The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Contents

Preface

Text of the Inscriptions

Part I    -Sanskrit Inscription

Part II  -Tamil & Grantha Ins.

Part III -Notes & Fragments

Part IV  -Addenda

Other Inscriptions

Tamil Inscriptions

Misc. Ins. from Tamil Country

Chola Inscriptions

Kannada Inscriptions

Telugu Ins. from Andhra Pradesh

Pallava Inscriptions

Pandya Inscriptions

Ins. of Vijayanagara Dynasty

Ins. during 1903-1904

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

PART-I

SANSKRIT INSCRIPTIONS

No.37. A GRANT OF CHALUKYA-BHIMA II

The original of the subjoined inscription was kindly placed at disposal by R. Sewell, Esq., then Acting Collector of the Kistna District, and was, at his desire, made over to the Central Museum, Madras, for safe custody.  It was discovered recently, while of three copper-plates near the temple at Kolavennu, Bezvada Talluqa.  The document consists of three copper-plates with raised rims.  Each plate measures 9 ¼ by 4 5/8 inches.  The first and third plates are inscribed only on their inner sides, while the second one bears writing on both sides.  The writing on the third plate breaks off in the description of the boundaries of the granted village.  As t here is no trace of any letters after the words : yasyavadhayah purvatah, “the boundaries of which (are), to the east,” it seems that the document was left incomplete, perhaps because the necessary details of the surroundings of the village were not to hand, when the edict was issued.  The plates are strung on a ring, which is ½ inch thick and 5 inches in diameter.  The circular seal, which is attached to the ring, rests on an expanded lotus-flower and measures 2 ¼ inches in diameter. It bears at the top a standing boar, which faces the right, with the sun and the moon over it, a chauri and elephant-goad on its left and a chauri  on its right ; the centre of the seal is occupied by the legend  and its bottom by a lotus-flower with eight petals (bird’s eye view), - all in relief on a counter-sunk surface.  Both the inscription and the seal are in fairly good preservation. 

The inscription opens with a mangala,  which mentions the lotus-flower that rises from Vishnu’s navel[1], and then gives the usual vamsavali of the Eastern Chalukyas from Kubja-Vishnu to Vikramaditya, the younger son of Chalukya-Bhima I.  The ensuing reign of Yuddhamalla, the son of Talapa, is left out.  This omission is probably due to the fact, that Chalukya-Bhima II. considered his predecessor, whom he conquered, as an usurper and ignored him purposely.  The grant consists of an order addressed by Chalukya-Bhima II. alias  Vishnuvardhana VII. to the inhabitants of the Kanderuvati-vishya[2] and issued at the request of a vassal of the king, the Panara prince Vajjaya.  On the occasion of a winter-solstice (uttarayana),[3] Bhima II. gave the village of Kodhatalli as an agrahara to Kommana, who knew the kramapatha (kramavid) and adhered to the Apastamba-sutra.  The donee was the son of Deniya, who knew the Krampatha (kramaka), and of Kandamavva, and the grandson of Revasarman, an inhabitant of Abharad-vasukalmadi.

TRANSLATION

(Verse 1.) The primeval lotus-flower, which rises from a tank (that consists of)  the navel of Hari (Vishnu), which is enlarged by a stalk (that consists of the mountain) Meru, and which is the birth-place of Aja (Brahman), is victorious for ever.

Hail ! Kubja-Vishnu, the brother of Satyasaraya, who adorned the race of the glorious Chalukyas, etc.,[4] (ruled)  for eighteen years.

His son Jayasimha (ruled)  for thirty-three (years).

Vishnuvardhana, the son of his brother Indra-raja, (ruled) for nine (years).

His son Mangi-yuvaraja (ruled) for twenty-five (years).

His son Jayasimha (ruled) for thirteen (years).

Kokkili, his younger brother fro a different mother, (ruled) for six months.

His elder brother Vishnuvardhana (ruled) for thirty-seven (years).

His legitimate son Vijayaditya-bhattaraka (ruled) for eighteen (years).

His son Vishu-raja (ruled) for thirty-six (years.)

His son Narendra-mrigaraja (ruled) for forty (years.)

His son Kali-Vishnuvardhana (ruled) for eighteen months.

His son Gunakenalla-Vijayaditya (ruled) for forty-four (years.)

Chalukya-Bhima, the sun of his younger brother Vikramaditya, (ruled) for thirty (years).

His son Vijayaditya (ruled) for six months.

His son Amma-raja (ruled) for seven years.

His son Vijayaditya (ruled) for (one) month.

Having conquered him, Vikramaditya, the son of Chalukya-Bhima, ruled for (one) year over the country of Vengi together with Trikalinga.

(Verse 2.) Chalukya-Bhima, the son of Vijayaditya and brother of Amma-raja by a different mother, ties the (royal)  tiara for as long a time as the moon and stars shall endure.

Having conquered in a battle with his arm Tata-Bikyana (?) . . . , this Raja-martanda[5] (i.e.,the sun amoung kings) causes his fame to be sung by the people.

He who, like Meru, is possessed of insurmountable greatness, and who knows all arts (Kala),  just as the (full) moon possesses all digits (kala), this asylum of the whole world , the illustrious Vishnuvardhana, the king of great kings, the supreme master, the supreme lord, the most pious one, thus issues his commands to the householders, (viz.,) heads of provinces, etc., who inhabit the district of Kanderuvati : -

“Be it known to you that, at the request of king Vajjaya, who purifies the Panara princes,[6] who is a treasure-house of truthfulness, liberality, pride and heroism, and whose strong arm (is able) to protect my kingdom ;” –

(Verse 3.) From Revasarman, who dwelt at Abharadvasukamadi, there sprang the lord Deniya, who knew the krampatha , the Vedas and Vedangas.

(Verse 4.) His son was the noble Kommana, a follower of t he Apastamba-sutra, who adorned his race and was resplendent with holiness ;

(Verse 5.) The son of Kandamavva, (who resembled) Kama in beauty and who fulfilled the desires of suppliants.  Having approached his abundance, those brahmanas are resplendent with holiness ;

(Verse 6.) His sons and grandsons, youths who are clever in assembles of eminent men, obtain a succession of agraharas and of highest marks of reverence. 

“To this Kommana, who knows the Krampatha, we gave, with exemption from all taxes, the village called Kodhatalli, making it an agrahara, with a libation of water, on the occasion of the winter-solstice.”

The boundaries of this (village are) ; on the east. . . .

No.38, A Grant of Amma II

Like the preceding inscription, this one was received from Mr.R.Sewell, who found it lying in the Huzur Treasury attached to the Collector’s Office, Masulipatam, and was made over to the Madras Museum.  The document consists of three copper-plates with raised rims.

Each plate measures 7 ¾ by 3 ¾ inches.  The first and third plates are inscribed only on their inner sides, while the second one bears writing or both sides.  They are all much worn, and of third plate one entire half is lost.  The plates are strung on a ring, which is 3/8 inch thick and 5 inches in diameter.  The circular seal, which is attached to the ring, rests on an expanded lotus-flower and measures 2 7/8 inches in diameter.  It is much corroded, but still shows distinct traces of a standing boar, which faces the right, at the top, of the legend  across the centre, and of a lotus-flower with eight petals [bird’s eye view] at the bottom – all in relief on a counter-sunk surface.

The document opens with the usual vamsavali of the Eastern Chalukyas from Kubja-Vishnuvardhana.  The donor is Amma-raja II. alias Vijayaditya V.  (who began to reign in Sakha 867). The king addresses his order to the inhabitants of the Gudravara-vishaya, which must be identical with the Gudravara-or Gudrahara-vishaya of other inscriptions.[7] The donee, whose name is lost, was the family priest (kulabrahmana) of the king and belonged to the Kaundilya-gotra (sic). The object granted seems to have been a field, which had formerly belonged to the donee (etadiya-praktana-kshetra), but had been taken away from (vilupta) and was probably restored to him by the present document.  The other details of the grant are lost.

TRANSLATION

Hali ! Kubja-Vishnuvardhan, the brother of Satyasrya-Vallabhendra, who adorned the race of the glorious Chalukyas &c.,[8] ruled over the country of Vengi for eighteen years. His son Jayasimha (ruled) for thirty-three (years).

Vishnuvardhana, the son of his younger brother Indra-raja, (ruled) for nine (years).

His son Mangi-yuvaraja (ruled) for twenty-five (years).

His son Jayasimha (ruled) for thirteen (years).

His younger brother Kokkili (ruled) for  six months.

His elder brother Vishnuvardhana, having expelled him, (ruled) for thirty-seven (years).

His son Vijayaditya-bhattaraka (ruled)for eighteen (years).

His son Vishuvardhana (ruled) for thirty-six (years).

His son Vijayadiya-Narendra-mrigaraja (ruled) for forty-eight (years).

His son Kali-Vishnuvardhana (ruled) for one and a half (years).

His son Gunaga-Vijayaditya (ruled) for forty-four (years).

The victorious son of his brother, prince Vikramaditya (who wore) on his neck a glittering necklace, -[9]

(Verse 1.) That handsome Chalukya-Bhima enjoyed for thirty years the earth protecting (it) like  a mother (her child), and granting the fruits of their desires to the distressed, helpless and sick, to the association o the best of twice-born, to beggars, t ascetics, to clever youths, dancers, excellent singers and poets, who had come from various countries, to his relatives and to the blind.

His son Vijayaditya (ruled)  for six months.

His (son) Amma-raja (ruled) for seven (years).

After him, Talapa-raja (ruled) for (one) month.

Having expelled him, Vikramaditya, the son of Chalukya-Bhima (ruled) for (one) year.

After him Yuddmalla (ruled) for seven (years).

(Verse 2.) Having conquered and expelled fro the country this haughty one, and having made the other heirs to assume the appearance of stars, which are absorbed in the rays of the sun, the younger brother of king Amma, (viz.) Bhima, who resembled Arjuna, and who was possessed of terrible, enjoyed for twelve year the earth, just bearer of the thunderbolt (Indra) does the great heaven.

(Verse 3.) Just as Kumara to Mahesvara from Uma, Amma-raja was born to him from Lokamahadevi.

(Verse4.) While this king was ruling, the country produced an abundance of well-ripened grain of various kinds, possessed cows that were continually yielding milk, and was fee from fears, calamities, diseases, and thieves.

This asylum of the whole world, the illustrious Vijayaditya, the king of great kings, the supreme master, the supreme lord, the most pious one, having called together the house-holders, (viz.) heads  of provinces, &c., who inhabit the district of Gudravara, thus issues his commands : -


[1] For this sacred emblem of the Vaishnavas the lotus-flower on the royal seems to be intended. 

[2] See No.36, line 43, and Ind. Ant. Vol.XIII, page 56.

[3] Professor Buhler has drawn attention to the fact, that the three great modern Sanskrit dictionaries compiled by Europeans contain a mistake in their explanations of uttarayana and dhakshinayana, and that in reality the former means “the winter-solstice,” the later “the summer-solstice.” See Vienna Oriental Journal, Vol. II, Page 90.

[4] The passage, which is omitted in the translation, is identical with the first 4 lines o No.35

[5] This seems to have been a biruda  of Chalukya-Bhima II.

[6] I.e., who belonged to the Panara race.

[7] Gurudrava, Ind.Ant. Vol.VIII, p. 76 ; Gudrahara, Vol. VII, p.192 ; Vol.XIII, p.137.

[8] The passage, which is omitted in the translation, identical with the first 4 lines of No.35.

[9] As suggested by Professor Buler, the necklace (Kanthika) seems to have been the sign of the dignity of a yuvaraja ; see Indian Antiquary, Vol. VI, p. 70, note  ; Vol. XI p.161, note 27.

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