The Indian Analyst

South Indian Inscriptions





Text of the Inscriptions

Part I    -Sanskrit Inscription

Part II  -Tamil & Grantha Ins.

Part III -Notes & Fragments

Part IV  -Addenda

Other Inscriptions

Tamil Inscriptions

Misc. Ins. from Tamil Country

Chola Inscriptions

Kannada Inscriptions

Telugu Ins. from Andhra Pradesh

Pallava Inscriptions

Pandya Inscriptions

Ins. of Vijayanagara Dynasty

Ins. during 1903-1904

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27





Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India




Round the shrine of Rajasimhesvara


(Verse 1). May (Ganga)  purify you ! – she who springs from the jewel (on the head) of Sthanu (Siva), appearing. . . . . black by the splendour of  (his) neck and red by the rays of the gems on the hoods (of his snkes), who fills the lake of the three worlds…..

(2.)…..After him (there was) that sage Angiras, who was born from his (viz., Brahman’s) mind.  His son was (Brihaspati) the minister of Sakra (Indra) and preceptor of the gods. His son was Samyu.  From him, who possessed terrible power and was honoured in the three worlds, there took birth that illustrious chief of sages, Bharadvaja by name, who became the source of the race of the Pallavas.

(3.) From this lovely one came Drona, the highly honoured preceptor of the Pandavas (and) Kurus ; from him the great Asvatthaman, who deprived princes of their constancy and pride.  Just as the first-born Manu, his son, Pallava by name, became the founder of a race of brave and victorious kings, who enjoyed the whole earth :-

(4.) Of the Pallava princes, who were pious, who destroyed the excessively great pride of the Kali (age), who spoke the truth, who were profound, whose minds knew how to practice the trivarga, who assiduously honoured the aged, who forcibly subdued lust and the other internal foes, who excelled in the knowledge of weapons, who were firm, mighty and endowed with polity and modesty.

(5.) Just as Guha (also called Subrahmanya or Kumara) took birth from the  supreme lord (Siva), the destroyer of the warlike (demon) Pura, thus from the supreme lord Ugradanda, [1] who was born in the race of these (viz., the Pallavas) the destroyer of the city of Ranarasika, there took birth a very pious prince (Subrahmanyah Kumarah), the illustrious Atyantakama,[2] the chief of the Pallavas, who crushed the multitude of his foes by his power (or spear), whose great statesmanship was well-known[3] and who had got rid of all impurity (by walking) on the path of the Saiva doctrine.

(6.) Like Manmatha (Kama), he charmed refined women in secret ; like Vasava (Indra), he constantly protected those, who frequented the path of the three Vedas ; like Madhva (Vishnu), he tore the hearts of the enemies of sages, twice-born and gods ; and like Vittada (kuvera), he gratified good people with abundant wealth. 

(7.) If in the Krita (age) kings like Dushyanta, who saw the gods and were engaged by (Saints)  like Kanva, would hear a heavenly voice without body, that is not a matter of wonder ; but ah ! this is extremely astonishing, that Sribhara[4] has heard that voice in the Kali  age, from which good qualities keep aloof.

(8.) May Ranajaya [5] be victorious for a long time, who humbled those princes, who were puffed up with the pride of abundant prosperity, which they had acquired by polity and prowess, depriving them of their intelligence in the mere space of knitting his brows, and who, like Purushottama (Vishnu) , was born to recue from the ocean of sin the sinking people, who were swallowed by the horrid monster, (called) the Kali age !

(9.) While this prince enjoyed the whole world, which he had conquered by valour combined with polity, and in which he had killed rebels and humbled kings, he erected this extensive and wonderful house of Hara (siva), which resembles his fame and the laughter of  Hara.[6]

(10.) May Samkara (Siva,) whose terrible ornaments are the coils of the kind of serpents, and who is praised by the hosts of the kings of gods and of demons, reside for a long  time in this temple, (Called) the holy Rajasimha-Pallavesvara !

(11.) May the bull-marked (Siva) always lend his presence to this temple of stone, called Rajasimhesvara, which touches the clouds with its top, which robs Kailasa of its beauty, and which was built by that pious king of  Kings, who made  all quarters obedient to his orders and (who proved)  a royal lion (Rajasimha) to the dense troops of the elephants of his daring foes !

(12.) May Rajasimha, the conqueror in battle (Ranajaya), the bearer of prosperity (Sribhara), the wonderful archer (Chitrakarmukha),[7] the unrivalled hero (Ekavira), who has Siva for his crest-jewel (Sivachudamam),[8]  for a long time protect the earth !


(Niche 1.) The illustrious Rajasimha.  He whose desires are boundless. The conqueror in battle. The lovely.

(2.) The unconquered.  The wrestler with his foes. The fearless.  The mighty.

(3.) He who is eager for conquest.  The excessively fierce in battle.  The bearer of prosperity.  The great statesman.  (He who resembles)  the sun in rising.

(4.) The cloud (which showers) wealth.  The granter of safety.  The ornament of his race.  The destroyer of his enemies.

(5.) He whose power is rising.  He whose fame is rising.  He who boasts of the bull (as his sign). He whose sign is the bull.

(6.) He whose possesses terrible prowess.  He who is rising ever and ever.  The exalter and lovely.  He who is endowed with terrible bravery.

(7.) The extremely noble.  He who is to be conquered  (only) by submissiveness.  The lion in battle.

(8.) The spotless.  The great jewel of Kanchi.  He who possesses harsh valour.[9] The emperor.

(9.) He who is compassionate to the distressed.  He whose companion is the bow.  He whose doubts are solved.  The guileless.

(10.) The thunderbolt to his foes.  The unrivalled wrestler.  He whose deeds are wonderful.  He who possesses the knowledge of elephants.

(11.) The fulfiller of wishes. He whose refuge is Isana (Siva).  (He who resembles) the moon in rising. He who resembles the cloud (in showering gifts).

(12.) The destroyer of hostile empires.  The crest-jewel of princes.  He who is continually showering (gifts.) The king of kings.

(13.) He who possesses the knowledge of musical instruments.  The wonderful archer.  The lion among heroes.  He who is desirous of prosperity. 

(14.) The altogether auspicious.  The crest-jewel of warriors.  He who is sporting with the goddess of prosperity. (He who resembles) Arjuna in battle.[10]

(15.) The favourite of the goddess of prosperity.  (He who resembles) Rama in war[11].  The ruler of the whole earth.  The dispeller of warriors.

(16.) He who is fearful in battle.  He who possesses unbounded power.  The lord of the three worlds.  He who showers gifts. 

(17.) The fulfiller of desires.  He who is compassionate to the poor.  He whose gifts never cease.  He who is endowed with brilliant courage.

(18.) He who goes to war (only in order to procure the means) for gifts.  The constantly just.  He whose heart is pure.  He whose (only) armour is justice.

(19.) The conqueror of wealth in battle.  He whose bow excites terror.  The invincible.  He who is modest (is spite of his) virtues.  The sun of the earth.  The spotless.  The ocean of arts.  He who is firm in battle.  He who goes to anger (only) at the proper time.[12] The subduer of the wicked.  The sun of the Pallavas.

(20.) The omnipotent.  The benevolent.  The constantly active.  The lion among men.

(21.) He whose fame is pure.  He who resembles Parta (Arjuna) in valour.  The terrible and lovely.  He who is liberal (at sacrifices).

(22.) The fearless. The great wrestler.  The  madly excited.  The madly passionate.

(23.) The possessor of the world.  He who resembles Mahendra in heroism.  The powerful.  He who resembles Manu by his deeds.

(24.) The diplomatic.,  The favourite of Sripati (Vishnu). The hero in battle.  The sun of at the end of the world.

(25.) He who is firm in battle .  The jewel of protection.  The fierce in battle. (He who shows)  valour in battle.

(26.) He whose strength is unequalled.  The destroyer of his enemies.  He whose valour is unbounded.  He who is fond of hoses.

(27.) The matchless. He whose commands re unbroken.  The sudden thunderbolt. [13]  He whose valour never fails.

(28.) He to whom the provinces bow.  The unopposed.  He whose power is wonderful.  He who like (to issue) orders.  The wonderfully brave.

(29.) The irresistible in attacking.  The conqueror of (all) quarters.  He who is unrestrained in battle.  (He who resembles)  the king of Vatsa (in the knowledge of ) elephants.[14]

(30.) He whose commands are blazing.  The supreme lord of the earth.  He whose punishments are terrible. The highly proud.

(31.) The highly brave.  The highly rising.  He who rises higher and higher.  He whose commands are terrible.

(32.) The abode of virtues. (He who resembles) spring in rising.  He whose beauty is unrivalled.  The majestic.

(33.) He who resembles Upendra (Vishnu) in valour.  The fulfiller of hopes.  The ornament of his race.  He who is exalted by virtues.

(34.) He whose desires are lofty.  The destroyer of rebels.  The unrivalled archer.  The famous.

(35.) The religious. The refuge of the distressed.  He who is kind to refugees.  The destroyer of plagues.

(36.) (He who resembles) Tumburu (in the knowledge of) musical instruments.  He whose authority is the (Saiva) doctrine.[15]  He who is adorned with (the power of issuing) orders.  He who is fond of  legends.

(37.) The daring. The unimpeded.  The follower of the (Saiva) doctrine.  The restless.  The highly rising.  The subduer  of rebels.  The unrivalled king.  He who resembles Death in valour.  The receptacle of victory.  The black-robed. The subduer of the haughty. 

(38.) The naturally profound. He whose eyes are his spies.  He whose goad is knowledge.  The refuge of the distressed.

(39.) The subduer of villains.  He who showers gifts. The devotee of Devadeva (Siva). He whose speed is unrestrainable.

 (40.) The graceful.  The highly brave.  He whose anger is fierce.  He who is making conquests (Only for the sake of ) justice.

(41.) The wood-fire.  The bestower of prosperity on his country.  The sinless. The barrier of justice.

(42.) The far-seeing.  He whose commands are proud.  The follower of polity.  He who pleases the eyes.

(43.) He whose deeds are blameless.  He whose profundity is unfathomable.  He who showers (gifts) without clouds.  He who possesses no small prowess.

(44.) He who is afraid (only) of injustice.  The destruction of his enemies.  The possessor of the earth.  The irresistible.

(45.) He whose anger is not fruitless. The destroyer of his foes.  He whose power is unresisted. The unreproached.

(46.) The death of his enemies.  The unimpeded. The daring. The gentle-minded. 

(47.) The ocean of safety. He whose good qualities are well-known. The constantly active. He who is skilled in expedients.

(48.) The scent-elephant.  He who possesses the grace of Cupid.  The reviver of poetry.  He who goes to anger (only) with good reason.

(49.) He whose punishments are fierce.  He whose anger is unbearable.  The shading tree. The ornament of the earth.

(50.) The noose of Varuna.  The ocean of firmness. The emperor.  He who is fond of elephants.

(51.) He who has no enemies (left). The unbarred. He who distresses his enemies.  The crest-jewel of the world.

(52.) The lion among princes.  The destroyer of armies.  The liberal.  The formidable.

(53.) He whose valour is terrible.[16] The elephant amount kings.  He whose grace is pleasant.  He whose  eyes are the sciences. 

(54.) (He who resembles) Bhagadatta (in the knowledge of)  elephants.[17] He whose grace is extraordinary.  (He who resembles) the lion in valour.  (He who resembles) Narada (in the playing of) the lute.

(55.) The devotee of Samkara (Siva).  The foremost among heroes.  He who knows the truth.  The devotee of Isvara (Siva).


(Niche 14.) He whose arrows never fail.  He whose arrows are unbearable.

(15.) He whose arrows are terrible.  He whose arrows are (ever) raised.

(16.) He whose bow is terrible.

(17.) The never perplexed.

(18.) He who showers (i.e.amply fulfils) desires.  He who resembles Indra in grace.

(19.) The destroyer of his enemies.  The destroyer in battle.

(20.) The irresistible.


(Verse 1.) May the motionless, the lord, the first of gods for ever joyfully dwell in this matchless (temple of)  Mahendrasvara, which was constructed near (the temple of) Rajasimhesvara by Mahendra, who sprang . . . . . (from) the chief of the princes of the holy Bharadvaha-gotra, from that Ujita,[19] whose bravery frightened the elephants of rival kings !

(2.) May the skin-robed together with the troops of his attendants. The Guhas, be present at this dwelling, (Called) the holy Mahendresvara, which was constructed (near) the temple of the holy Rajasimhesvara by the illustrious Mahendra, the son of king Rajasimha, who sprand from t hat Lokaditya (i.e., the sun of the world), whose valour dried up the army of Ranarasika, just as the heat of the sun does the mud !

(3.) May Isa together with Uma graciously take for his permanent dwelling this temple or Mahendresvara, which was erected near Rajasimhesvara by Mahendra, the son of king Rajasimha, the lion among the heroes of the earth, who produced another Krita age by his sinless conduct !

(4.) May Mahesvara, the refuge of all gods demons, who puts an end to time and has made an end of (the demon) Pura, always (take up) his residence . . . . .

The temple of Mahendravarmesvara


Adoration to Siva !

(Verse 1.) She, who was the dearly beloved mistress of her husband, the supreme lord, who was famed by the name of Kalakala, whose sign was the bull[20], and the strength of whose bow had become manifest at the destruction of cities, just as the daughter of the king of mountains (Parvathi) is the dearly beloved mistress of her husband, the supreme lord (Siva), whose sign is the bull, and the strength of whose bow has become manifest at the destruction of (the demon) the Pura ; -

(2.) She, who is resplendent, as she has attained the mighty position of favourite with king Narasimhavishnu, who has split the hearts of his foes, and who has devoted himself to the protection of the circle of the world, and as thus she seems to have subdued the pride of Pushkaradevata (i.e. Lakshmi, the wife of the god  Narasimha – Vishnu) ; -

(3.) That Rangapataka, who was, as it were, the banner (pataka) of women, caused to be built this lovely dwelling of (Siva,) whose crest-jewel is the moon.



Prosperity !

(Verse 1.) She, who, full of loveliness, softness, grace and cleanliness seemed to be the master-piece of the first creator, whose skill had attained perfection at last, after he had created thousands of good-looking women ; -

(2.) She, who was charming through genuine sweetness, who was adorned with grace, coquetry and feeling, who, like the art of attraction, . . . . .


A facsimile of this inscription was kindly forwarded to me by Mr. Raghavendracharya of Vanur.  It consists of one Sanskrit verse, which is identical with the last verse of  Rajasimha’s large inscription at Kanchi (No.24, above). Hence it may be concluded, that the Panamalai Cave was founded by Rajasimha and that in his time the Pallava ruled as far south as Panamalai.


The subjoined Sanskrit inscription is engraved on three sides of an octagonal pillar,[23] which was excavated at Amaravati by Mr. R. Sewell and sent by dr. Burgess to the Madras Museum.  The top of the pillar and some letters of the uppermost lines of the inscription have broken off.  The inscription has hitherto remained a puzzle, as each line seems to end incomplete.  Finding, that the first words of some lines were connected with the last words of the following lines, I was led to suppose that the inscription must begin from the bottom and not from the top.  Curiously enough, this is really the case.  If the inscription is read upwards, we find that it consists of eleven complete verses and of a prose, passage, the end of which is lost through the mutilation of the pillar at the top.

The inscription opens with an invocation of Buddha and with a mythical genealogy of Pallava, the supposed founder of  the Pallava dynasty.









Asvatthama, married to the Apsaras Madani



Verse 8 gives a popular etymology of the name Pallava.  Then there follow the names of seven Pallava kings : -

1.Mahendravarman, Son of Pallava.

2.Simhavarman I., Son of 1.

3.Arkavarman, Son of 2.


6.Nandivarman, Son of 5, Sri-Simhavishnu.

7.Simhavarman II.

The inscription contains no information about the relationship, which existed between 3 and 4, 4 and 5, 6 and 7. Neither does the genealogy agree with the lists derived by Mr. Foulkes[24] and Mr. Fleet [25] from other Pallava inscriptions, although similar names of kings occur in them.  For these reasons great care should be taken in using the above list for historical purpose.

From the incomplete prose passage at the end of the inscription, we learn that, on his return from an expedition to the north, Simhavarman II. Came to a place sacred to lost part of the pillar must have recorded a donation, which the king made to Buddha.

Dhanyaghata or Dhanyagataka is evidently identical with Dhanyakata or Dhanyakataka, “corn-town” the well-known old name of Amaravati.  The use of gha instead of ka can perhaps be explained by the Tamil habit of softening a single consonant between two words.’


(Verse 1.) May the dust of the glorious,[26] feet of Bhavadvish,[27]  which thickly covers[28] the multitude of brilliant crest-jewels of the lords of gods and of demons, for a long time show you (the way to) supreme glory !

(2.) From the first creator (Brahman) there sprang a pure sage, called Bharadvaja, who mastered the srutis ; from him ocean (uniting) the rivers of speech, Angiras by name ; from his the renowned sage Sudhaman ;

(3.) From him a sage called Drona, who thoroughly knew all agamas  and who possessed terrible might.  In order to obtain a son who would found a race, he strove to please the eight-formed (Siva) by austerities.

(4.) By the favour of Sambhu, there arose to him a brilliant (son), famed by the name of Asvatthaman, just as at morn the brilliant sun rises over the eastern mountain.

(5.) Once, surrounded by (other) celestial maidens, the famous nymph Madani, who wished to see the abode of the hermits, entered the path of sight of that ascetic.

(6.) The saint approached her, while, seated amongst a group of asoka-trees, she was wistfully regarding the male swans, which were afraid of being separated from their beloved ones, whenever they lost sight of them behind a lotus of the lake, which was agitated by the wind.

(7.) Perceiving him who resembled Cupid in the dress of a saint, she lost her self-control, just as Uma on seeing Sarva.  Then the nymphs united the couple, which had conceived a deep affection (towards each other)

(8.) In due time, the nymph gave birth to a protector of the earth, which is girt by the ocean.  The father called his son Pallava, as he was lying  on a couch (covered) with a heap of sprouts (pallava).

(9.) From him came the ruler of the earth Mahendravarman ; from him the valiant Simhavarman ; from him Arkavarman ; after him Ugravarman ; then Nandivarman from Sri-Simhavishnu.

(10.) There arose that Simhavarman, in whose audience-hall darkness is transformed into dawn by the splendour of the jewels on the heads of many princes, and whom people call (the lord) of eighteen lakshas of horses and elephants.

(11.) This hero for along time protected the earth, whose garment in the ocean, whose pearl-necklace is the Ganga, and whose earnings are Meru and Mandara.

(Line 28.) Once,  while his back, his flanks and his front were guarded by all his brave vassals and tributaries (mandalika-samanta), he marched to the peak of Sumeru, in order to place (there) the fame, which he had acquired by conquering all quarters.[29]  His elephants, which resembled the peaks of the mountain of the gods (Meru), tore with claws (!) of their feet the gold,[30] and his horse, walking on those pieces (of gold), made the sky appear like a canopy by the gold-dust rising under their hoofs.  There, in order to remove the fatigue caused by wandering over the whole world, he passed a few days, enjoying the shade of the (Ganga), the Godavari and the Krishnaverna ,[31] he perceived (a place sacred to) the lord Vitaraga (Buddha), named the illustrious town of Dhanyaghata.  Having regarded it with curiosity, and having humbly aproached and saluted the tutelar deities, which were charged with the protection of the whole sacred place (kshetra), he listened to a discourse on the law[32] . . . in a secluded spot.  Having heard it, saluted the highest-born[33] . . . and spoke thus : “I also, O lord ! (shall erect a statue?) of the lord at this very place, ornamented with jewels, gold, and silver.”  After he had thus spoken, the lord said : “Well, well, lay-worshipper Simhavarman ! Here [ at ] the place sacred to the highest Buddha…” Then having saluted . . . in Dhanyaghataka. . .


The subjoined inscriptions are engraved on two pillars in a rock-cut cave not far from the summit of the well-known rock at Trisirapalli (Trichiropoly).  They are both somewhat worn.  The left pillar was found covered by a modern wall, which the temple-authorities temporarily removed at the request of the collector, W. A. Willock, C.S.  On each of the two pillars are four Sanskrit verses.  Besides, the lower part of the left pillar bears a few unintelligible Sanskrit words and a much defaced inscription in old Tamil characters.

The two inscriptions record, that a king Gunabhara, who bore the birudas Purushotama, Satrumalla and Satyasamdha, constructed a temple of Siva on the top of the mountain and placed in it a linga and a statue of himself.  Each of the two pillars mentions the river Kaveri, i.e., the Kaveri, on whose banks Trisirapalli is situated, and referes to the Chola country.  On the left pillar the Kaviri is called ‘the beloved of Pallava’ ; this means in prose that a Pallava king ruled over the country along the banks of the Kaveri river.  This allusion and the fact, that t he characters of the two pillar inscriptions remind us of those of the Pallava inscriptions at Mamallapuram and Kanchipuram, make it very probable that Gunabhara was a Pallava prince, who rulld the Chola country.


(Verse 1.) Being afraid, that the god who is fond of rivers (Siva), having perceived the Kaviri, whose waters please the eye, who wears a garland of gardens, and who possesses lovely qualities, might fall in love (with her), the daughter of the mountain (Parvati) has, I think, left her father’s family and resides permanently on this mountain, calling this river the beloved of the Pallava (king).[35]

(2.) While the king called Gunabhara is a worshipper of the linga, let the knowledge, which has turned back from hostile (vipaksha) conduct, be spread for a long time in the world by this linga ![36]

(3.) This mountain resembles the diadem of the Chola province, this temple of Hara (Siva) its chief jewel, and the splendour of Samkara (Siva)  its splendour.

(4.) By the stone-chisel a material body of Satyasamdha was executed,[37] and by the same an eternal body of his fame was produced. 


(Verse 1.) When king Gunabhara placed a stone-figure in the wonderful stone-temple on the top of the best of mountains, he made in this way[38]  Sthanu (Siva) stationary[39] and became himself stationary (i.e.immortal) in the worlds together with him.

(2.) King Satrumalla built on this mountain a temple of Girisha (Siva), the husband of the daughter of the king of mountains, in order to make he name Girisha (i.e. the mountain dweller) true to its meaning.

(3.) After Hara (Siva) had graciously asked him : “How could I, standing in a temple on earth, view the great power of the Cholas or the river Kaviri ?” – king Gunabhara, who resembled  Manu in his manner of rulling, assigned to him this mountain-temple, which touches the clouds.

(4.) Thus having joyfully placed on the top (of the mountain) a matchless stone-figure of Hara (Siva), which he caused to be executed, that Purushottama, who bore Siva fixed in his mind, made the loftiness of the mountain fruitful.

[1] This was also a birduda of Rajasimha himself : see No. 25, 30th niche.

[2] The Same biruda of Rajasimha occurs in No.25, 1st niche.

[3] On who was famed (by the name of)  Bhahunaya, which is found in No.25, 3rd niche.

[4] On this biruda of Rajasimha see note 5, below.

[5] See note 5, below.

[6] I.e., which is of white colour. 

[7] The birudas Ranajaya, Sribhara and Chitrakarmukha occur also in No.25, Ist, 3rd and 13th niches.

[8] I.e.,who is a devotee of (Siva) ; compare page 5, note 10.

[9] Or  ‘he who possesses the valour of (the demon) Khara.’ 

[10] Compare Parthavikrama in niche 21.

[11] Compare Yuddharjuna in niche 14.

[12] Or ‘he who resembles Death in his anger’. This biruda is found only in the inscription of third tier.

[13] Compare Amitrasani in niche 10.

[14] Compare Ibhavidyadhara and Nagapriya in niche 10 and 59.

[15] Compare Saivasiddanthamega kshatasaklamalah in No.24, verse 5.

[16] Or ‘he who resembles Bhima in Valour.’

[17] Compare Ibhavatsaraj in niche 29.

[18] The translation comprises only those birudas which are not found in the first tier.  The following is a list of those taken from the first tier.  4th tier, niche 2, see 1st tier,  niche 1 and 2 ; 4, 3 see 1, 19 and 2 ; 4, 4 see 1, 19 and 2 ; 4, 5 see 1, 5 ; 4 , 6 see 1, 19 ; 4, 7 see 1, 6 ; 4, 8 see 1, 7 ; 4, 9 see 1, 6 ; 4, 10 see 1, 19 and 7 ; 4, 11 see 1, 19, note ; 4, 12 see 1, 8 and 9 ; 4, 13 see 1, 8 and 9 ; 4, 16 see 1, 19 ; 4, 17 see 1, 10 ; 4, 20 see 1, 19.

[19] This biruda of  Rajasimha occurs also in No.25, niche 2.

[20] With Vrishadhvaja compare the biruda Rishabhadarpa in No.25, 5th niche.  The bull is also represented on the Pallava coins (see Sir Walter Elliot’s coins of Southern India, Nos. 31 to 38, 56, 57) and on the seals of the copper-plate grants of the Pallavas.

[21] This Village is situated in the Vilupuram Talluqa, South Arcot District ; see Sewell’s Madras Lists Vol.I.p.209. 

[22] Reprinted from the Madras Journal of Literate and Science for 1886-87.

[23] See Dr. Burgess’ Notes on the Amaravai Stupa, p. 49 f.

[24] Ind.Ant. Vol. VIII. pp.167,273. Salem Manual, Vol. II, p.349.

[25] Kanarese Dynasties, p.16.

[26] With Srighana compare Pali Srighana in the Dipavamsa I, II ; II, I 

[27] Literally, “the enemy of worldly existence.” The Prose passage at the end of the present inscription shows, that Buddha is meant.

[28] Literally, “ which glitters (or plays) without interstice on,” etc.

[29] I.e., in order to put up a pillar of victory.

[30] Viz., of which Mount Meru consists.

[31] This is the Krishna ; see Fleet’s Kanarese Dynasties, p.67, note 2.

[32] See Childers’s Pali Dictionary. S.V.Dhammadesana

[33] With aparajanman compare aparambuddha  in line 45 of  the present inscription. On apara as a synonym of anuttama, see Ind.Ant  Vol. XIV, p 201, note 21.

[34] Reprinted from the Epigraphia Indica.

[35] Parvathi calls Kaviri the wife of another, in order to prevent Siva from coveting her.

[36] This whole verse has a double entendre.  It contains allusions to the Indian logic (tarkasastra), in which lingin means the subject of a proposition, linga the predicate of a proposition and vipaksha an instance on the opposite side

[37] Satyamudha must have been a biruda of Gunabhara.  A statue of the king is also alluded to in the first verse of the right pillar.

[38] Literally : ‘this way the way.’

[39] Literally : ‘he made Sthanu (i.e., the stationary one) one whose name was true to its meaning.’

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