AND GRANTHA INSCRIPTIONS
INSCRIPTIONS AT MAMALLAPURAM
40. ON THE SOUTH BASE OF THE SHORE TEMPLE
inscription is dated in the twenty-fifth year of
Ko-Rajaraja-Rajakesarivarman, alias Rajara-deva.
It states, that the king “built a jewel-like hall at
Kandulur,” and then given a list of the countries, which he is
said to have conquered. Among
them Vengai-nadu is the well-known country of Vengi; Ganga-padi and
Nulamba-padi are found on Mr. Rice’s Map of Mysore;
Kundamalai-nadu, “the western hill-country,” is Coorg ; Kollam
is Quilon; Kalingam is the country between the Godavari and Mahanadi
rivers; Ira-mandalam is Ceylon; Iratta-padi is the Western Chalukyan
and the Seriyas are the Pandyas.
I have been unable to identify Tadigai-padi.
Walter Elliot’s and Dr.Burnell’s tentative lists of Chola kings contain a king Rajaraja,
who reigned from 1023 to 1064 A.D. These figures rest on three
Eatern Chalukya grants, of which two have since been published
by Mr.Fleet and one has been edited and translated above
(No.39.) From these
three grants it appears, that the Rajaraja, who reigned from saka
944 to 985, was not a Chola, king, but a king of Vengi, and that his
insertion in the list of Chola kings was nothing but a mistake.
historical portion of the subjoined inscription almost identical
with lines 16 to 173 of the large Leyden grant
and must belong to the same king.
The Leyden grant states that Rajaraja conquered Satyasraya
(line 65). This name
was borne as a surname by no less than six of the earlier Western
Chalukya kings and was also the name of one of the later Western
Chalukyas. From certain
unpublished inscriptions of the Tanjore Temple it can be safely
inferred, that Rajaraja-deva was the predecessor of
Rajendra-Chola-deva, the enemy of the Western Chalukya king
Jayasimha III., who ruled from about Saka 944 to about 964.
Hence the Satyasraya mentioned in the Leyden grant might be
identified with the Western Chalukya king Jayasimha III., who ruled
from about Saka 944 to about 930 ;
and the Chola king Rajaraja, who issued the large Leyden grant and
the inscriptions Nos.40, 41 and 66 of the present volume, with that
Rajaraja of the Suryavamsa, whose daughter Kundava was
married to the Eastern Chaukya king Vimalditya, who reigned from 937 (?)
944. As Rajaraja-deva boasts in his inscriptions of having conquered
Vengai-nadu, the country of the Eastern Chalukyas, this marriage was
probably a forced one and the result of his conquest of Vimaladitya
identification of the Rajaraja-deva of the Leyden grant and of Nos.
40, 41 and 66 with the father of Kundava is confirmed by the Kongu
Chronicle, where some of his charities are placedin Saka 926.
The Kongu Chronicle, further suggests the probability
of identifying Kandalur, where Rajaraja-deva built a hall (sala),
with Chidambaram, as it records that “he enlarged the temples at
Chidambaram and erected all kinds of towers, walls, mandapas, flights
of steps, etc., and other matters.”
this and the next-following inscription we learn that Mamallapuram
belonged to Amur-nadu,
a division of Amur-kttam, and that the name of the Shore Temple was
Jalasayana. The purport of the inscription is a new division of the
land of thetown of Mamallapuram, which had been agreed upon by the
Prosperity ! In the twenty-fifth year of (the reign of ) the
illustrious Ko-Raja-raja-Rajakesrivarman, alias the
illustrious Rajaraja-deva, who,-while both the goddess of fortune
and the great goddess of the earth, who had become his exclusive
property, gave him pleasure, -was pleased to build a jewel (-like)
hall (at) Kandalur and conquered by his army, which was
victorious in great battles, Vengai-nadu, Ganga-padi, Nulamba-padi,
Tadigai-padi, Kudamalai-nadu, Kollam, Kalingam, Iramandalam, which
is famed in the eight quarters, and Iratta-padi, (the revenue
from from which amounts to) seven and a half Laksha ; who,-while
his beauty was increasing, and while he was resplendent (to such
an extent) that he was always worthy to be worshipped,-deprived
the Seriyas of their splendour, -We, the middle-aged citizens of
this towns, unanimously made the following contract, while assembled
in the tirunandavana to the south of (the temple of)
Jalasayana-deva at Mamallapuram, the chief town of the fifty (villages
called after) Pudukkudaiyan Ekadhira,
which from part of Amur-kottam.
21.) The wet land, white (?) land, garden land, dry land and all
other taxable (?) land of our town shall be divided into four lots
of one hundred manais. One
lot of (the land), which has been divided into four lots
according to this contract shall be a lot of
twenty-five manais. The manais (of) the land (included
in) the contract of division into lots may be sold, mortgaged,
or used for meritorious gifts ; (but) the manais (of)
the land shall be given away as defined by the contact of the division into lots.
The previous definition shall be wholly cancelled.
The fruit-trees, which stand in the various parts of the
lands divided into lots, shall be enjoyed by the owner of the
respective lot. Those (trees)
which stand on the cause ways between the rice-fields, shall belong
to (the whole of) the hundred manais. Among those who
are without land and are over the age of sixteen, -from those who
work for hire one-eighth of a pon and for (each) turn
as ploughmen (?) three-eighths of a pon shall be taken at the end of
the year. From those
who do not submit to this contract, further twenty-five kurajus
of gold shall be taken besides as a fine.
We, the middle-aged citizens of the town, have unanimously
established this contact.
58). I, Tiruvelarai Muvayirattu-erunurruvan, the Karanam of
this town, who worships the holy feet (of the god), wrote
this contract according to the orders of the middle-aged citizens.
This is my signature.
ON THE NORTH BASE OF THE SHORE TEMPLE
historical part of this inscription identical with that of the
preceding one ; its date is the twenty-sixth year of
Ko-Rajaraja-Rajakesarivarman, alias Raja-Raja-raja-deva.
inscription, which is unfortunately mutilated, mentions three
temples, two of which were called after and consequently built by
Pallava kings. The
first of these two is Jalasayana or
Kshtriyasimha-Pallava-Isvara-deva. That Jalasayana was the name of the Shore Temple itself,
appears clearly from the inscription No.40.
The second name for it, which is furnished by the present
inscription, proves that the Shore Temple was a foundation of a
Pallava king Kshatriyasimha. The
second temple mentioned in the subjoined inscription is
Rajasimha-Pallava_isvara-deva, which, as appears from one of the
Kanchipuram inscriptions (No.24, verse 10), was the original name of
the Kailasanatha Temple at Kanchi.
The name of the third temple, Pallikondaruliya-deva, natha
Temple at Kanchi. The
name of the third temple, Pallikondaruliya-deva, (literally : “the
god who is pleased to sleep”) may perhaps refer to the
Sriranganayaka Temple at Pallikonda near Virinchipuram and would
then explain the origin of the name Pallikonda.
! Prosperity ! In the twenty-sixth year of (the reign of) the
illustrious Ko-Raja-raja-Rajakesarivarman, alias the
illustrious Raja-Rajaraja-deva, etc.-
We, the middle-aged citizens of Mamallapuram, a town in Amur-nadu, (a
division) of Amurkottam . . . . .of (the temples of)
Jalasayana, (alias) Kshatriyasimha-Pallav-Isvara-deva at this
town, and of Rajasimha-Pallava-Isvara-deva, and of
Pallikondaruliya-deva. . . . .
31.) . . . . . of the fifty (villages called after)
Pudukkudaiyan Ekadhira, which form part of this kottam
. . . . .
INSIDE THE SHORE TEMPLE
inscription is dated in the ninth year of Vira-Rajendra-Chola-deva.
It records the gift of a piece of land from the great
assembly (mahasbha) of Si[ri]davur, alias
Narasimha-mangalam to “our lord of Tirukkadalmallai.” By this
the Shore Temple at Mamallapuram seems to be meant.
! In the ninth year of (the reign of) the illustrious
Vi[ra}-Rajendra-Sora-deva, we the great assembly (mahasbha)
of Si[ri]davur, alias Narasimha-mangalam, gave to our lord (of)
Tirukkadalmallai as exclusive property, with exemption from
taxes, 5 rice-fields (tadi), consisting of 2,000 kuris (of
land ; 1.at) Mangalachacheru to the south of the Ukkaviri
channel (at) our village ; and (2. at) Narayanan-mangalur, alias
Kuttadi-patti, where (the temple of) this god (? kuiyan)