :-

Vijayaditya I., killed in a battle with Trilochana-Pallava

|

Vishnuvardhana, married to a Pallava princess

|

Vijayaditya II

|

Pulakesi-Vallabha

|

Kirtivarman

III.(Lines 28-46.) The usual succession of the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi fom Kubja-Vishnuvardhana to Vimaladitya.

IV.(Lines 46-78.) An account of the later Eastern Chalukyas during their connection with the Cholas, viz.: -

TABLE:- Click here to Eastern Chalukyas during their connection with the Cholas

The first and second parts of the vamsavali  need not be treated in detail, as the first is entirely mythical, and Mr. Fleet considers the second to be a “more farrago of vague tradition and Puranik myths, of no authority, based on the undoubted facts that the Chalukyas did come originally from the north, and did find the Pallavas in possession of some of the territories afterwards acquired by themselves, and on a tradition of the later Kadambas that the founder of their family was named Trilochana or Trinetra.”[3]

The third part of vamsavali agrees with Mr.Fleet’s grants of Rajaraja I. And of Kulotunga-Chola-deva II.[4] Just as in the grant of Rajaraja I. a reign of 3 years is allotted to Danarnava, who is here also called Dana-nripa, and an interregnum of 27 years is stated to have taken place after him.  There follow the reigns of his sons Saktivarman (12 years) and Vimaladitya (7 years).  No mention is made of the Chola princess Kundava, whom the latter married according to the grant of Rajaraja I.

We now turn to the fourth part of the vamsavali. The son of Vimaladitya, Rajara, who ruled for 41 years (line 47), married Ammanga-devi, the daughter of a Rajendra-Choda of the solar race (verse 7). Their son Rajendra-Choda (verse 8), Kulottunga-deva (verse 11) or Rajanarayana (verse 12) at first ascended the throne of Vengi (verse 9), conquered Kerala, Pandya, Kuntala and other countries (verse 10), and was anointed to the Choda kingdom (verse 11).  He married Madhurantaki, the daughter of a Rajendra-deva of the solar race (verse 12) and had by her seven sons (verse 13). When he rose to the Choda kingdom, he had given the kingdom of Vengi to his paternal uncle Vijayaditya (verse 14), who died after a reign of fifteen years (verse 15). Then he gave Vengi to his son Rajara (Verses 13 and 16) and, when the latter had returned after one year’s reign (verse 17), to Rajaraja’s younger brother Vira-Choda (verse 18), who was crowned at Jaganatha-nagari[5] (verse 20) in Saka 1001 (verse 21). As the difference between this date and Sake 944, the date of the accession of Rajaraja I. according to Mr.Fleet’s grant, is equal to the sum of the intervening reigns of Rajaraja I., Vijayaditya VI. and Rajaraja II. (41+15+1=57), it follows that Rajendra-Choda must have appointed Vijayaditya VI. viceroy of Vengi in the very year of his accession.  The present grant of Vira-Choda is dated in the 21st year of his reign i.e., Saka 1022, or 12 years before the death of this father Rajendra-Choda and before the accession of his elder brother Vikrama-Choda.

The chief importance of the Chellur plates consists in the light, which they throw on a portion of the history of the Chola dynasty.  The large Leyden grant and some of the Tamil inscriptions contained in the present volume mention three Western Chalukya kings, who were the antagonists of three Chola kings :-

1.According to the large Leyden grant, Rajaraja-deva (see Nos. 40,41 and 66, below) conquered Satyasraya.  This was probably the Western Chalukya king Satyasraya II. (Saka 919 to about 930.) Consequently, Rajaraja-deva may be identified with that Rajaraja of the Suryavamsa, whose daughter Kundava was married to the Eastern Chalukya king Vimaladitya (Saka 937 (?) to 944).  With this agrees the Kongu Chronicle, which places Rajaraja’s reign about Saka 926.

2.According to Nos 67 and 68, below, Rajendra-Chola-deva conquered Jayasimha.  This was the Western Chalukya king Jayassimha III.  (about Saka 940 to about 964), who, in one of his inscriptions, calls himself “the lion to the elephant Rajendra-Chola” (see the introduction to No.67). Consequently, Rajendra-Chola-deva must be identified with that Rajendra-Choda of the Suryavamsa, whose daughter Ammanga-devi was married to the Eastern Chalukya king Rajaraja I. (Saka 944 to 985), and who may be the same as that Rajendra-choda, whose younger sister Kundava was married to Vimaladitya (Saka 937 (?) 944). If the last identification is correct, Rajendra-Chola-deva would have been the son of Rajaraja-deva.

3.According to the fragmentary inscription No.127, below, and according to an inscriptin at Mamalapuram, Rajendra-deva conquered Ahavamalla.  This was probably the Western Chalukya king Ahavamalla II. or Somesvara I. (about Saka 964 to about 990), who, according to inscriptions and according to the Vikramankacharita, fought with the Cholas. Consequently, Rajendra-deva may be identified with that Rajendra-deva of the Suryavamasa, whose daughter Madhurantaki was married to the Eastern Chalukya king Rajendra-Choda or Kulottunga-Choda-deva I.  (Saka 985 to 1034.)  The inscriptions do not inform us, what manner Rajendra-deva was related to his predecessor Rajendra-Chola-deva.

The subjoined table will show at a glance all supposed synchronisms : -

   Western Chalukyas.                       Cholas                 Eastern Chalukyas

                                                    (Suryavamsa)                (Somavamsa)

 

1.Satyasraya II. fought with Rajendra-deva, who was the father-in-law of  Vimaladitya

      (Saka 919 to about 930.)       (about Saka 926.)          (Saka 937 (?) to 944)

|                                               |

2.Jayasimha III.fought with Rajendra-Choda-deva,who was the father-in-law of RajarajaI

(about Saka 940 to about 964)                                                (Saka 944 to 985)

                   |                                                                                                    |

3.Ahavamalla II.fought with Rajendra-deva, who was the father-in-law of Rajendra-choda or 

(about Saka 964 to about 990.)                                                Kulottunga-Choda-deva I

                                                                                                             (Saka 985 to 1034)

In order to prevent its re-occurrence, I conclude with alluding to the  in all previous pedigrees of the Cholas.  This was the confounding of the two Chola kings Rajaraja and Rajendra-Chola with their Eastern Chalukya grandsons, who seems to have received their names from these of their maternal grandfathers.  In reality the Eastern Chalukya king Rajaraja I. ruled only over Vengi.  His son Rajendra-Choda or kulottunga-Choda-deva I., though at first king of Vengi, seems to have inherited the Chola kingdom from his father-in-law, the Chola king Rajendra-deva, in Saka 985.

After the vamsavali, the subjoined inscription contains the grant itself.  It is an order, which was addressed by the paramamahesvara Vira-Choda-deva (line 79), alias Vishnu vardhana (line 78) to the inhabitants of the Guddavati-vishaya[6] (line 80). In the 21st year of his reign (line 113) the king gave a village of the above-mentioned district whose name indistinct, but seems to have been Kolaru[7] (line 103), to a temple of  Vishnu at the agrahara  of Chelluru.[8] This Vishnu temple had been founded (verse 36) by the king’s Senapati (verse 30) Medamrya (Verse 27), alias Gunaratnabhushana (verse 29), who had also constructed a pond at the same village of Chelluru (verse 34) and founded two sattras at Draksharama[9] and Pithapuri[10] (Verse 33). He was the son of Potana of the Mudgala-gotra (verse 24), who had received from Rajaraja[11] the somewhat lengthy title target="_self" of Rajaraja-brahma-maharaja (verse 25), by Kannmamba (verse 26). The edict ends with the statement, that its executors (ajnapati) were the five ministers (pancha pradhandh), and with the names of the composer and the writer.

(Verse 1.) From the lotus-flower, (which rose) from the navel of the abode of Sri, the supreme spirit, there great lord Narayana (Vishnu), THERE WAS BORN Svayambhu (Brahman), the creator of the world.  From him there sprang a spiritual son, called Atri.  From this saint Atri there arose  Soma, the founder of a race, the nectar-rayed, the crest-jewel of Srikantha (Siva). 

(Verse 2.) From this producer of nectar there sprang Budha, who was praised by the wise.  From him there was begot a valorus emperor called Pururavs.

(Line 4.) From him (came) Ayu ; from him Nahusha ; from him the emperor Yayati, the founder of a race ; from him Puru ; from him Janamejaya ; from him Prachisa ; from him Sainyayati ; from him Hayapati ; from him Saravbhauma ; from him Jayasena ; from him Mahabhauma ; from him Aisankaka ; from him Krodhana ; from him Devaki ; from him Ribhuka ; from him Rishaka ; from him Mativara, the performer of great sacrifices and lord of the Sarasvat river ; from him Katyanana ; from him Nila ; from him Dushyanta.  His son was he who, having placed sacrificial posts in an uninterrupted line on the banks of the Ganga and Yamuna, and having successively performed (came) Bhumanu ; from his Hastin ; from him Virochana ; from him Ajamilha ; from him Samvarana ; from him Sudhanvan ; from him Parikshit ; from him Bhimasena ; from him Pradipana ; from him Samtanu ; from him Vichitravirya ; from him Panduraja ; from him the Pandavas.

(Verse.3) (From) that victorious bearer of (the bow) gandiva, who, having conquered (Indra) the bearer of the thunderbolt, burnt the hermitage in the Khandva (forest), who acquired the weapon of Pasupati (Siva) in battle from (Siva) the enemy of Andhaka, who having killed kalikeya and many other Daityas, partook of one half of Indra’s throne, and who wilfully destroyed the forest-like race of the lord of the Kurus ; -

(Line 14) From that Arjuna (came) Abhimanyu ; from him Parikshit ; from his Janamejaya ; from his Kshemuka ; from him Naravahana ; from him Satanika ; from him Udayana.  When, commencing with him, fifty-nine emperors, whose succession was uninterrupted, and who sat on the throne of Ayodhya, had passed away, a king of this race, Vijayaditya by name, went to the Dekhan (Dakshinapatha), in order to conquer (it) and attacked Trilochana-Pallava, (but) through ill-luck he went to another world.  During this battle, his great queen, who was pregnant, reached together with the family-priest and the old ministers an agrahara called Mudivemu, and, being protected like a daughter by Vishnubhatta-somayahjin, a great ascetic, who dwelt there, she gave birth to a son, Vishnuvaradhana.  She brought him up, having caused to be performed for this price the rites, which were suitable to (his) descent from the double gotra of those, who belonged to the gotra  of the Manavyas and were the sons of Hariti.[12]  And he, having been told the (above-mentioned) events by his mother, went forth, worshipped Nanda, the blessed Gauri, on the Chalukya mountain, appeased Kumara (Skanda), Narayana (Vishnu) and the assemblge of (divine) mothers, assumed the insignia of sovereignty which had descended (to him) by the succession of his race, (but) which had been, as it were, laid aside, (Viz.,) the white parasol, the single conch, the five mahasabdas, the flats in rows,[13] the pratidhakka (drum), the sign of the boar, the peacock’s tail, the spear, the throne, the arch (in the shape) of a makara[14] the golden sceptre, (the sings of)  the Ganga and Yamuna, etc., conquered the Kadamba, the Ganga and other princes, and ruled over the Dekhan (Dakshnipatha), (which is situated) between the bridge (of Rama) and the (river) Narmada (and the revenue from which amounts to) seven and a half lakshas.[15]

(Verse 4)  The son of this king Vishnuvardhana and of (his) great queen, who was born from the Pallava race, was Vijayaditya.

(Line 27.) His son was Pulikesi-Vallabha.  His son was Kirtivarman.  His son,-Hail! Kubja-Vishnuvardhana, the borther of Satyasraya-Vallabhendra, who adorned the race of the glorious Chalukyas, etc.,[16] ruled for eighteen years over t he country of Vengi ; his son Jaysimhap-Vallabha for thirty-three (years) ; his younger brother Indra-raja for seven days ; his son Vishnuvardhana for nine years ; his son Mangi-yuvaraja for twenty-five (years) ; his son Jayasimha for thirteen (years) ; his younger brother Kikkili for six months l his elder brother Vishnuvardhana, having expelled him, for thirty-seven (years) ; his son Vijyaditya-bhattaraka for eighteen (years) ; his son Vishnuvardhana for thirty-six (years). ; his son Narendra-mrigaraja for forty-eight (years). ; his son Kali-Vaishnuvaradhana for one and a half years ; his son Gunaganka-Vijayaditya for forty-four (years).  Chalukya-Bhima, the son of his brother Vikramaditya, for thirty (years). His son Kollabhiganda-Vijayaditya for six months ; his son Amma-raja for seven years ; having expelled his infant son Vijayaditya, Tadapa (ruled) for one month ; having conquered him, Vikramaditya, the son of Chalukya-Bhima, (ruled) for eleven months ; then Yuddhamalla, the son of Tadapa-raja for seven years ; having expelled him from the country, Raja-Bhima, the younger brother of Amma-raja, (ruled) for twelve years ; his son Amma-raja for twenty-five (years) ; Dana-nripa, his brother from a different mother, for three years.  Then the country of Vengi was through ill-luck without a ruler for twenty-seven years.  Then king Saktivarman, the son Danarnava, ruled over the earth for twelve years.

(Verse 5.) Then his younger brother, king Vimaladitya, who was kind to (al;) beings, ruled over the earth for seven years. 

(Line 46.) His son, king Rajaraja, who possessed political wisdom, and who was the abode of the goddess of victory, ruled over the whole earth for forty-one years.

(Verse 6.) He whose fame was brilliant, who was the only jewel which adorned the glorious race of the moon, and who was the only jewel which fulfilled the desires of the distressed, surpassed Cupid by his beauty, the moon by his pure sploendour, Puramdara (Indra) by his possessions, (Vishnu) the bearer of Lakshmi by his great prosperity, and Bhima by his terrible power.

(Verse 7.) He had a spotless queen , Ammanga by name, who was famed on earth by her good deeds, who was the only abode of lucky marks, who purified the world, and who sprang from Rajendra-Choda, the ornament of the race of the sun, just as Ganga fro Jahnu, Gauri from Himavat and Lakshmi from the milk-ocean.

(Verse 8.) Just as (Siva) the bearer of Ganga and (Parvathi) the daughter of the mountain had a son called Karttikeya, those two had a son called Rajendra-Choda, who annihilated the multitude of his enemies by his irresistible power, whose fame was worthy of praise, and who was the light of the warrior-caste[17]

(Verse 9.) Having at first occupied the throne of Vengi, (which became) the cause  rising of (his) splendour, just as the sun at morn occupies the eastern mountain, he conquered (all) quarters with his power.

(Verse 10.) Having burnt all foes with the rising and fierce fire of his valour, and having successively conquered Kerala, Pandya, Kuntala and all other countries, he placed his commands on the heads of princes, the paid of fear in the hears of fools and his fame, which was as white as the rays of the moon, in (all) quarters.

(Verse 11.) Kulottunga-deva, the most eminent of the great warrior-case, whose might resembles that of the king of the gods (Indra), was anointed to the Choda kingdom, which was not inferior to the kingdom of the gods, and put on the tiara, embellished with invaluable gems of many kinds, which had been sent by various kings, who were exceedingly afraid of the threatening of his threatening of his arms, which were as formidable as the terrible coils of the serpent-king.

(Verse 12.) He in whose hands the conch, the discus and the lotus were shining, and whom (therefore) the world praised as Rajanarayana (i.e., u Vishnu amount kings), married (as it were) Lakshmi (the wife of Vishnu) herself, who was known by her othr name, viz., Madhurantaki, and who (just as the godless Lakshmi) from the ocean, arose from Rajendra-deva, the ornament of the race of the sun, a queen who was praised in the world and exalted by her deeds.

(Verse 13.) To these two there were born (seven) sons, who ere as pure as the (seven) streams of the Ganga, who, like the (seven) Adityas, had destroyed the darkness (of sin), and who, like the (seven) mountains, were able (to undergo) the fatigue of supporting the earth. To (one)  among these, the illustrious Rajaraja, who was the joint abode of polity and valour, (his) father, the lord of the whole earth, affectionately addressed the following speech : -

(Verse 14.) “Being desirous of the Choda kingodm, I formerly conferred the kingdom of the country of Vengi on my paternal uncle, king Vijayaditya.

(Verse 15.) “Having ruled over the country for fifteen years, this god-like prince, who resembled the five –faced (Siva) in power, has gone to heaven.”

(Verse 16.) This obedient one (viz., Rajaraja) took up that burden, (viz., the kingdom of  Vengi) which the emperor, (his) father, gave him with these words, though he did not like the separation from him.

(Verse 17.) “The kingdom is not such a pleasure as the worship of the illustrious feet of the elders” ; considering thus, he returned to his parents, after having ruled over the country of Vengi for one year.

(Verse 18.) Then emperor spoke to his (Viz.,Rajaraja’s) younger brother, the brave prince Vira-Choda, who seemed to be an incarnation of the quality (of) valour : “Having ascended the throne of Vengi, place thy feet on the heads of (other) kings, just as the sun, having ascended the eastern mountain, places his rays on the peaks of (other) mountains.”

(Verse 19.) Thus having successively obtained the powerful blessing of the king, of the queen and of his two elder brothers, having bowed to by his younger brothers,[18] the prince was with difficulty prevailed upon by them to start for his country.

(Verse 20.) Having driven away his enemies, having eclipsed with his splendour the other crowds of kings, having stopped the wicked and having made the earth  rejoice, the lord , the ornament of the country of Vengi, the king’s son ascended (he) palace in the town called Jaganatha, resembling the disk of the morning-sun, who, having driven away the darkness, having eclipsed with his splendour of the other crowds of stars,[19] having stopped the wicked, and having made the lotus-group blossom, ascends the eastern mountain.

(Verse 21.) In the Saka year, which is reckoned by the moon, the paid of ciphers and the moon, (i.e.,1001) while the sun stood in the lion, while the moon was waxing, on the thirteenth lunar day, on a Thursday, while the scorpion was the lagna and in (the nakshatra) Sravana, having been anointed to the kingdom of the whole earth, the sinless king, the illustrious Vira-Choda, joyfully put on the tiara of the world.

(Line 78.) This asylum of the whole world, the illustrious Vishnuvardhana, the king of great kings, the supreme master of kings, the devout worshipper of Mahesvara, the supreme lord, the most pious one, the illustrious Vira-Choda-deva, having called together all householders, (viz.) heads of provinces, &c., who inhabit the district of Guddavati, thus issues his commands in the presence of the ministers, the family priest, the commander of the army, the heir-apparent and the door-keeper :-

(Verse 22.) Just as the moon in the milk-ocean, there was in the pure race of Brahman a chief of ascetics, called Mudgala, whose appearance was extremely gladdening.

(Verse 23.) When he, whose power was incomprehensible, had invited the sun, his staff performed the action of the sun at his command.

(Verse 24.) In his gotra  there was a certain Potana, whose deeds were pure, who made his gotra prosper and who illuminated the quarters with the splendour of his fame. 

(Verse 25.) This virtuous one was joyfully praised by the lord Rajaraja, who knew (how to appreciate) virtues, by the name of Rajaraja-brahma-maharaja (i.e., the great king of the brahmanas of Rajaraja).

(Verse 26.) Just as the wife of Atri was Anasuya, the wife of his treasure-house of merit was Kannamamba, who was praised in the world, and who was exalted by the virtue of freedom from envy (anasuya).

(Verse 27.) Just as Devaki bore from Vasudeva a son called vasudeva (Krishna), and just as the mountain-daughter (Parvati) bore from the moon-crested (Siva)  a son called Guha, thus she bore from him a son called Medmarya, who was a treasure-house of prosperity, and who was praised by all the assemblies of wise men (or gods).

(Verse 28.) After he was born, prosperity dwelt on all the crowds of his relatives, just as on the groups of lotus-flowers at the rising of the sun ; for (like the sun) he purified the quarters with his unrestrained splendour, was daily in the state of rising and was possessed of a blossoming lotus (-face).

(Verse 29.) Having conquered the Kali-age which is skilled in plundering heaps of virtues,- all virtues, (viz.) truthfulness, liberality, prowess, &c., prosper, abiding jointly in him, who is king to refugees, who is alone constant in a conduct (which is worthy)of the kirta-age, and who is famed by the name of Gunaratnabhushana (i.e.,he who is adorned with jewel-like virtues).

(Verse 30.) Because he was firm, always attached, of strong and sharp mind, a light of the race of Brahman, an abode of prosperity, possessed of blazing splendour, a treasure-house of polity and modesty, skilled in sciences and weapons, worthy of honour and as hard as the substance of the king of mountains, he was respectfully and graciously anointed by me to the dignity of a commander of the army (senapati) and wears the tiara which was placed (on his head) to the delight of the people.

(Verse 31.) He delights his elders by obedience, the world by his conduct, his relations by respect, the good by the riches which they desire, myself by is patience in bearing my kingdom of the whole earth and Sauri (Vishnu) by great devotion.

(Verse 32.) Ah ! the auspicious streams of water, which drop from the feet of innumerable crowds of earth-gods (i.e. brahmanas),who daily perform their ablution in his court-yards, and which continually fill thousands of paths, surpass the streams of the

Ganga, which drop from the feet of one of the gods (viz., Vishnu), and which are tired of their three paths (viz.,      heaven, earth and the lower world).

(Verse 33.) At holy Draksharma and at the sacred place of Pithapuri, this charitable one joyfully funded two sattras  for brahmanas, in order that they might daily enjoy their meals (there) till the end of the Kulpa.

(Verse 34.) On the north side of a lovely agrahara of good people, which is famed by the name of Chelluru, he whose mind is full of compassion caused to be constructed a large pond which is filled with sweet water.

(Verse 35.) By its water, which glitters like the moon, and which is daily enjoyed by numberless brahmanas who resemble Agastya. This (pond) repeatedly laughs, as it were, at the ocean, which was completely drunk up by the pitcher-born (Agastya).

(Verse 36.) On the west side of that village, this powerful, mighty and charitable chief of the Vaishnavas caused to be built a temple of Vishnu.

(Verse 37.) In this lofty (temple), which is as white as the rays of the moon, which is the abode of splendour (or Lakshmi) and which pleases the eye, the god himself, who is the husband of Lakshmi, made his appearance, his conch and discus being distinctly visible.

(Line 102.) “Be it known to you, that to this blessed lord Vishnu (I) gave for the daily (performance of) charu, bali and for the repairs of gaps and cracks [the village called Kolaru] in your district [with exemption from all taxes, making it the property of the temple, with a libation of water.]”

(Line 104.) [The boundaries of this village are : - on the east…]

(Line 109.) Nobody shall obstruction to this (grant).  He who does it, becomes possessed of t he five great sins.  And the holy Vyasa has said : [Here follow three of the customary impreactory verses.]

(Line 113.) The executors (ajnapti) of this edict (sasana), which was given in t he twenty-first year of the glorious and victorious reign, (were) the five ministers (pancha pradhanth). The author of the poetry (was) Viddaya-bhatta.  To writer (was) Pennachari.


[1] Indian Antiquary, Vol. XIV, p.49. Compare line 24 of the present grant.

[2] Coins of Southern India, pp.88 and 150 ; Indian Antiquary, Vol. XIV, p.203.

[3] Ind. Ant. Vol. VII, p. 246 ; Kanarese Dynasties, p.19 ; Ind.Ant Vol. XIV, p.49.

[4] Ind. Ant. Vol.XIV, pp. 48 and 55.

[5] Jaganatha is Prakrit form of Jagannatha.  Jagannatha-nagari may be identified with Jagannathapuram, which is according to Mr.R. Sewell, “the portion of the town of Cocanada lying south of the river.” See Lists of Antiquities, Vol. I, p.24.

[6] This is the same as Guddavadi-vishya, Int.Ant Vol. XIV, p.53. Perhaps both are identical with the Gudravara-, Gudravara-, Gudrahara-vishaya (see page 47, note 1) and connected with the modern Gudivada, the head-quarters of a talluqa of the Kistna District.

[7] Sir W. Elliot read in Kolaru. The of the village may have something to do with the Kolar or Kolleru Lake (Ind.Ant. Vol. XIV, p. 204 ; Sewell’s Lists of Antiquities, Vol. I, p. 52) in the Gudivada Talluqa.

[8] This is the modern village of Chellur, whence Sir W. Elliot obtained the plates.

[9] “This is one of the most sacred places in the (Godavari) District, with a large and important temple dedicated to Bhimesvara ;”  Sewell’s Lists of Antiquities, Vol. I, p.25.

[10] This is probably the modern Pittapuram, the residence of the Raja of this name in the Godavari District.

[11] By this, Rajaraja I., the son of Vimaladiya, seem to be meant.

[12] The Chalukyas claim descent from both the Manavya and Harita gotras.

[13] On Paliketana see Ind. Ant. Vol. XIV.,p.104

[14] Makara-torana ‘an honorary wreath or string of flowers, &c., raised upon poles and carried in front of one, as an emblem of distinction’ ; Sanderson’s Canarese Dictionary.

[15] The above passage has been previously translated by Mr. Fleet, Ind. Ant. Vol. VII, p,245.

[16] The passage, which is omitted in the translation, is identical with the first 4 lines of No.35.

[17] With rajahulapradipa compare paradhyo mahati nripakule in verse 11.

[18] The plural in the original shows that Vira-Choda had at least three younger brothers ; according to verse 13, their number was four.

[19] This seems to be second meaning of rajankaran apadn

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