The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Contents

Preface

Text of the Inscriptions

Part I    -Sanskrit Inscription

Part II  -Tamil & Grantha Ins.

Part III -Notes & Fragments

Part IV  -Addenda

Other Inscriptions

Tamil Inscriptions

Misc. Ins. from Tamil Country

Chola Inscriptions

Kannada Inscriptions

Telugu Ins. from Andhra Pradesh

Pallava Inscriptions

Pandya Inscriptions

Ins. of Vijayanagara Dynasty

Ins. during 1903-1904

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

PART-II

TAMIL AND GRANTHA INSCRIPTIONS

II. INSCRIPTIONS IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF VELUR

NO.49. ON A STONE AT PERUMAI NEAR VELUR

The object of the grant is the village of Perumugai (?), i.e., the modern Perumai

NO.50. ON A STONE AT SEKKANUR NEAR VELUR

This inscription records the gift of the village of Sekkanur to the Vellore Temple

TRANSLATION

Let there be prosperity!  The village of Sekkanur was given for (the requirements of) daily worship to (the temple of) Jvarakandesvara-svamin (at) Velur.  Let there be prosperity!

NO.51. ON A ROCK ON THE TOP OF THE BAVAJI HILLNEAR VELUR

This rock-inscription is written in bold archaic letters ; the lines are irregular and very close to each other.  The inscription is dated in the twenty-sixth year of a king called Kannara-deva, and records that Velur-padi was given to the temple of Pannapesvara on the top of the hill of Sudaduparai (Sudaduparai-malai) by Nulamban Tribhuvanadhira, alias Mudi-melan Sri-Pallava-Murari. Another Nulamban, the first part of bhuvandadhira,seems to have received Velur-padi together with the hill of Sudaduparai from Vira-Chola.  Velur-padi is probably the same as Velapadi, a suburb of Vellore, near which the Bavaji Hill is situated, and which is supposed to be the oldest part of the town.[1] Sudaduparai-malai must have been the old name of the Bavaji Hill.  It was situated in the north of Pangala-nadu, a division of Paduvur-kottam.  The Siva temple on its top had been founded by, and was called after, a certain Pannappai.

Besides the present Tamil inscription, five obliterated Telugu inscriptions are found on the top of the Bavaji Hill.  Four of them mention a certain Nallaguruvayya ; one of these four inscriptions is dated in Saka 1539. the Pingala year.

TRANSLATION

Hail ! In the twenty-sixth year of (the reign of) the illustrious Kannara-deva, I, Nulamban Tribhuvanadhira,[2] gave, with a libation of water, to (the temple of) Pannapesvara, which Pannappai had caused to be erected on the hill of Sudaduparai (Sudaduparai-malai), which is situated in the north of Pangala-nadu in Paduvur-kottam, to be enjouyed as longas the moon and the sun endure,  Velur-padi, (a village) of this nadu, (which). . . . Nulamban had received from Vira-Sorar, together with the hill of Sudaduparai, as a lasting gift.  I, Mudi-melan,[3] the illustrious Pallava-Murari, (shall be) the servant of those who protect his charitable gift.  He who injures this charitable gift, shall incur the sin committed by those who commit (a sin) near the Ganga (or) Kumari.[4]

No.52. ON THE NORTH WALL OF THE PERUMAL TEMPLE AT GANGANURNEAR VELUR

This inscription is dated in the Pramathin year, which was the 17th year of Sakalaloka-chakravartin Sambauvaraya.  This date is at variance with that of a Kanchipuram inscription, according to which the Vyaya year and the Saka year 1268 corresponded to the 9th year of Sakalalochakravartin Rajanarayana Sambuvaryar,[5]and we must either assume that the 9th year is misreading for the24th year, or that the king mentioned at Kanchipuram and that of the present inscription are two different persons.

The inscription is a receipt for the cost of Kani,[6] which a certain Tiruvengadam-udaiyan seems to have sold[7]  to the villagers of Nilakantha-chaturvedi-mangaam and of Sri-Mallinatha-chaturvedi-mangalam.  The first of these two villages was also called Gangeya-nallur[8] (the modern Ganganur) and was situated in Karaivari-Andi-nadu[9]

TRANSLATION

On the day of (the nakshatra) Rohini, which corresponds to Monday, the first lunar day of the former half of the month of Rishabha of the Pramathin year, (which was) the 17th year of (the reign of) Sakalalokachakravartin, who, having conquered fortune, took the earth, Sambuvaraya, -Whereas I, Kottanpakkam-udaiyan’s (son) Tiruvengadam-udaiyan, gave to the great people of Gangeya-nallur, alais Nilakantha-chaturvedi-mangalam, a village in Karaivari-Andi-nadu, and to the great people of Sri-Mallinatha-chaturvedi-mangalam a receipt for the cost of a Kani ; . . . . . I, kottambakkam-udaiyan’s (son) Tiruvengadam-udaiyan, (hereby declare, that I) gave a receipt for the cost of a kani, (as measured by ?) the accountant of these villages, to the great people of Nilakntha-chaturvedi-mangalam and to the great people of Sri-Mallinatha-chaturvedi-mangalam.  This [is the signature of] Tiruvengadam-udaiya[n].

No.53. ON THE INNER WALL OF THE PERUMAL TEMPLE AT SORAPURAM NEAR VELLUR

This inscription is written in archaic characters ; it is much obliterated, and incoplete at the end.  The date is the twenty-third year of Ko-Vijaya-[Simha]vikaramavarman.  The inscription records a grant to the Vishnu temple at Kattutumbur, which was probably another name of Sorapuram.  The temple had been founded by the same person or persons who made the grant.  The object granted was a piece of land at Kanakavalli, which, persons who made the grant.  The object granted was a piece of land at Kanakavalli, which, like Kattuttumbur itself,
belonged to Pangala-nadu, a division of Paduvur-kottam.

TRANSLATION

Hail ! In the twenty-third year of (the reign of) the illustrious Ko-Vijaya-[Simha]-vikaramavarman,-having caused a sacred temple to be erected to Narayanabhattaraka (at) Kattuttumbur in Pangala-nadu, (a division) of Padavur-kottam, [I gave] to it a piece of and below the tank (at) Kanakavalli in the same nadu and the same kottam, which [I] called “the sacred land of Vishnu (at) Kanakavalli,” for the worship at the three times (of the day) for the sacred food at the three times, (for) the nanda lamp (and) for the worshipper.

NO. 54. ON THE BASE OF THE ISVARA TEMPLE AT TELLUR NEAR VELUR

This inscription is dated in the reign of the mahamandalevara Virapratapa-Deva-raya-mahraya (of Vijayanagara) and in Saka 1353, the Sadharana year.  It records that the family (kudi) of Maranan-ullittar, which belonged to Pallava-nallur, was given to the temple at Tellaiyur (the modern Tellur), alias Pukkalappuram, which belonged to Vadapuri-Andi-nadu in Pangala-nadu, a division of Padavur-kottam in Jayankonda-Chola-mandalam.

TRANSLATION

Hail ! On the day of (the nakshatra) Tiruvonam,[10]which corresponds to Monday, the fifth lunar day of the former half of the month of Karkataka of the Sadharana year (and) the Saka year 1353, while the illustrious mahamandalesvara, the conqueror of hostile kings, the destroyer of those kings who break their word, the lord of the eastern, southern, western and northern oceans, the illustrious Virapratapa-Devaraya-maharaya was pleased to rule the earth, -Whereas (We),[11] . . . . . gave a dharmasasana to (the temple of) the lord of Tellaiyur, alias Pukkalappuram, a village in Vadapuri-andi-nadu, (which belongs) to Pangala-nadu, (a division) of Paduvur-Kottam in Jayankoda-Sora-mandalam ; - We (hereby declare, that we) gave to this lord the family (called) Maranan-Ullittar, which belongs to Pallava-nallur, as a family (which has to maintain) a tirunanda lamp, with a libation of water, as a meritorious gift, to last as long as the moon and the sun.  These Maranan-ullittar, who were thus given, shall attend to (the worship of) this lord, wherever they are.  The whole family (named in) this dharmasasana, (together with)  their descendents, shall be the family of this lord.  If there is anybody who injures this dharmasasana, which was thus given, he shall incur the sin of one who haskilled a tawny cow on the bank of the Ganga.  Let Mahesvara be the protector !

NO. 55. ON THE WEST AND SOUTH WALLS OF THE VIRPAKSHESVARA TEMPLE AT VEPPAMBATTU NEAR VELUR

This inscription is dated in Saka 132[8] expired and the Vyaya year current.  It is a deed of sale of the revenue in gold and the revenue in rice of one half of the village of Veppambattu and of the village of Siru-Kadambur.  The first-mentioned village belonged to Andi-nadu, a division of Agara-parru.  Both villages are stated to have been granted to the temple of Virupaksha-deva[12] at Veppambattu by Virapratapa-bukka-maharayar (of Vijayanagara), and the temple itself is said to have been consecrated one year before the date of the inscription in the Parthiva year, i.e., Saka 1328 current.  This date is puzzling, as it does not agree with other inscriptions, according to which Bukka’s son Harihara II. was reignng in Saka 1301 and 1321.

The cost of one half of the first village and of the second village as well as the total are given in Kulapramanas or Kulas of gold (pon) and in panas. In line 2 of the south wall another gold standard, called kovai, seems to be mentioned. x   The numerous sings for fractions, which occur throughout the inscription, are palaeographically interesting.

TRANSLATION

Hail! Prosperity! Victory! Fortune! On Thursday, the new moon of the dark half of Jyaishtha of the Vyaya year, which follow the Parthiva year (and) which was current after the Saka year 132[8] (had passed), after having bathed, we gave as a sarvamanya, to last as long as the moon and the sun, all the revenue in gold and all the revenue in rice, excluding tolls, offerings, mamagam[13] (and) idatturai, including the tax on oil-mills, the tax for the Vetti, the holy first fruits, the money from the sale of the fist in the tanks, the tax on Uvachchas[14] and the tax for the washermen, against (payment of the sun detailed below):x-(1.)242 kulapramanas of gold and 4 1/16 panas – equal to 36 kovais (?) of gold and 5 1/8 panas-for one village, (viz.,) Veppambattu (in) Andi-nadu, (a division of) Agara-Parru, which, as the consecration of the temple took place on a former day, (viz.) on Thursday, the twelfth lunar day of the bright half of Vaisakha, was given from that day forward by a dharmassana, for (providing) enjoyments all kinds and rice to (the temple of) Virupakasha-deva (at) Veppambattu by the illustrious maharajadhiraja-rajapraramesvara, the illustrious Virapratapa-Bukka-maharayar;having deducted from the (sum of 242 kulapramanas of gold and 4 1/6 panas) 121 Kulapramanas  of gold and 2 panas for the (first) half of the village, which was given as a sarvamanya to the Brahmanas studying the Vedas, (who are connected) with (the temple of) the lord Virupaksha-deva, (there remain to be paid) 121 Kulas of gold and 2 1/16 panas for the (second) half of the village ; (2.) 162 kulapramanas of gold and 2 1/16 panas for the second half of Veppambattu and  162 kulapramanas of gold and 4 1/2 , 1/5, 1/40 panas for Siru-Kadambur);in words:two hundred and eighty-three kulapramanas of gold and six and three fourths and three eightieths panas (were to be paid) for the one and a half villages, which were given by a dharmasasana, as a sarvamanya, for ever, from Thursday, the twelfth lunar day of the bright half of Vaisakha (of) the Parthiva year, for (providing) enjoyments of all kinds and rice (to the temple of) Virupaksha-deva. The signature of Arramari Adi-Siruppangangal.


[1] See North Arcot Mannual, p. 187.

[2] I.e., “the brave(st) in the three worlds.”

[3] I.e., “he who wears a crown on (his head).”

[4] Kumari is the Tamil name of the sacred river near Cape Comorin and corresponds to the Sanskrit Kumari, just as the High Tamil from Kaviri to the Sanskrit Kaveri.

[5] Sewell’s Lists of Antiquities, Vol. I, p.180, No.60.

[6] Equal to 24 manais. 1 manai is 2,400 square feet.

[7] According to the incomplete line 6, the price of the kani seems to have been 170 panas.

[8] In two fragments at the Gangesvara Temple (Nos.104 and 105, below), this name is applied to the second of the two villages.  Probably both were subdivisions of Ganganur.

[9] Compare No.102, below.

[10] Sanskrit Sravana.

[11 The names of the donors seems to have been contained in the break of line la of the south wall.

[12] The same is the old name of the Pampapati Temple at Hampi (Vijayanagara)

[13] According to Winslow, the Mamagam, Mamagam or Mamangam (Sanskrit Mahamagha or Mahamagha) is a bathing festival, celebrated every twelve years at Kumbhakonam. A festival called Mahamakham or Mamannam used likewise to take place every place every twelth year at Tirunavai in Malabar ; see Dr. Gundert’s Malayalam Dictionary. The meaning of mamagam and idatturai in the present inscription is not apparent.

[14] The Uvachchas or Jonakas (i.e., Yavanas) are a low tribe of Muhammadas ; see Winslow. x

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